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Antenna elements matching: time-domain analysis
University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
2010 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Time domain analysis in vector network analyzers (VNAs) is a method to represent the frequency response, stated by the S-parameters, in time domain with apparent high resolution. Among other utilities time domain option from Agilent allows to measure microwave devices into a specific frequency range and down till DC as well with the two time domain mode: band-pass and low-pass mode. A special feature named gating is of important as it allows representing a portion of the time domain representation in frequency domain.

 

This thesis studies the time domain option 010 from Agilent; its uncertainties and sensitivity. The task is to find the best method to measure the antenna element matching taking care to reduce the influence of measurement errors on the results.

 

The Agilent 8753ES is the instrument used in the thesis. A specific matching problem in the antenna electric down-tilt (AEDT) previously designed by Powerwave Technologies is the task to be solved. This is because it can not be measured directly with 2-port VNAs. It requires adapters, extra coaxial cables and N-connectors, all of which influences the accuracy. The AEDT connects to the array antenna through cable-board-connectors (CBCs). The AEDT and the CBCs were designed before being put into the antenna-system. Their S-parameters do not coincide with the ones measured after these devices were put in the antenna block.

 

Time domain gating and de-embedding algorithms are two methods proposed in this thesis to measure the S-parameters of the desired antenna element while reducing the influence of measurement errors due to cables CBCs and other connectors. The aim is to find a method which causes less error and gives high confidence measurements.

 

For the time domain analysis, reverse engineering of the time domain option used in the Agilent VNA 8753ES is implemented in a PC for full control of the process. The results using time-domain are not sufficiently reliable to be used due to the multiple approximations done in the design. The methodology that Agilent uses to compensate the gating effects is not reliable when the gate is not centered on the analyzed response. Big errors are considered due to truncation and masking effects in the frequency response.

 

The de-embedding method using LRL is implemented in the AEDT measurements, taking away the influences of the CBCs, coaxial cables and N-connector. It is found to have sufficient performance, comparable to the mathematical model. Error analysis of both methods has been done to explaine the different in measurements and design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. , p. 56
Keywords [en]
Time-domain analysis, Chirp z-transform, Kaiser-Bessel window, Filtering in time domain, Effects of time-domain analysis, Reverse engineering, De-embedding, TRL algorithm, uncertainties, sensitivity
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-7783Archive number: TEX 090320OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-7783DiVA, id: diva2:356588
Uppsok
Technology
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Available from: 2010-11-16 Created: 2010-10-13 Last updated: 2010-11-16Bibliographically approved

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Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable DevelopmentDepartment of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences
Control Engineering

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
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