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Sounds of Nature in the City: No Evidence of Bird Song Improving Stress Recovery
Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2942-9962
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 8, article id 1390Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Noise from city traffic is one of the most significant environmental stressors. Natural soundscapes, such as bird songs, have been suggested to potentially mitigate or mask noise. All previous studies on masking noise use self-evaluation data rather than physiological data. In this study, while respondents (n = 117) watched a 360 degrees virtual reality (VR) photograph of a park, they were exposed to different soundscapes and mild electrical shocks. The soundscapesbird song, bird song and traffic noise, and traffic noisewere played during a 10 min recovery period while their skin conductance levels were assessed as a measure of arousal/stress. No significant difference in stress recovery was found between the soundscapes although a tendency for less stress in bird song and more stress in traffic noise was noted. All three soundscapes, however, significantly reduced stress. This result could be attributed to the stress-reducing effect of the visual VR environment, to the noise levels being higher than 47 dBA (a level known to make masking ineffective), or to the respondents finding bird songs stressful. Reduction of stress in cities using masking with natural sounds requires further studies with not only larger samples but also sufficient methods to detect potential sex differences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019. Vol. 16, no 8, article id 1390
Keywords [en]
stress, experiment, virtual reality, soundscape, bird song, noise
National Category
Ecology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30509DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16081390ISI: 000467747100083PubMedID: 30999690Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85065046829OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-30509DiVA, id: diva2:1343357
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 942-2015-610Swedish Research Council, 2014-01346Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2018.0152Available from: 2019-08-16 Created: 2019-08-16 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved

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