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Evaluation of hosting capacity of the power grid for electric vehicles – A case study in a Swedish residential area
University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. Högskolan Dalarna.
Högskolan Dalarna.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3025-6333
Högskolan Dalarna.
University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9230-1596
2023 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 284, article id 129293Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) is growing significantly in recent years. The increasing EV charging loads pose great stress on power grids in Sweden, as many existing power grids are not designed to host such large shares of new electric loads. Hence, studies investigating the impact of EV charging are needed. This study conducts a case study based on an existing Swedish residential power grid using real-life EV charging data to estimate the local grid hosting capacity (HC) for EVs. A combined time-series and stochastic HC assessment method is used with voltage deviation, cable loading and transformer loading as the performance indices. Uncertainty in EV charging locations and individual charging behaviour have been considered via Monte Carlo simulations. The power grid HC is analysed and compared under three charging strategies and four EV penetration levels. Study results show that a charging strategy based on low electricity prices gave lower HC due to simultaneous EV loads compared to the other two strategies: charging directly after plugging in the EV and an even charging load through the plug-in session. This implies the need for coordinated charging controls of EV fleets or diversified power tariffs to balance power on a large scale.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier , 2023. Vol. 284, article id 129293
Keywords [en]
Charging strategies; Electric vehicle (EV); Hosting capacity (HC); Power grid; Uncertainty analysis
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43220DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2023.129293ISI: 001096442000001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85174838805OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-43220DiVA, id: diva2:1810368
Available from: 2023-11-07 Created: 2023-11-07 Last updated: 2024-02-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Evaluation and variability of power grid hosting capacity for electric vehicles: Case studies of residential areas in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation and variability of power grid hosting capacity for electric vehicles: Case studies of residential areas in Sweden
2024 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Electric vehicles (EVs) are increasing in popularity and play an important role in decarbonizing the transport sector. However, a growing EV fleet can cause problems for power grids as the grids are not initially designed for EV charging. The potential of a power grid to accommodate EV loads can be assessed through hosting capacity (HC) analysis. The HC is grid specific and varies, therefore it is necessary to conduct analysis that reflects local conditions and covers uncertainties and correlations over time.

This theses aims to investigate the HC for EVs in existing residential power grids, and to gain a better understanding of how it varies based on how the EVs are implemented and charged. The work is in collaboration with a distribution system operator (DSO) and is based on two case studies using real-life data reflecting conditions in Swedish grids. Combinations of different HC assessment methods have been used and the HC is evaluated based on cable loading, transformer loading and voltage deviation. Additionally, the study investigated three distinct charging strategies: charging on arrival, evenly spread charging over whole connection period, and charging at the lowest spot price. 

The results show that decisions on acceptable voltage deviation limit can have a large influence on the HC as well as the charging strategy used. A charging strategy based on energy prices resulted in the lowest HC, as numerous EVs charging simultaneously caused high power peaks during low spot price periods. Charging on arrival was the second worst strategy, as the peak power coincided with household demand. The best strategy was to evenly spread out the charging, resulting in fewer violations for 100% EV implementation compared to the other two strategies for 25% EV implementation. 

The findings underscore the necessity for coordinated charging controls for EV fleets or diversified power tariffs to balance power on a large scale in order to use the grids efficiently.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Gävle University Press, 2024. p. 40
Series
Licentiate thesis ; 18
Keywords
Hosting capacity (HC), Power grid, Electric vehicle (EV), Charging strategies, Power flow simulations, Uncertainty analysis
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development; no Strategic Research Area (SFO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43781 (URN)978-91-89593-27-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2024-04-18, P106, Dalarna University, Borlänge, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2024-03-04 Created: 2024-02-09 Last updated: 2024-03-12Bibliographically approved

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Sandström, MariaDotzauer, Erik

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