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The Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model: theoretical, empirical, and clinical advances
Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Audiology/ENT and EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. (Miljöpsykologi)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7584-2275
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2013 (English)In: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5137, E-ISSN 1662-5137, Vol. 7, article id 31Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Working memory is important for online language processing during conversation. We use it to maintain relevant information, to inhibit or ignore irrelevant information, and to attend to conversation selectively. Working memory helps us to keep track of and actively participate in conversation, including taking turns and following the gist. This paper examines the Ease of Language Understanding model (i.e., the ELU model, Rönnberg, 2003; Rönnberg et al., 2008) in light of new behavioral and neural findings concerning the role of working memory capacity (WMC) in uni-modal and bimodal language processing. The new ELU model is a meaning prediction system that depends on phonological and semantic interactions in rapid implicit and slower explicit processing mechanisms that both depend on WMC albeit in different ways. It is based on findings that address the relationship between WMC and (a) early attention processes in listening to speech, (b) signal processing in hearing aids and its effects on short-term memory, (c) inhibition of speech maskers and its effect on episodic long-term memory, (d) the effects of hearing impairment on episodic and semantic long-term memory, and finally, (e) listening effort. New predictions and clinical implications are outlined. Comparisons with other WMC and speech perception models are made.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2013. Vol. 7, article id 31
Keywords [en]
working memory capacity, speech in noise, attention, long-term memory, hearing loss, brain imaging analysis, oscillations, language understanding
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Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-14709DOI: 10.3389/fnsys.2013.00031Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84883380246OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-14709DiVA, id: diva2:632249
Available from: 2013-06-24 Created: 2013-06-24 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved

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