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Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att kommunicera med patienter i livets slutskede: En litteraturstudie
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
2016 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Målet med palliativ vård är att lindra patientens lidande, där är kommunikation samt relation en av de fyra hörnstenarna. Sjuksköterskans kommunikation är yrkesrelaterad och av stödjande karaktär, där respekt, tillit och trygghet är viktigt.

Syfte: Att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att kommunicera med patienter i livets slutskede samt att beskriva de ingående studiernas undersökningsgrupper.

Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie som baserades på tretton artiklar med kvalitativ ansats. De söktes fram via databaserna Cinahl och PubMed/MEDLINE samt genom manuell sökning.

Resultat: Sjuksköterskans kommunikation är essentiellt i vårdandet av patienter i livets slutskede. Förutsättningar för det goda empatiska samtalet var sjuksköterskans roll som aktiv lyssnare och dennes förmåga till att vara medmänsklig, ärlig samt empatisk. Yrkeserfarenhet ansågs gynna kommunikationen och oerfarenhet försvårade den. Kommunikationen mellan sjuksköterska och patient kunde väcka svårhanterade känslor hos sjuksköterskan, exempelvis frustration. Påverkbara faktorer var tid, prioriteringar och miljöaspekter samt icke-verbal kommunikation. Ytterligare påverkbara faktorer avseende kommunikation var religiösa övertygelser samt kulturella skillnader och normer. Samtliga artiklar beskrev och presenterade deltagarnas arbetsplats. Deltagarna i fyra av tretton studier arbetade med palliativ vård. Alla studier beskrev i vilket land studierna genomfördes och fyra av tretton studier genomfördes i Norden. Fyra studier presenterade inte yrkeserfarenhet eller ålder.

Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor har olika erfarenheter av att kommunicera med patienter i livets slutskede och kommunikation är central i omvårdnaden. Kommunikation bör därför utgöra en större del i sjuksköterskeutbildningen, för att nyexaminerade sjuksköterskor ska känna sig väl förberedda inför yrket.  

Abstract [en]

Background: The aim of palliative care is to relieve the suffering of the patient, where communication and relationship constitutes one of the four cornerstones. The nurses' communication is professional and supportive, where respect, trust and a feeling of security are essential.

Aim: To describe nurses' experiences of communicating with patients at the end of life and describing the characteristics of the study participants in the reviewed studies.

Method: A descriptive literature study, which was based on thirteen articles with a qualitative approach. The articles were found in the databases Cinahl and PubMed/MEDLINE and through manual search.

Results: Nurses' way of communication is essential in the care of patients at the end of life. Prerequisites for a good emphatic communication are the nurses' role as an active listener and to have the ability to be compassionate, honest and empathic. Professional experience was considered beneficial to communication, since inexperience often seem to hampered it. The communication between the nurse and the patient could raise emotional reactions which were difficult to handle for the nurse, such as frustration. Factors that influenced communication was time, priorities and environmental aspects as well as the non-verbal communcation, religious beliefs and cultural differences and norms. All articles presented the participants workplace. Participants in four out of thirteen studies worked with palliative care. All studies presented the country in which they were made and four studies where made in Scandinavia. Four articles didn't present work experience nor age.

Conclusions: Nurses' have different experiences of communicating with patients at the end of life and the communication is a central part of nursing care. Communication should be a major part of nursing education, because newly graduated nurses should feel well prepared for the nursing profession. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , 30 p.
Keyword [en]
Communication, end of life, experiences, nurse, palliative care
Keyword [sv]
Erfarenheter, kommunikation, livets slutskede, palliativ vård, sjuksköterska
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21433OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-21433DiVA: diva2:922529
Subject / course
Nursing
Educational program
Nursing
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2016-05-04 Created: 2016-04-22 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved

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