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Many-Sorted Implicative Conceptual Systems
University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A theory of many-sorted implicative conceptual systems (abbreviated msic-systems) is presented. Examples of msic-systems include legal systems, normative systems, systems of rules and instructions, and systems expressing policies and various kinds of scientific theories. In computer science, msic-systems can be used in, for instance, legal information systems, decision support systems, and multi-agent systems. In the thesis, msic-systems are studied from a logical and algebraic perspective aiming at clarifying their structure and developing effective methods for representing them. Of special interest are the most narrow links or joinings between different strata in a system, that is between subsystems of different sorts of concepts, and the intermediate concepts intervening between such strata. Special emphasis is put on normative systems, and the role that intermediate concepts play in such systems, with an eye on knowledge representation issues. Normative concepts are constructed out of descriptive concepts using operators based on the Kanger-Lindahl theory of normative positions. An abstract architecture for a norm-regulated multi-agent system is suggested, containing a scheme for how normative positions will restrict the set of actions that the agents are permitted to choose from. Technical results inlude a characterization of an msic-system in terms of the most narrow joinings between different strata, characterization of the structure of the most narrow joinings between two strata, conditions for the extendability of intermediate concepts, and finally, a specification of the conditions such that the Boolean operations on intermediate concepts will result in intermediate concepts and characterization of most narrow joinings in terms of weakest grounds and strongest consequences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology , 2008. , xiv, 61 p.
Series
Report series / Department of Computer & Systems Sciences, ISSN 1101-8526 ; 08-012
National Category
Information Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-3967ISBN: 978-91-7415-141-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-3967DiVA: diva2:208620
Public defence
2008-12-03, Hall C,KTH-Forum, Isafjordsgatan 39, Kista, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
Teknologie doktorsexamenAvailable from: 2009-03-19 Created: 2009-03-18 Last updated: 2009-05-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Normative positions within an algebraic approach to normative systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Normative positions within an algebraic approach to normative systems
2004 (English)In: Journal of Applied Logic, ISSN 1570-8683, E-ISSN 1570-8691, Vol. 2, no 1, 63-91 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The formal analysis of normative systems as initiated by Alchourrón and Bulygin can be complemented by the analysis of normative positions as pursued by Kanger, Lindahl, Sergot and Jones. The paper is a step towards integrating the two approaches within an algebraic theory of so-called Boolean quasi-orderings (Bqo's). In the general Bqo theory presented, a number of theoretical tools are introduced and elucidated by theorems, in particular those of fragment, connection, coupling and pair coupling. Condition implication structures (cis's) are models of the Bqo theory used for the representation of normative systems. A system of normative positions is introduced as a special kind of cis. The final section is devoted to an example exhibiting a legal mini-system where a cis of normative positions (np-cis) is joined to a descriptive cis.

Keyword
Normative systems, Alchourrón, Bulygin, Normative positions, Kanger, Implication structures, Boolean algebra, Deontic logic, Logic of action
National Category
Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9617 (URN)10.1016/j.jal.2004.01.004 (DOI)
Note
QC 20100901Available from: 2008-11-20 Created: 2008-11-20 Last updated: 2010-09-01Bibliographically approved
2. Algebras for Agent Norm-Regulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Algebras for Agent Norm-Regulation
2004 (English)In: Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 1012-2443, E-ISSN 1573-7470, Vol. 42, no 1-3, 141-160 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An abstract architecture for idealized multi-agent systems whose behaviour is regulated by normative systems is developed and discussed. Agent choices are determined partially by the preference ordering of possible states and partially by normative considerations: The agent chooses that act which leads to the best outcome of all permissible actions. If an action is non-permissible depends on if the result of performing that action leads to a state satisfying a condition which is forbidden, according to the norms regulating the multi-agent system. This idea is formalized by defining set-theoretic predicates characterizing multi-agent systems. The definition of the predicate uses decision theory, the Kanger-Lindahl theory of normative positions, and an algebraic representation of normative systems.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-1043 (URN)10.1023/B:AMAI.0000034525.49481.4a (DOI)000222604500006 ()
Available from: 2007-12-12 Created: 2007-12-12 Last updated: 2012-02-22Bibliographically approved
3. Normative Systems and their Revision: An Algebraic Approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Normative Systems and their Revision: An Algebraic Approach
2003 (English)In: Artificial Intelligence and Law, ISSN 0924-8463, E-ISSN 1572-8382, Vol. 11, no 2-3, 81-104 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

