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Norm-Regulation of Agent Systems: Instrumentalizing an algebraic approach to agent system norms
University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management. Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. (Besluts-, risk- och policyanalys)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0418-4698
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

An architecture for norm-regulated multi-agent systems based on an algebraic approach to normative systems is instrumentalized and further developed. The core of the instrumentalization is a Prolog module, which together with a Java library can be used for creating client/server-based runtime systems. Norms are represented as conditional sentences, whose normative consequences are formulated by applying normative operators to descriptive conditions. From such general normative conditions follow normative sentences regarding specific states of affairs. These in turn result in permission or prohibition of individual actions in specific situations. Furthermore, an approach to turning runtime systems into instruments for problem-solving by using evolutionary mechanisms for evolving normative systems, is presented. The construction of norm-creating operators on conditions, which forms the basis for the representation of normative systems, is approached from two angles. (i) A logical analysis based on the Kanger-Lindahl theory of normative positions is conducted. This results in two extended sets of types of normative positions, and based on an algebraic version of one of these extended systems, a set of operators for creating agent-specific norms is constructed. (ii) An alternative analysis, which takes as its starting point a systematic exploration of types of state transitions, yields a set of norm-creating operators based on prohibition of transition types. It is furthermore argued that in the context of a class of transition systems, in which transitions are deterministic and associated with a single agent performing an act, operators based on (ii) specify a meaningful semantics of operators based on (i). Theoretical results together with shared code and example applications contribute to make possible theoretically sound, transparently described, and efficiently implemented norm-regulated autonomous agent systems.

Abstract [sv]

En arkitektur för normreglerade multiagentsystem baserad på en algebraisk representation av normativa system instrumentaliseras och vidareutvecklas. Kärnan i instrumentaliseringen utgörs av en Prolog-modul som tillsammans med ett Java-bibliotek kan användas för att skapa client/server-baserad körbar kod. Normer representeras som ordnade par av grundvillkor och följdvillkor. De senare konstrueras genom att normativa operatorer appliceras på deskriptiva villkor. Från sådana generella normativa villkor följer normativa satser om specifika sakförhållanden, vilka i sin tur ger upphov till förbud mot eller tillåtelse att utföra enskilda handlingar i olika situationer. Vidare skisseras en metod för att göra körbara multiagentsystem till verktyg för problemlösning genom att använda evolutionära mekanismer för att odla fram normativa system. Konstruktionen av normskapande operatorer på villkor, vilka ligger till grund för representationen av normativa system, betraktas ur två olika synvinklar. (i) En logisk analys, baserad på Kanger-Lindahls teori om normativa positioner. Denna resulterar i två utökade uppsättningar av typer av normativa positioner och utgående från en algebraisk version av ett av dessa utökade system konstrueras sedan en uppsättning operatorer för att skapa agentspecifika normer. (ii) En alternativ analys, som tar sin utgångspunkt i en systematisk undersökning av olika typer av tillståndsövergångar. Denna ger upphov till en uppsättning av normskapande operatorer som är baserade på förbud mot olika typer av övergångar. Argument presenteras vidare för att inom ramen för en klass av övergångssystem, där övergångar är deterministiska och associerade med en agent som utför en handling, så specificerar operatorer baserade på (ii) en meningsfull semantik för operatorer baserade på (i). Teoretiska resultat tillsammans med tillgängliggjord programkod och exempel på tillämpningar bidrar till att underlätta skapandet av teoretiskt sunda, transparent beskrivna och effektivt implementerade normreglerade system av autonoma agenter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University , 2015. , 64 p.
Series
Report Series / Department of Computer & Systems Sciences, ISSN 1101-8526 ; 15-014
Keyword [en]
Agent System, Norm-regulated, Norm-governed, Normative MAS, Normative Positions, Normative system, Transition system
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer and Systems Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20425ISBN: 978-91-7649-260-4OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-20425DiVA: diva2:861272
Public defence
2015-11-03, L30, Nodhuset, Borgarfjordsgatan 12, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Submitted. Paper 5: Forthcoming.

