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Topographic data and roughness parameterisation effects on 1D flood inundation models
University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
2009 (English)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

A big responsibility lies in the hand of local authorities to exercise measures in preventing fatalities and damages during flood occurrences. However, the problem is how flooding can be prevented if nobody knows when and where it will be occurring, and how much water is expected. Therefore, the utilisation of flood models in such studies can be helpful in simulating what is anticipated to occur.

 

In this study, the HEC-RAS steady flow model was used in calibrating different flood events in Testeboån river, which is situated in the municipality of Gävle in Sweden. The purpose is to provide inundation maps that show the water surface profiles for the various flood events that can help authorities in planning within the area. Moreover, the study would try to address certain issues, which concern one-dimensional models like HEC-RAS in terms of the effects of topographic data and the parameters used for friction coefficient.

 

Various flood maps were produced to visualise the extents of the floods. In Oppala and Norra Åbyggeby, the big water extents for both the 100-year and the highest probable floods were visible in the forested areas and grasslands, although a few houses were within the predicted flooded areas. In Södra Åbyggeby, Varva, Forsby, and in the northern parts of Strömsbro and Stigslund, the majority of the residential places were not inundated during the 100-year flood calibration, but became flooded during the maximum probable flood. The southern portions of Strömsbro and Stigslund had lesser flood extents and houses were situated within the boundaries of the highest flood. In Näringen, there were also some areas close to the estuary that were flooded for both events.

 

With the other calibrations performed, two factors that greatly affect the flood extents in the floodplain, particularly in flatter areas were topographic data and the parameters used as friction coefficient.  The use of high resolution topographic data was important in improving the performance of the software. Nevertheless, it must be emphasised that in areas characterised by gentler slopes that bounded the channel and the floodplain, data completeness became significant whereby both ground data and bathymetric points must be present to avoid overestimation of the inundation extent. The water extents also varied with the use of the various Manning’s n for the overbanks, with the bigger value showing greater water extents. Else, in areas with steeper slopes and where the water was confined to the banks, the effect was minimal.

 

Despite these shortcomings of one-dimensional models, HEC-RAS provided good inundation extents that were comparable to the actual extent of the 1977 flooding.

 

Modelling real floods has its own difficulties due to the unpredictability of real-life flood behaviours, and more especially, there are time dependent factors that are involved.  Although calibrating a flood event will not exactly determine what is to arise as they might either under- or overestimate such flooding occurrences, still, they give a standpoint of what is more or less to anticipate, and from this,  planning measures can be undertaken.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. , p. vii+39+appendices
Keyword [en]
flood, GIS, HEC-RAS, inundation study, one-dimensional flood model, topographic data, roughness coefficient
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-5039OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-5039DiVA, id: diva2:231647
Presentation
(English)
Uppsok

Supervisors
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Available from: 2009-08-19 Created: 2009-08-14 Last updated: 2015-10-06Bibliographically approved

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