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Prefrontal cortex activity evoked by convergence load under conflicting stimulus-to-accommodation and stimulus-to-vergence eye-movements measured by NIRS: Prefrontal cortex oxygenation and visual fatigue
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5005-9957
School of Optometry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 12, article id 298Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To extend our knowledge of the functional linkages between visual fatigueand regional cerebral prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenation, we measured time related hemodynamic changes over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) duringconvergence load under conflicting stimulus-to-accommodation and stimulus-tovergence eye movements with and without concurrent mental load.

Methods: Twenty healthy participants with a median age of 28 years (range:18–44 years) fixated upon a vertical bar presented separately to the left andright eyes, using polarized filters, during four counterbalanced 10-min periods:(i) no accommodation/vergence conflict (Control, Ctrl); (ii) added convergenceload and accommodation/vergence conflict (Conv); (iii) added cognitive load only(Cog) and; (iv) a combination of added cognitive and convergence load andaccommodation/vergence conflict (Cc). Viewing distance was 65 cm. Non-invasivemeasurements of hemodynamic activity over the dlPFC were quantified by functionalnear-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). During the two-convergence load conditions, thehorizontal disparity of the two bars varied dynamically from no disparity to a disparityset 20% below the individual threshold for diplopia. Cognitive load was induced by then-back-2 test which required the subject to memorize and recall the changing colorsof the horizontal bars and decide when a given color was the same as that occurring two colors previously. fNIRS data were averaged over 10-s windows centered at 0, 2,4, 6, 8, and 10 min of each task, subtracted from a 20-s baseline window immediatelypreceding the visual task, and then represented as changes in oxygenated hemoglobin(ΔHbO2); deoxygenated hemoglobin (ΔHHb) and total hemoglobin (ΔtHb).

Results: Linear mixed model analyses showed that hemodynamic activity wassystematically influenced by time (p < 0.001). The group-averaged time-related levelof change across the viewing conditions did not differ when compared with one another(p > 0.05). Larger convergence eye-movement responses under conflicting stimulus-to accommodation,and stimulus-to-vergence over time, increased ΔHbO2 and ΔtHb onlyin condition Cc and after 8 min of task time (p < 0.10 for min-6 and min-8: p < 0.05 for min-10).

Discussion: Collectively, our data suggest that HbO2, HHb, and tHb, recorded over the dlPFC with fNIRS, can be used to assay the degree to which supervisory oculomotorcontrol processes are activated during visually deficient near work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018. Vol. 12, article id 298
Keywords [en]
Visual fatigue, Accommodation, Compensatory effort, Convergence, Disparity, Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), Time series analysis, Visual ergonomics
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25766DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2018.00298ISI: 000440216100002PubMedID: 30104967Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85054772976OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-25766DiVA, id: diva2:1163808
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2009-1761Swedish Research Council, 2015-01116
Note

Corrigendum: Prefrontal Cortex Oxygenation Evoked by Convergence Load Under Conflicting Stimulus-to-Accommodation and Stimulus-to-Vergence Eye-Movements Measured by NIRS DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2018.00384. ScopusId: 2-s2.0-85054817559

Available from: 2017-12-08 Created: 2017-12-08 Last updated: 2018-12-05Bibliographically approved

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Richter, HansElcadi, Guilherme H.Marsh, John E.Zetterberg, Camilla

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