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Exploring Tensions between Appropriability and Openness to Collaboration in Innovation
University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Researchers, policy makers and practitioners alike have in recent years acknowledged a growing tendency towards opening up the innovation process by combining internal organizational assets with external actors’ resources. However, opening up the innovation process usually also entails revealing ideas, which may result in misappropriation. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate tensions related to the openness-appropriability relationship; this is done in three studies. The first study concerns a specific contextual factor that is likely to stress the openness-appropriability tensions: the location of external partners in innovation. The second study relates to the way managing openness-appropriability tensions affects performance, and the third study involves a theoretical discussion about the nature of the tensions occurring in the openness-appropriability relationship, i.e. paradoxical, dilemmatic, or dialectical. The first two studies apply quantitative methods, using survey data, while the third is a conceptual paper. The findings from the first study indicate that the use of different groups of appropriability mechanisms varies across various types of openness and that the location of external partners in innovation refines these linkages even more. The second study’s main takeaway is that the higher appropriability intensity, i.e. the extent to which appropriability mechanisms are put into practice, explains higher performance outcomes. The third study suggests that the tensions between openness and appropriability are more likely of paradoxical nature. From a theoretical perspective, findings indicate that paradoxical tensions between openness and appropriability may have a spatial dimension, and that these tensions should also be investigated in regards to performance. Managerial implications point out that opening up to innovation partners located abroad is likely to require more costly appropriability mechanisms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , 40 p.
Keyword [en]
Appropriability, Openness, Tensions, Open Innovation, Performance, Intellectual Property Rights, Territoriality, Location, Intellectual Property Protection Mechanisms, Paradox, Dilemma, Dialectic
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering Law
Research subject
Industrial Engineering and Management
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23758ISBN: 978-91-7729-273-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-23758DiVA: diva2:1082514
Presentation
2017-02-23, 243, Lindstedtsvägen 30, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-03-17 Created: 2017-03-16 Last updated: 2017-03-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Appropriability: a key to opening innovation internationally?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Appropriability: a key to opening innovation internationally?
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730, E-ISSN 1741-5276, Vol. 71, no 3-4, 232-252 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study focuses on the tense appropriability-openness relationship, defined by some as paradox. Based on an international survey of 415 manufacturing firms, we investigate how the use of different kinds of intellectual property protection mechanisms (IPPMs) affects interfirm R&D collaboration while considering partner location in the analysis as well. Our results show that the use of formal, semi-formal or informal IPPMs has different effects on openness in terms of partner variety and depth of collaboration with academic partners, value chain partners and competitors. Moreover, when considering location we uncover previously hidden appropriability-openness liaisons showing that semi-formal or informal IPPMs are mainly valid in relation to national partners, whereas formal appropriability explains international collaborations. One implication of the study is that to better understand the appropriability-openness relationship it is imperative to differentiate between national and international settings. We further suggest that the potential paradox delineating this relationship has a geographical dimension.

Keyword
appropriability, intellectual property protection, IPP mechanisms, IPPMs, inter-firm collaboration, openness paradox, R&D collaboration, research and development, international collaboration, open innovation, partner location, partner breadth, partner variety, partner depth, survey, manufacturing industry, national collaboration, international collaboration, geographical dimensions
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20629 (URN)10.1504/IJTM.2016.078570 (DOI)000391087000005 ()2-s2.0-84985930525 (ScopusID)
Available from: 2015-11-23 Created: 2015-11-23 Last updated: 2017-03-17Bibliographically approved
2. The whole nine yards: the moderating effects of appropriability intensity on the relationship between external search and performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The whole nine yards: the moderating effects of appropriability intensity on the relationship between external search and performance
2016 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23768 (URN)
Note

Paper based on a previous version presented at the World Open Innovation Conference 2014, Napa, California, USA, December 4-5, 2014.

Available from: 2017-01-25 Created: 2017-03-17 Last updated: 2017-04-27
3. If it looks like a paradox and walks like a paradox: an attempt to disentangle openness- and appropriability-related tensions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>If it looks like a paradox and walks like a paradox: an attempt to disentangle openness- and appropriability-related tensions
2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (Other academic)
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-22723 (URN)
Conference
3rd Annual World Open Innovation Conference (WOIC) 2016 'Open Innovation in the Digital Age', 15-16 December 2016, Barcelona, Spain
Available from: 2016-11-10 Created: 2016-11-10 Last updated: 2017-03-17Bibliographically approved

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