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Environmental impact of energy refurbishment of buildings within different district heating systems
Högskolan Dalarna.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9789-3882
Högskolan Dalarna; KTH.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6722-3220
Högskolan Dalarna.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9943-9878
Högskolan Dalarna; Umeå universitet.
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2017 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The refurbishment of existing buildings is often considered a way to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions in the building stock. This study analyses the primary energy and CO2 impact of refurbishing a multi-family house with different refurbishment packages, given various district heating systems. Four models of typical district heating systems were defined to represent the Swedish district heating sector. The refurbishment packages were chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency and indoor climate of a multi-family house. The study was made from a system perspective, including the valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in primary energy use for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of district heating system. While the packages with heat pumps had the lowest final energy use per m2 of floor area, air heat recovery proved to reduce primary energy use and emissions of CO2-equivalents more, independent of the type of district heating system, as it leads to a smaller increase in electricity use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017.
Keywords [en]
District heating; Primary energy; Energy refurbishment; Building simulation; Multi-family house
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26501DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.07.022Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85026287103OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-26501DiVA, id: diva2:1201265
Available from: 2017-08-07 Created: 2018-04-25 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Influences from Building Energy Efficiency Refurbishment on a Regional District Heating System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influences from Building Energy Efficiency Refurbishment on a Regional District Heating System
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Improving energy performance of existing buildings is an important part in decreasing energy use and in turn reduce the greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activity and the primary energy use.

To be able to evaluate how energy refurbishment influences the greenhouse gas emissions and the primary energy use a wider system perspective is needed that puts the building in its context. This thesis deals with energy refurbishment packages performed on multi-family buildings within district heated areas and how they influence greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use when the district heating use is altered.

A simulated building is used to evaluate several energy refurbishment packages. The results are used as input data for models of district heating systems to cost optimize the district heating production. The results from the cost optimization are used to evaluate the impact on greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use.

The results show a difference between measures that saves district heating without increasing the use of electricity and measures that increases the use of electricity while district heating is saved. For example, a building refurbishment package including only building envelope improvements saves the same amount of district heating as a package including only mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. Despite this, the emissions of greenhouse gases and the use of primary energy is to a greater extent reduced in the first package because the use of electricity remains unchanged.

Comparing energy refurbishment packages performed on the same building, but within different district heating systems, show the importance of the design of the district heating system. Depending on the fuel types used and to which extent electricity is co-produced in the district heating system, the results of implementing the energy refurbishment packages vary. The largest reduction of greenhouse gases and primary energy use occurs when a refurbishment package is performed on a building in a district heating system with high share of biofuel and no electricity production.

Abstract [sv]

Att förbättra energiprestanda hos befintliga byggnader är en viktig del i arbetet med att minska energianvändningen och i sin tur minska utsläpp av växthusgaser orsakade av mänsklig aktivitet samt att minska användningen av primärenergi.

För att kunna utvärdera hur energieffektivisering av byggnader påverkar växthusgasutsläpp och primärenergianvändning behövs ett brett systemperspektiv som sätter byggnaden i sitt sammanhang. Denna avhandling handlar om hur paket av energieffektiviseringsåtgärder som utförs på flerfamiljshus inom fjärrvärmeuppvärmda områden påverkar växthusgasutsläpp och primärenergianvändning när fjärrvärmeanvändningen förändras.

Resultaten visar på skillnader mellan åtgärder som sparar fjärrvärme utan att öka användningen av el och åtgärder som ökar användningen av el medan fjärrvärme sparas. Till exempel sparar ett energieffektiviseringspaket som endast omfattar byggnadsskalsförbättringar samma mängd fjärrvärme som ett paket som endast omfattar installation av mekanisk ventilation med värmeåtervinning. Trots detta minskar utsläppen av växthusgaser och användningen av primärenergi i större utsträckning i det första paketet på grund av att elanvändningen förblir oförändrad.

Vikten av fjärrvärmesystemets utformning visas då en byggnad där olika energieffektiviseringspaket testats, flyttas runt till olika fjärrvärmesystem. Beroende på vilka bränsletyper som används och i vilken utsträckning som el produceras i fjärrvärmesystemet så varierar resultaten. Den största minskningen av växthusgaser uppstår när ett renoveringspaket utförs på en byggnad i ett fjärrvärmesystem med hög andel biobränsle och ingen elproduktion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Gävle University Press, 2018. p. 27
Series
Studies in the Research Profile Built Environment. Licentiate thesis ; 4
Keywords
District heating, energy efficiency, building refurbishment, greenhouse gases, primary energy, Fjärrvärme, energieffektivitet, byggnadsrenovering, växthusgaser, primärenergi
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26499 (URN)978-91-88145-26-0 (ISBN)978-91-88145-27-7 (ISBN)
Presentation
2018-06-05, B322, Högskolan Dalarna, Borlänge, 11:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-06-05 Created: 2018-04-25 Last updated: 2018-06-05Bibliographically approved

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Lidberg, Tina

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