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Global warming potential and energy analysis of second generation ethanol production from rice straw in India
DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research & Development Centre, Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Faridabad, India.
DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research & Development Centre, Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Faridabad, India.
DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research & Development Centre, Indian Oil Corporation Limited, Faridabad, India.
Environmental and Energy Systems Studies, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
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2016 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 184, p. 353-364Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The environmental sustainability of cellulosic ethanol production from rice straw in India is conducted using life cycle assessment (LCA). Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, net energy ratio (NER) and net energy balance (NEB) are studied for ethanol production system using two diverse pretreatment technologies, i.e. dilute acid (DA) and steam explosion (SE) followed by separate hydrolysis and fermentation. 1 ton of rice straw is the reference flow of study and 1 MJ transportation fuel is the functional unit while comparing the results with gasoline. The inventory data is collected based on several experiments conducted at our pilot plant and is a novel contribution to country specific LCA. Using DA and SE, the ethanol yields from the processing of 1 ton straw are 239 and 253 L and life cycle GHG emissions are 292 and 288 kg CO2 eq./ton straw respectively. The results indicated that production of enzyme used in hydrolysis is the major contributor to GHG emissions in both DA (54%) and SE (57%) methods of ethanol production. The net energy input during the life cycle of ethanol is 1736 and 1377 MJ/ton straw in DA and SE respectively. The major GHG emissions and energy benefits are obtained using lignin produced in the plant to generate electricity resulting in displacement of the coal based electricity. With a higher xylose recovery in the SE, it gives larger amount of ethanol and also generates more surplus electricity. Enzyme production and its use are identified as GHG emission and energy consumption hotspot in the ethanol production process. While comparing the results with gasoline, DA and SE resulted in a reduction of 77 and 89% GHG emissions and NER of 2.3 and 2.7 respectively. The E5 blending would reduce GHG emissions by 4.3% (DA) and 4.8% (SE) whereas; E20 blend would lead to a reduction of 17.4% (DA) and 18.8% (SE) respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicates that with every 12.5% increase in the price of rice straw from the base case, there is a 2.3% increase in GHG emissions and vice versa. 1 FPU/g WIS increase during hydrolysis gives 2.9% increase in ethanol production, but at the same time there is an increase of 5% emissions from enzyme production. The results of the study conclude that cellulosic ethanol production technology in India is sustainable from GHG reduction and energy efficiency perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 184, p. 353-364
Keywords [en]
Cellulosic ethanol; Life cycle assessment (LCA); Dilute acid (DA); Steam explosion (SE); Greenhouse gas (GHG); Net energy ratio (NER)
National Category
Bioenergy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26804DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.10.034ISI: 000389785200030Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84992083454OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-26804DiVA, id: diva2:1213892
Available from: 2018-06-05 Created: 2018-06-05 Last updated: 2018-06-05Bibliographically approved

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Soam, Shveta

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