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Postoperativ smärta hos barn: tecken på smärta och adekvata omvårdnadsåtgärder. En litteraturstudie
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
2010 (Swedish)Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med denna litteraturstudie är att beskriva hur sjuksköterskan kan identifiera postoperativ smärta hos barn och vilka omvårdnadsåtgärder som är adekvata vid smärthantering Metod: Artiklarna till denna studie är sökta i databasen Medline via Pub Med. Totalt 18 artiklar kvalitetsgranskades och analyserades. Resultat: Barn hade svårigheter med att uttrycka (dvs. sätta ord på) och särskilja vilka symtom som var de mest besvärande för dem under den postoperativa perioden. Gråt, skrik, jämmer och gnäll, verkade vara relaterade till barnens oförmåga att prata om smärta. Blekhet, kallsvett, rosig och varm hud, suckar och hyperventilation verkade vara relaterade till symptom av smärta och illamående. Sjuksköterskorna använde sig av ansiktsuttryck och barnets utseende samt aktivitetsnivå som ett mått på barnets smärtintensitet. Sjuksköterskor med längre erfarenhet i yrket, använde fler ickefarmakologiska metoder än de med färre års erfarenhet. De sjuksköterskor med mer arbetslivserfarenhet använde sig av ickefarmakologiska smärtlindrande metoder som tillät barnet att ha den centrala rollen i situationen. Åtgärder såsom distraktion, positionering, och användning av kyla eller värme föreföll effektiva. Slutsats: Genom att iaktta barnets beteende och att använda sig av ett validerat smärtskattningsinstrument kan sjuksköterskan ge barnet evidensbaserad smärtlindring vid en tidpunkt då barnet har rätt till lämplig prevention, utvärdering och kontroll av deras smärta.

Abstract [en]

Aim: The purpose of this literature review is to describe how the nurse can identify post-operative pain in children and the nursing interventions that are appropriate for pain management. Method: This study was a descriptive literature study were the authors searched for scientific articles in the database Medline through Pub Med. A total of 18 articles were reviewed and quality was analyzed. Results: Children had difficulty in expressing (i.e. put into words) and to distinguish which symptoms were most troublesome for them during the postoperative period. Crying, screaming, moaning and whining, seemed to be related to children's inability to talk about pain. Pallor, cold sweat, rosy and warm skin, sighing and hyperventilation appeared to be related to symptoms of pain and nausea. The nurses used the facial expressions and the child's appearance and activity level as a measure of the child's pain intensity. Nurses with longer experience in the profession, used more non-pharmacological methods than those with fewer years of experience. The nurses with more work experience used more often non-pharmacological pain relieving methods that allowed the child to have the central role in the situation. Interventions such as distraction, positioning and use of cold or heat seemed effective. Conclusion: By observing children's behavior and the use of a validated pain measurement tool nurses´ can give the child evidence-based pain relief at a time when the child has the right to adequate prevention, evaluation and control of their pain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. , p. 26
Keyword [sv]
barn, postoperativ smärta, omvårdnad
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-6606Archive number: SSKHk07/vt10nr1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-6606DiVA, id: diva2:306841
Presentation
(English)
Uppsok
Medicine
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2010-04-22 Created: 2010-03-31 Last updated: 2010-05-05Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
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