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Avledande icke farmakologiska metoder och metodernas effekter vid procedursmärta hos barn 2-12 år: En litteraturstudie
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
2016 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Barn behöver ibland uppsöka sjukvård för att genomgå vårdprocedurer av olika slag. Barns reaktioner på oro och rädsla styrs av ålder, förståelse, fantasi och verklighetsuppfattning. Barn behöver därför förberedas inför obehagliga ingrepp som ska hända till exempel: smärtsamma undersökningar, venpunktion eller injektioner. Dessa undersökningar kan skapa oro och rädsla hos barn.

Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva olika icke farmakologiska avledande metoder och dess effekter vid procedursmärta hos barn. Samt att beskriva undersökningsgrupperna i de inkluderade artiklarna.

Metod: En deskriptiv design användes för att besvara litteraturstudiens syfte och frågeställningar. Studien baserades på tretton vetenskapliga artiklar. De vetenskapliga artiklarna söktes i databaserna Cinahl och PubMed. Artiklarna var publicerade mellan åren 2006-2016.

Huvudresultat: Studien påvisar att icke farmakologiska avledande metoder som till exempel: blåsa såpbubblor, titta i ett kalejdoskop, lyssna på musik eller använda ”Buzzy” har haft lindrande effekt på barns rädsla, oro och smärta. Effekterna har skattats med hjälp av olika skalor genom sjuksköterskors, forskare och föräldrars observationer. Barnen har själva fått skattat effekterna av de icke farmakologiska avledande metoderna.

Slutsats: I resultatet i föreliggande studie har författarna kommit fram till att icke farmakologiska avledande metoder kan lindra barnens rädsla, oro eller smärta vid olika omvårdnadshandlingar. Författarna har även kommit fram till slutsatsen att de avledande metoderna som undersökts kan användas i det vardagliga arbetet inom barnsjukvården.

Abstract [en]

Background: Children sometimes need to seek medical help in order to undergo treatment procedures of various kinds. Children's reaction to anxiety and fear are governed by age, understanding, imagination and perception of reality. Children therefore need to be prepared for unpleasant procedures that they will undergo, such as: painful examinations, venipuncture or injections. These procedures can create anxiety and fear in children.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the various non - pharmacological istraction methods and its effects on procedural pain in children. And to describe the study groups in the included articles.

Method: A descriptive design was used to answer the literature studies experimental purpose and questioning. The study was based on thirteen scientific articles. The papers were searched in databases Cinahl and PubMed. The articles were published between the years 2006-2016.

Result: The study demonstrates that non - pharmacological distraction methods for example: playing with soap bubbles, looking through a kaleidoscope, listen to music and use a “Buzzy” have had a soothing effect on children’s fear, anxiety and pain. The effects have been estimated using different scales by nurses, researchers and parents' observations. The children themselves have been estimating the effects of the non - pharmacological distraction methods.

Conclusion: In the results of the present study, the authors concluded that non-pharmacological distraction methods can ease children's fear, anxiety or pain at different nursing actions. The authors have also come to the conclusion that the distraction methods investigated can be used in everyday work in pediatric care.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , 24 p.
Keyword [en]
Anxiety, Child, Fear, Non pharmacological distraction, Procedural pain
Keyword [sv]
Barn, Icke farmakologiska metoder, Oro, Procedursmärta, Rädsla
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21628OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-21628DiVA: diva2:937042
Subject / course
Nursing
Educational program
no programme (freestanding course)
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2016-06-17 Created: 2016-06-14 Last updated: 2016-06-17Bibliographically approved

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