 The paper discusses normative systems and their revision within an algebraic framework. If a system is logically well-formed, certain norms, called connecting norms, determine the system as a whole. It is maintained that, if the system is well-formed, a relation at least as low as determines a lattice or quasi-lattice of its connecting norms. The ideas are presented mainly in the form of comments on a legal example concerning acquisition of movable property by extinction of another person's previous rights.

Keyword
Alchourrón, Boolean quasi-ordering, Bulygin, connecting norm, defeasibility, norm revision
National Category
Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9620 (URN)10.1023/B:ARTI.0000046005.10529.47 (DOI)
Note
20100901Available from: 2008-11-20 Created: 2008-11-20 Last updated: 2010-09-01Bibliographically approved
4. Intermediaries and intervenients in normative systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intermediaries and intervenients in normative systems
2008 (English)In: Journal of Applied Logic, ISSN 1570-8683, E-ISSN 1570-8691, Vol. 6, no 2, 229-250 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many concepts in legal texts are “intermediaries”, in the sense that they serve as links between statements of legal grounds, on one hand, and of legal consequences, on the other. In our paper, an algebraic representation of normative systems is used for distinguishing between different kinds of intermediaries and making the idea of a joining between grounds and consequences more precise. In Section 1, the idea of intermediaries is presented and earlier discussions of the subjects are outlined. In Section 2, we introduce the algebraic framework and develop the formal theory. After introducing our approach to the representation of a normative system, we here present a theory of “intervenients”, seen as a tool for analysing intermediaries. In Section 3, dealing with applications, after presenting a model of the formal theory, suited for the analysis of concepts in normative systems, we apply the theory to a number of examples, introduced in the first part. Finally, in Section 4, we make some remarks on the methodology of intermediate concepts.

Keyword
Concept formation, Counts-as, Dummett, Intermediary, Intermediate concept, Intervenient, Legal concept, Normative system-as
National Category
Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9621 (URN)10.1016/j.jal.2007.06.010 (DOI)2-s2.0-42649113073 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100901Available from: 2008-11-20 Created: 2008-11-20 Last updated: 2010-09-01Bibliographically approved
5. Strata of Intervenient Concepts in Normative Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strata of Intervenient Concepts in Normative Systems
2008 (English)In: Lecture notes in artificial intelligence, ISSN 0302-9743, Vol. 5076, 203-217 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Writing a contract of a specific content is a ground for purchase, purchase is a ground for ownership, ownership is a ground for power to dispose. Also power to dispose is a consequence of ownership, ownership is a consequence of purchase. etc. The paper presents a continuation of the authors’ previous algebraic representation on ground - consequence chains in normative systems.The paper analyzes different kinds of “implicative closeness” between grounds and consequences in chains of legal concepts, in particular combinations of “weakest ground”, “strongest consequence” and “minimal joining”. The idea of a concept’s being intermediate between concepts of two different sorts is captured by the technical notion of “intervenient”, defined in terms of weakest ground and strongest consequence. A legal example concerning grounds and consequences of “ownership” and “trust” is used to illustrate the application of the formal theory.

Keyword
Normative system, Legal concept, Intermediate concept, Intervenient, Weakest ground, Strongest consequence, Intervenient minimality, Ownership
National Category
Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9622 (URN)10.1007/978-3-540-70525-3_16 (DOI)000257946600016 ()2-s2.0-48949098215 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100901. Ingår i 9th International Conference on Deontic Logic in Computer Science, DEON 2008.Available from: 2008-11-20 Created: 2008-11-20 Last updated: 2010-09-01Bibliographically approved

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