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Evaluation of energy conserving measures in buildings connected to a district heating system: case studies in Gävle, Sweden
University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering. (Reesbe)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3138-5508
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

When different energy conserving measures are implemented for reducing energy use in buildings and the buildings are connected to district heating systems, it is important that an overall system analysis is made which takes into account the effects of total change of energy use due to the energy conserving measures.

The method applied in this thesis uses hourly production data for the different production units in the district heating system in Gävle, Sweden. The merit order of the different production units is dependent on the electricity spot market price. To calculate the merit order, hourly data for the electricity price is used. The marginal production unit can then be determined for each hour of the investigated year.

This thesis analyzes five different energy conserving measures in a multi-dwelling building regarding how they affect the marginal production units in the district heating system. For CO2 emission evaluations, two different combinations of heat and electricity conserving measures are compared to installation of an exhaust air heat pump. This thesis also analyzes how the configuration of the electric meter affects the measured amount of self-consumed and produced excess electricity for a single-family house and for two multi-dwelling buildings of different sizes.

The results show that the use of electricity is the most important objective to consider. The increased use of electricity for operation of the heat pump contributes to an increase of global CO2 emissions and the electricity produced by the solar photovoltaic installation contributes to a decrease of global CO2 emissions.

The results also show that the configuration of the electric meter is important for the single-family house but negligible for the multi-dwelling buildings. The amount of produced excess electricity is high for all buildings, which means that the economic value of produced excess electricity is important for a profitable installation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2016.
Series
Studies in the Research Profile Built Environment. Licentiate thesis, 1
Keyword [sv]
energieffektivisering, miljonprogrammet, solceller
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21398ISBN: 978-91-88145-03-1 (print)ISBN: 978-91-88145-04-8 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-21398DiVA: diva2:917878
Presentation
2016-06-09, Sal 99:132, Kungsbäcksvägen 47, Gävle, 10:30 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-06-07 Created: 2016-04-08 Last updated: 2017-08-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. How the electric meter configuration affect the monitored amount of self-consumed and produced excess electricity from PV systems: case study in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How the electric meter configuration affect the monitored amount of self-consumed and produced excess electricity from PV systems: case study in Sweden
2017 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 138, 60-68 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study evaluates how the principal function of bi-directional electric meters affects the monitored amount of self-consumed and produced excess electricity for dwelling buildings connected to the grid by three phases. The electric meters momentarily record the sum of the phases or the phases individually and then summarize the recorded values to a suitable time period and is then collected by the grid owner. In Sweden, both electric meter configurations fulfill laws and regulations.

The meter configuration affects the monitored distribution of self-consumed and produced excess electricity significantly for the investigated single-family house but is negligible for the investigated multi-dwelling buildings. The monitored self-consumed electricity produced by the PV installation for the single-family house varies between 24% and 55% depending on the configuration and how the inverter is installed for the investigated year. The difference in economic value for the produced electricity varies between 79.3 to 142 Euros.

Due to the electric meter configuration, the profitability of PV systems will be different for identical single-family houses with identical conditions. This should be corrected for a well-functioning market. It is also important to decide how the configuration should be designed to ensure that different incentives and enablers results in desired effects.

Keyword
Buildings, Commerce, Electric measuring instruments, Electric power generation, Energy policy, Houses, Housing, Laws and legislation, Energy markets, Identical conditions, Laws and regulations, Principal functions, PV installations, PV system, Single-family house, Solar PVs, Electric power transmission networks
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21397 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.11.010 (DOI)000394061200006 ()2-s2.0-85006846894 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

The work has been carried out under the auspices of the industrial post-graduate school Reesbe, which is financed by the Knowledge Foundation (KK-stiftelsen).

Available from: 2016-04-08 Created: 2016-04-08 Last updated: 2017-08-21Bibliographically approved
2. CO2 emission evaluation of energy conserving measures in buildings connected to a district heating system: case study of a multi-dwelling building in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CO2 emission evaluation of energy conserving measures in buildings connected to a district heating system: case study of a multi-dwelling building in Sweden
2016 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 111, 341-350 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

When taking action to fulfill the directives from the European Union, energy conserving measures will be implemented in the building sector. If buildings are connected to district heating systems, a reduced heat demand will influence the electricity production if the reduced heat demand is covered by combined heat and power plants.

This study analyze five different energy conserving measures in a multi-dwelling building regarding how they affect the marginal production units in the district heating system in Gävle, Sweden. For CO2 emission evaluations, two different combinations of heat and electricity conserving measures are compared to an installation of an exhaust air heat pump.

The different energy conserving measures affect the district heating system in different ways. The results show that installing an exhaust air heat pump affects the use/production of electricity in the district heating system most and electricity conserving measures result in reduced use of electricity in the building, reduced use of electricity for production of heat in the district heating system and an increase of electricity production.

The conclusion is that electricity use in the building is the most important factor to consider when energy conserving measures are introduced in buildings within the district heating system in Gävle.

Keyword
District heating system, Energy efficiency, Greenhouse gases, Refurbishment, Simulation
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21396 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2016.05.002 (DOI)000384776900029 ()2-s2.0-84973177469 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-04-08 Created: 2016-04-08 Last updated: 2017-08-21Bibliographically approved

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