Available from: 2015-10-16 Created: 2015-10-16 Last updated: 2016-01-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. jDALMAS: A Java/Prolog Framework for Deontic Action-Logic Multi-Agent Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>jDALMAS: A Java/Prolog Framework for Deontic Action-Logic Multi-Agent Systems
2009 (English)In: Agent and Multi-Agent Systems: Technologies and Applications / [ed] Anne Håkansson, Ngoc Thanh Nguyen, Ronald L. Hartung, Robert J. Howlett and Lakhmi C. Jain, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag , 2009, 110-119 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A norm-regulated Deontic Action-Logic Multi-Agent System (DALMAS) is regulated by a normative system consisting of norms, which are expressed in an algebraic notation based on the Kanger-Lindahl theory of normative positions. A general-level Prolog implementation of the abstract DALMAS architecture makes it possible to implement specific systems in Prolog. This work describes jDALMAS, a Java library that may be used to create DALMAS applications in Java. A jDALMAS application has a client/server architecture, where a Prolog implementation of a specific system acts as a logic server. Together, the general-level Prolog implementation and the jDALMAS packages offer a framework for implementation of specific systems. Two examples of such implementations are presented here.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2009
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 5559
Keyword
deontic action-logic, normative positions, norm-regulated MAS, DALMAS, logic server
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-3963 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-01665-3_12 (DOI)000267705600012 ()3-642-01664-2 (ISBN)978-3-642-01664-6 (ISBN)
Conference
Third KES International Symposium, KES-AMSTA 2009
Projects
Advanced decision support systems: Theory and practice
Available from: 2013-02-13 Created: 2009-03-18 Last updated: 2016-10-26Bibliographically approved
2. Norm-regulated Transition System Situations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Norm-regulated Transition System Situations
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence / [ed] Joaquim Filipe and Ana Fred, 2013, 109-117 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Many multi-agent systems (MAS) and other kinds of dynamic systems may be modeled as transition systems, in which actions are associated with transitions between different system states. This paper presents an approach to normative systems in this context, in which the permission or prohibition of actions is related to the permission or prohibition of different types of state transitions with respect to some condition d on a number of agents x1, ... , xn in a state. It introduces the notion of a norm-regulated transition system situation, which is intended to represent a single step in the run of a (norm-regulated) transition system. The normative framework uses an algebraic representation of conditional norms and is based on a systematic exploration of the possible types of state transitions with respect to d(x1, ... , xn). A general-level Java/Prolog framework for norm-regulated transition system situations is currently being developed.

Keyword
Transition System, Multi-Agent System, Norm-regulated, Norm-governed, Normative System
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-13987 (URN)10.5220/0004260801090117 (DOI)2-s2.0-84877986711 (ScopusID)978-989-8565-38-9 (ISBN)
Conference
5th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART 2013) 15th-18th February 2013 Barcelona, Spain
Note

