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Influences from Building Energy Efficiency Refurbishment on a Regional District Heating System
University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Högskolan Dalarna. (REESBE)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9789-3882
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Improving energy performance of existing buildings is an important part in decreasing energy use and in turn reduce the greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activity and the primary energy use.

To be able to evaluate how energy refurbishment influences the greenhouse gas emissions and the primary energy use a wider system perspective is needed that puts the building in its context. This thesis deals with energy refurbishment packages performed on multi-family buildings within district heated areas and how they influence greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use when the district heating use is altered.

A simulated building is used to evaluate several energy refurbishment packages. The results are used as input data for models of district heating systems to cost optimize the district heating production. The results from the cost optimization are used to evaluate the impact on greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use.

The results show a difference between measures that saves district heating without increasing the use of electricity and measures that increases the use of electricity while district heating is saved. For example, a building refurbishment package including only building envelope improvements saves the same amount of district heating as a package including only mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. Despite this, the emissions of greenhouse gases and the use of primary energy is to a greater extent reduced in the first package because the use of electricity remains unchanged.

Comparing energy refurbishment packages performed on the same building, but within different district heating systems, show the importance of the design of the district heating system. Depending on the fuel types used and to which extent electricity is co-produced in the district heating system, the results of implementing the energy refurbishment packages vary. The largest reduction of greenhouse gases and primary energy use occurs when a refurbishment package is performed on a building in a district heating system with high share of biofuel and no electricity production.

Abstract [sv]

Att förbättra energiprestanda hos befintliga byggnader är en viktig del i arbetet med att minska energianvändningen och i sin tur minska utsläpp av växthusgaser orsakade av mänsklig aktivitet samt att minska användningen av primärenergi.

För att kunna utvärdera hur energieffektivisering av byggnader påverkar växthusgasutsläpp och primärenergianvändning behövs ett brett systemperspektiv som sätter byggnaden i sitt sammanhang. Denna avhandling handlar om hur paket av energieffektiviseringsåtgärder som utförs på flerfamiljshus inom fjärrvärmeuppvärmda områden påverkar växthusgasutsläpp och primärenergianvändning när fjärrvärmeanvändningen förändras.

Resultaten visar på skillnader mellan åtgärder som sparar fjärrvärme utan att öka användningen av el och åtgärder som ökar användningen av el medan fjärrvärme sparas. Till exempel sparar ett energieffektiviseringspaket som endast omfattar byggnadsskalsförbättringar samma mängd fjärrvärme som ett paket som endast omfattar installation av mekanisk ventilation med värmeåtervinning. Trots detta minskar utsläppen av växthusgaser och användningen av primärenergi i större utsträckning i det första paketet på grund av att elanvändningen förblir oförändrad.

Vikten av fjärrvärmesystemets utformning visas då en byggnad där olika energieffektiviseringspaket testats, flyttas runt till olika fjärrvärmesystem. Beroende på vilka bränsletyper som används och i vilken utsträckning som el produceras i fjärrvärmesystemet så varierar resultaten. Den största minskningen av växthusgaser uppstår när ett renoveringspaket utförs på en byggnad i ett fjärrvärmesystem med hög andel biobränsle och ingen elproduktion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018. , p. 27
Series
Studies in the Research Profile Built Environment. Licentiate thesis ; 4
Keywords [en]
District heating, energy efficiency, building refurbishment, greenhouse gases, primary energy
Keywords [sv]
Fjärrvärme, energieffektivitet, byggnadsrenovering, växthusgaser, primärenergi
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26499ISBN: 978-91-88145-26-0 (print)ISBN: 978-91-88145-27-7 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-26499DiVA, id: diva2:1201279
Presentation
2018-06-05, B322, Högskolan Dalarna, Borlänge, 11:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knowledge FoundationAvailable from: 2018-06-05 Created: 2018-04-25 Last updated: 2018-06-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. An approach to illustrate strategies for improved energy efficiency at the municipal level
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An approach to illustrate strategies for improved energy efficiency at the municipal level
2014 (English)In: Proceedings from the 14th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling / [ed] Anna Land, Swedish District Heating Association, 2014, p. 50-55Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This work focuses on how implementation of wellknown refurbishment strategies, applied on multifamily buildings in a post-war housing complex in Sweden can affect the generation of district heating. Both the energy use and the power load were considered.

