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Design processes and novelty in small companies: a multiple case study
University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. (Industriell ekonomi)
2009 (English)In: ICED 09 - THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN: Proceedings, Vol. 1, Design processes, 2009, p. 265-278Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study explores the design processes in small established companies and investigates how these design processes are executed. How two different kinds of novelty influence the design processes is further examined: the relative novelty of the product being developed and the relative novelty of design processes. The relative novelty of the product is high if it is a radically new product to develop.

High relative novelty for design processes typically means no experience or knowledge about design processes. Based on an embedded multiple case study of three small established companies in Sweden, eight different design processes are described and analyzed. The results show that the design processes differ, even within the same company. The results also show that relative novelty affects the design process. If the relative novelty of both the product to be developed and of design processes is low, a linear, structured, and systematic design process was found to work. A design process that is cyclical, experimental, and knowledge-creating seems to work no matter the relative novelty.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. p. 265-278
Keyword [en]
design process, small companies, novelty, product innovation engineering
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-5019ISI: 000301952000023ISBN: 978-1-904670-05-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-5019DiVA, id: diva2:229323
Conference
International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED '09, 24 - 27 August 2009, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
Available from: 2009-10-14 Created: 2009-08-11 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Innovation and Design Processes in Small Established Companies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovation and Design Processes in Small Established Companies
2009 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis examines innovation and design processes in small established companies. There is a great interest in this area yet paradoxically the area is under-researched, since most innovation research is done on large companies. The research questions are: How do small established companies carry out their innovation and design processes? and How does the context and novelty of the process and product affect the same processes?

The thesis is built on three research papers that used the research method of multiple case studies of different small established companies. The innovation and design processes found were highly context dependent and were facilitated by committed resources, a creative climate, vision, low family involvement, delegated power and authority, and linkages to external actors such as customers and users. Both experimental cyclical and linear structured design processes were found. The choice of structure is explained by the relative product and process novelty experienced by those developing the product innovation. Linear design processes worked within a low relative novelty situation and cyclical design processes worked no matter the relative novelty. The innovation and design processes found were informal, with a low usage of formal systematic design methods, except in the case of design processes for software. The use of formal systematic methods in small companies seems not always to be efficient, because many of the problems the methods are designed to solve are not present. Customers and users were found to play a large and important role in the innovation and design processes found and gave continuous feedback during the design processes. Innovation processes were found to be intertwined, yielding synergy effects, but it was common that resources were taken from the innovation processes for acute problems that threatened the cash flow. In sum, small established companies have the natural prerequisites to take advantage of lead-user inventions and cyclical design processes. Scarce resources were found to be the main factor hindering innovation, but the examined companies practiced several approaches to increase their resources or use existing scarce resources more efficiently in their innovation and design processes. Examples of these approaches include adopting lead-user inventions and reducing formality in the innovation and design processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2009. p. 76
Series
TRITA-IEO-R, ISSN 1100-7982 ; 2009:15
Keyword
Innovation process, Design process, Small companies, Novelty, Context
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-6156 (URN)978-91-7415-487-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2009-11-20, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedtsvägen 30, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-03-02 Created: 2009-12-22 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved

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Löfqvist, Lars

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Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomiCenter for Logistics and Innovative Production
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