Presented at ICAART 2013

Available from: 2013-03-22 Created: 2013-03-22 Last updated: 2016-02-17Bibliographically approved
3. Instrumentalization of Norm-Regulated Transition System Situations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Instrumentalization of Norm-Regulated Transition System Situations
2014 (English)In: Agents and Artificial Intelligence: 5th International Conference, ICAART 2013, Barcelona, Spain, February 15-18, 2013. Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Joaquim Filipe and Ana Fred, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, 80-94 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An approach to normative systems in the context of multiagent systems (MAS) modeled as transition systems, in which actions are associated with transitions between different system states, is presented. The approach is based on relating the permission or prohibition of actions to the permission or prohibition of different types of state transitions with respect to some condition d on a number of agents x(1), ... , x(nu) in a state. It introduces the notion of a norm-regulated transition system situation, which is intended to represent a single step in the run of a (norm-regulated) transition system. The normative framework uses an algebraic representation of conditional norms and is based on a systematic exploration of the possible types of state transitions with respect to d(x(1), ... , x(nu)). A general-level Java/Prolog framework for norm-regulated transition system situations has been developed, and this implementation together with a simple example system is presented and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014
Series
Communications in Computer and Information Science, ISSN 1865-0929, 1865-0937 (electronic) ; 449
Keyword
transition system, multi-agent system, norm-regulated, norm-governed, normative system
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17672 (URN)10.1007/978-3-662-44440-5_5 (DOI)000357802800005 ()2-s2.0-84916603195 (ScopusID)978-3-662-44439-9 (ISBN)978-3-662-44440-5 (ISBN)
Conference
5th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence, ICAART 2013, Barcelona, Spain, February 15-18, 2013
Available from: 2014-10-10 Created: 2014-10-10 Last updated: 2015-10-16Bibliographically approved
4. Normative Positions in Multi-Agent Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Normative Positions in Multi-Agent Systems
2016 (English)In: Web Intelligence, ISSN ISSN 2405-6456, EISSN 2405-6464, Vol. 14, no 2, 153-171 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Kanger-Lindahl theory of normative positions has great potential of serving as a logical foundation for normative systems for MAS, and its generality allows for great freedom when interpreting the theory. As a first step towards a typology of interpretations of the theory, we study the application of normative positions in the context of a class of transition systems in which transitions are deterministic and associated with a single agent performing an act. By an interpretation of different types of normative positions in terms of permitting or prohibiting different state transition types in this context, lexicons for two different systems of types of normative positions are suggested and discussed. It is demonstrated that both interpretations areuseful foundations for normative systems semantics in a MAS context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS Press, 2016
Keyword
Normative MAS, Norm-regulated, Norm-governed, Normative positions, Transition system
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20191 (URN)10.3233/WEB-160337 (DOI)000384303200005 ()2-s2.0-84969813512 (ScopusID)
Conference
The 2014 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Joint Conference on Web Intelligence (WI) and Intelligent Agent Technologies (IAT), 11–14 August 2014, Warsaw, Poland
Available from: 2015-09-02 Created: 2015-09-02 Last updated: 2016-12-07Bibliographically approved
5. O­ffline Norm Evolution
Open this publication in new window or tab >>O­ffline Norm Evolution
2015 (English)In: Agents and Artificial Intelligence: 7th International Conference, ICAART 2015, Lisbon, Portugal, January 10-12, 2015, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Béatrice Duval, Jaap van den Herik, Stephane Loiseau, Joaquim Filipe, Springer, 2015, Vol. 9494, 316-333 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An approach to the pre-runtime design of normative systems for a class of problem-solving norm-regulated multi-agent systems is suggested. The basic idea is to employ evolutionary mechanisms to evolve efficient normative systems for so-called norm-regulated Dalmases, as part of the design process. The Dalmas architecture uses an algebraic approach to normative systems, in which normative consequences are based on an extended set of one-agent types of normative positions, which is given a semantics in terms of prohibition of certain types of state transitions. To illustrate the approach, a genetic algorithm is used to evolve norms for an example system. Furthermore, some approaches to reducing the algorithm’'s search space, including to employ a notion of ‘operational equivalence’ of norms, are discussed. It is demonstrated that an evolutionary algorithm may be a useful tool when designing norms for problem-solving multi-agent systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
Series
Lecture Notes of Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 03029743 ; 9494
Keyword
Norm-regulated Multi-Agent System, Normative MAS, DALMAS, Norm Evolution, Evolutionary Algorithm
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-20192 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-27947-3_17 (DOI)000376576200017 ()2-s2.0-84952784465 (ScopusID)978-331927946-6 (ISBN)978-3-319-27947-3 (ISBN)
Conference
The 7th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence (ICAART), 10-12 January 2015, Lisbon, Portugal
Available from: 2015-09-02 Created: 2015-09-02 Last updated: 2016-07-01Bibliographically approved

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