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A longitudinal study of working life among first-line managers in the care of older adults
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. (B-LONG)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3381-5893
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1495-4943
Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
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2016 (English)In: Applied Nursing Research, ISSN 0897-1897, E-ISSN 1532-8201, Vol. 32, p. 7-13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim

To study whether the number of subordinates plays a role in first-line managers’ and subordinates’ ratings of empowerment, stress symptoms, and leadership–management performance. The aim was also to study relationships between managers’ empowerment and stress symptoms and leadership–management performance.

Methods

A longitudinal and correlational design was used. All first-line managers (n = 98) and their subordinates (n = 2085) working in the care of older adults in five municipalities were approached.

Results

With fewer (≤ 30) subordinates per manager, there were higher ratings of structural empowerment among managers and subordinates and lower stress symptoms among subordinates, than with ≥ 31 subordinates. Furthermore, structural empowerment was related to the managers’ stress symptoms and leadership–management performance, mediated through psychological empowerment. Moreover, structural empowerment can control/adjust for large numbers of subordinates in relation to stress symptoms.

Conclusion

The higher FLMs rated their access to empowerment, the lower stress symptoms and higher leadership–management performance they rated over time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 32, p. 7-13
Keywords [en]
first-line manager, leadership-management performance, number of subordinates, stress symptoms, structural and psychological empowerment
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21445DOI: 10.1016/j.apnr.2016.03.003ISI: 000388057100002PubMedID: 27969055Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84963969038OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-21445DiVA, id: diva2:924216
Projects
B-LONG
Funder
AFA Insurance
Note

Additonal funding agencies: University of Gävle; Uppsala University; Regional Development Council of Gavleborg 

Available from: 2016-04-28 Created: 2016-04-28 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Working Life Among First-Line Managers and Their Subordinates in Elderly Care: an Empowerment Perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Working Life Among First-Line Managers and Their Subordinates in Elderly Care: an Empowerment Perspective
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aim: The aim of this thesis was to study the working life of first-line managers and their subordinates in elderly care from an empowerment perspective. Methods: Paper I and II used a qualitative approach, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 male and 14 female first-line managers. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Paper III and IV used a quantitative approach with a longitudinal, correlational and multilevel design. 78 first-line managers and 1398 subordinates filled in the questionnaire at T1 and 56 first-line managers and 769 subordinates at T2. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multivariate analyses (III & IV) and multilevel modelling (IV). Results: In Paper I and II, the first-line managers reported having a challenging and complex work situation. Although the first-line managers sometimes expressed a need for better access to structural empowerment in terms of information, resources and support, they experienced psychological empowerment in their work. In Paper III, the results indicated that the more access the first-line managers had to structural empowerment over time, the more likely they were to feel psychologically empowered over time, resulting in lower ratings of their stress symptoms and higher ratings of their own self-rated leadership-management performance over time. Another finding in Paper III was the influence the number of subordinates per first-line manager had on the first-line managers’ ratings of structural empowerment and the subordinates’ ratings of structural empowerment and stress symptoms. In Paper IV, the results indicate that the more access the first-line managers had to structural empowerment at T1, the more access the subordinates had to structural empowerment at T2, and the higher the subordinates rated their first-line manager’s leadership-management performance at T2, when controlling for psychological empowerment. Conclusions: The working life of first-line managers in elderly care is complex and challenging, and they seem to need better access to structural empowerment (Paper I-IV). However, although deficiencies in access to structural empowerment were reported, the first-line managers experienced their work as a positive challenge (Paper 1) and felt that, though the work was not easy, it was worth it (Paper II).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. p. 82
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine ; 1553
Keywords
Elderly Care, First-Line Manager, Structural and Psychological Empowerment, Subordinate, Working Life, Nursing, Omvårdnad
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29480 (URN)978-91-513-0600-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-07, Universitetshuset, Sal IX, Biskopsgatan 3, Uppsala, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-04-23 Created: 2019-04-23 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved

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Hagerman, HeidiSkytt, BerniceEngström, Maria

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