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Patienters erfarenhet av kostvanor efter Gastric Bypass-operation: Litteraturstudie
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
2017 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Fetma och övervikt är ett globalt växande problem och kan medföra välfärdssjukdomar, till exempel diabetes typ II. Gastric Bypass (GBP) är den mest utförda överviktsoperationen för behandling av fetma och övervikt. Det saknas forskning om patienters kostvanor efter GBP och det är kunskap som behövs för att sjuksköterskan ska kunna bidra med råd och motivation till dessa patienter efter deras GBP-operation.

Syfte: Att beskriva GBP-patienters erfarenheter av sina kostvanor efter operation, samt beskriva vilka urvalsmetoder som använts i de valda studierna.

Metod: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie med elva vetenskapliga studier.

Huvudresultat: Många av patienterna beskrev att deras kostvanor hade förändrats efter GBP-operationen. Framförallt kolhydratrik mat hade exkluderats ur deras kost. Det enda som inte hade exkluderats ur kosten var vegetabilier. De beskrev även att de hade utvecklat låg tolerans mot främst kött- och mejeriprodukter. Antalet måltider under dagen hade ökat och storleken på portionerna hade blivit mindre, vilket beror på den minskade volymen i magsäcken.

Slutsats: De allra flesta GBP-patienternas kostvanor hade förändrats. Energiintaget var som lägst under den första tiden efter operationen, men med tiden lärde patienterna sig hur och vad de kunde äta, vilket ledde till ett successivt ökat energiintag. Få patienter uppgav att de fått professionell hjälp angående kost och kostvanor. Sjuksköterskan ska kunna undervisa och bidra med svar på frågor om förändringar i kostvanor för att patienten ska kunna uppnå god hälsa efter GBP-operationen.

Abstract [en]

Background: Obesity and being overweight is a globally increasing problem and can cause other health related diseases, such as diabetes type II. Gastric bypass (GBP) is the most performed kind of bariatric surgery in treatment for obesity and overweight. There are not enough studies on, and knowledge about, patients’ postoperative food habits for the nurse to be able to provide with the help and aid the patients will need after the GBP-operation.

Aim: To describe GBP-patients’ experiences of postoperative food habits and which methods of sampling that have been used in the studies on which we base our results.

Method: A descriptive literature study including eleven scientific studies.

Results: Many of the participating patients described that their food habits had changed after their GBP-operation. Foods that consisted mainly of carbohydrates were excluded and vegetables were the only type of food that had not been excluded. The GBP-patients described that they had developed a low tolerance mainly towards meat and milk based products. The daily number of meals had increased and the servings of food were smaller than before the surgery. This mainly depends on the decreased volume in the gastric pouch.

Conclusion: Almost every participating GBP-patient’s food habit had changed. The daily energy intake was at its lowest during the first time after the operation, but the patients learned how and what to eat in the course of time which would gradually lead to an increased energy intake. Few GBP-patients described that they had undergone professional counseling regarding food and food habits. The nurse must be able to teach the patients about food habits and give adequate answers to questions regarding changes in food habits so that the patients may achieve good health after the GBP-operation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. , 25 p.
Keyword [en]
bariatric surgery, experience, food habits, Gastric bypass, postoperative
Keyword [sv]
erfarenheter, fetma, Gastric Bypass, kostvanor, postoperativt
National Category
Nursing Surgery Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23865OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-23865DiVA: diva2:1087674
Subject / course
Nursing
Educational program
Nursing
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2017-05-03 Created: 2017-04-09 Last updated: 2017-05-03Bibliographically approved

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