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Life cycle assessment of Swedish single malt whisky
University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5661-2917
University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5885-3864
2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 112, no 1, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Agricultural production and further processing to food and drink have large impacts on the environment. However, there are still few examples of LCA studies on beverages such as whisky. This paper presents a life cycle assessment of Swedish single malt whisky and different environmental improvements of the production chain are discussed. The functional unit is one bottle (70cl) of whisky and results are obtained for global warming potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP), Eutrophication potential (EP) and primary energy (PE). The contribution to GWP is dominated by CO<inf>2</inf> emissions from transport of stillage. When avoided emissions from use of biogas are included, the net result is 2.1tonnes CO<inf>2</inf>-eq. Acidification is mainly due to emissions of SO<inf>2</inf> from bottle production, transport and barley cultivation which ends up to 14.6kgSO<inf>2</inf>-eq. Eutrophication results are totally dominated by barley cultivation, in total 8.6kgPO43-The total use of primary energy is 53.5MJ/FU with a 50/50 distribution in renewable and non-renewable. Non-renewables emanate from fossil fuels used for transports and in glass production, whereas renewables are mostly used for heating in the distillery. Improvement analysis of transports included; (1) decreasing need of transport, (2) change of fuel and (3) change of transport mode. Decreasing transport of stillage is an efficient measure to reduce GWP and use of non-renewable energy. Substituting diesel with biodiesel for all road transports is an even more efficient measure for these categories, but increases other environmental impact. For all impact categories except use of renewable energy a scenario combining all improvements is the most efficient measure to reduce environmental impact. The results can be used by the manufacturer, but an improved and expanded LCA on product level can be used for a more specific eco-labelling of the different whisky editions. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 112, no 1, p. 229-237
Keywords [en]
Beverage, Biogas, Eco-labelling, LCA, Transports, Whisky
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20107DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.07.050ISI: 000368206700024Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84938118536OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-20107DiVA, id: diva2:846427
Available from: 2015-08-17 Created: 2015-08-17 Last updated: 2023-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Energy and Environmental Factors in Food and Beverage Production Systems: An Analysis of Tomatoes, Whisky, and Beer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy and Environmental Factors in Food and Beverage Production Systems: An Analysis of Tomatoes, Whisky, and Beer
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Given the anticipated global population of approximately 10 billion by 2050, the task of ensuring adequate sustenance for all within the constraints of Earth's limited resources presents a significant challenge. The production of food and beverages demands considerable energy investment, as well as other essential resources such as water and nutrients. In addition to this, food production is associated with different kinds of environmental impact, such as global warming, eutrophication, acidification, and biodiversity loss.

This thesis analyzes energy and environmental factors in food and beverage production systems, focusing on tomatoes, whisky, and beer production. It aims to identify energy and environmental hotspots in these systems while also exploring the potential benefits of selected waste management practices, such as anaerobic digestion, for improving system circularity and environmental performance. The thesis uses several methods for energy and environmental systems analysis, including life cycle assessment and material flow analysis, as well as energy system simulation and optimization.

A key finding is the role of local resources, such as renewable energy and access to waste treatment facilities, in determining the environmental impact. Additionally, electricity use and production methods significantly influenced the environmental impact of the studied systems. The importance of transportation varied across the systems, due to differences in transport requirements of both inputs and outputs. Furthermore, this study evaluates various alternatives for increased circularity, particularly through waste treatment and improved resource efficiency. The results contribute to increased understanding of environmental performance across several production systems, offering insights for decision-makers aiming to enhance environmental sustainability of food and beverage production.

Abstract [sv]

Med tanke på den förväntade globala befolkningen på ungefär 10 miljarder människor år 2050 är det en stor utmaning att säkerställa tillräcklig matförsörjning inom jordens begränsade resurser. Mat- och dryckesproduktion kräver betydande energimängder, samt andra väsentliga resurser som vatten och näringsämnen, och är förknippad med miljöpåverkan som global uppvärmning, övergödning, försurning och förlust av biologisk mångfald.

Denna avhandling presenterar en analys av energi- och miljöfaktorer i system för produktion av mat och dryck, med fokus på produktion av tomater, whisky och öl. Den syftar till att identifiera energi- och miljöproblem i dessa system, samt utforska potentiella fördelar med utvalda avfallshanteringstekniker, såsom rötning, för att förbättra systemens cirkularitet och miljöprestanda. Avhandlingen använder flera olika metoder för energi- och miljösystemanalys, inklusive livscykelanalys, materialflödesanalys, samt simulering och optimering av energisystem.

En viktig upptäckt som visade sig för alla system är rollen som lokala resurser, såsom förnybar energi och tillgång till avfallshantering, spelar för produkternas miljöpåverkan. Även mängderna och produktionsmetoderna för elektricitet hade en avsevärd påverkan på miljöpåverkan för de studerade systemen. Transporternas betydelse varierade mellan systemen, på grund av olika transportbehov för insatsvaror, produkter och avfall. Denna studie utvärderar också flera alternativ där förbättrad cirkularitet ökade systemets miljömässiga hållbarhet, främst genom avfallsbehandling och förbättrad resursanvändning. Vidare visade denna studie på potentialen för ökad cirkularitet, särskilt genom avfallsbehandling och förbättrad resursanvändning. Resultaten bidrar till ökad förståelse för miljöprestanda för flera produktionssystem och ger insikter för beslutsfattare som syftar till att förbättra miljömässig hållbarhet vid produktion av mat och dryck.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Gävle University Press, 2024. p. 70
Series
Doctoral thesis ; 40
Keywords
environmental systems analysis, waste management, import, local resources, food production, beverage production, circularity
National Category
Energy Systems Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-43365 (URN)978-91-89593-19-0 (ISBN)978-91-89593-20-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-02-15, Lilla Jadwigasalen, 12108, Kungsbäcksvägen 47, Gävle, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2024-01-25 Created: 2023-12-04 Last updated: 2024-01-31Bibliographically approved

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Eriksson, OlaJonsson, DanielHillman, Karl

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