The study was performed in Borlänge municipality, Sweden, where the municipality owns both the energy and the housing companies. The strategies for energy efficiency were simulated with IDA-ICE for the Tjärna Ängar area, a housing complex built between 1969- 1971, with access to documented information about the buildings and energy audit. The results of the building simulation were implemented in a simplified model of the local district heating system.

The results indicate how different renovation strategies affect the demand of energy and power load within the district heating system and can be used to provide indicators for different scenarios. The larger goal of the research is how to maximize the economic and environmental efficiency of improvement strategies on a municipal level as well as how to find appropriate energy optimization methods that can be proposed by building contractors. The initial study presented here was conducted within the research program Reesbe.

Keywords
Energy Efficiency, District Heating, Decision making, Million programme
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments, Reesbe företagsforskarskola
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-23991 (URN)978-91-85775-24-8 (ISBN)
Conference
14th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling (DCH14), 6-10 September 2014, Stockholm, Sweden
Projects
REESBE
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-05-08 Created: 2017-05-08 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
2. System impact of energy efficient building refurbishment within a district heated region
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System impact of energy efficient building refurbishment within a district heated region
2016 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 106, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The energy efficiency of the European building stock needs to be increased in order to fulfill the climate goals of the European Union. To be able to evaluate the impact of energy efficient refurbishment in matters of greenhouse gas emissions, it is necessary to apply a system perspective where not only the building but also the surrounding energy system is taken into consideration. This study examines the impact that energy efficient refurbishment of multi-family buildings has on the district heating and the electricity production. It also investigates the impact on electricity utilization and emissions of greenhouse gases. The results from the simulation of four energy efficiency building refurbishment packages were used to evaluate the impact on the district heating system. The packages were chosen to show the difference between refurbishment actions that increase the use of electricity when lowering the heat demand, and actions that lower the heat demand without increasing the electricity use. The energy system cost optimization modeling tool MODEST (Model for Optimization of Dynamic Energy Systems with Time-Dependent Components and Boundary Conditions) was used. When comparing two refurbishment packages with the same annual district heating use, this study shows that a package including changes in the building envelope decreases the greenhouse gas emissions more than a package including ventilation measures.

Keywords
Energy efficiency, District heating system, Refurbishment, Simulation, Greenhouse gases, Buildings
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21766 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2016.03.043 (DOI)000378659700005 ()2-s2.0-84977503634 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-06-20 Created: 2016-06-20 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
3. Environmental impact of energy refurbishment of buildings within different district heating systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental impact of energy refurbishment of buildings within different district heating systems
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The refurbishment of existing buildings is often considered a way to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions in the building stock. This study analyses the primary energy and CO2 impact of refurbishing a multi-family house with different refurbishment packages, given various district heating systems. Four models of typical district heating systems were defined to represent the Swedish district heating sector. The refurbishment packages were chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency and indoor climate of a multi-family house. The study was made from a system perspective, including the valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in primary energy use for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of district heating system. While the packages with heat pumps had the lowest final energy use per m2 of floor area, air heat recovery proved to reduce primary energy use and emissions of CO2-equivalents more, independent of the type of district heating system, as it leads to a smaller increase in electricity use.

Keywords
District heating; Primary energy; Energy refurbishment; Building simulation; Multi-family house
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Energy, Forests and Built Environments
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26501 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.07.022 (DOI)2-s2.0-85026287103 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-07 Created: 2018-04-25 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved

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