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System impact of energy efficient building refurbishment within a district heated region
University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Dalarna University.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9789-3882
School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
2016 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 106, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Resource type
Text
Abstract [en]

The energy efficiency of the European building stock needs to be increased in order to fulfill the climate goals of the European Union. To be able to evaluate the impact of energy efficient refurbishment in matters of greenhouse gas emissions, it is necessary to apply a system perspective where not only the building but also the surrounding energy system is taken into consideration. This study examines the impact that energy efficient refurbishment of multi-family buildings has on the district heating and the electricity production. It also investigates the impact on electricity utilization and emissions of greenhouse gases. The results from the simulation of four energy efficiency building refurbishment packages were used to evaluate the impact on the district heating system. The packages were chosen to show the difference between refurbishment actions that increase the use of electricity when lowering the heat demand, and actions that lower the heat demand without increasing the electricity use. The energy system cost optimization modeling tool MODEST (Model for Optimization of Dynamic Energy Systems with Time-Dependent Components and Boundary Conditions) was used. When comparing two refurbishment packages with the same annual district heating use, this study shows that a package including changes in the building envelope decreases the greenhouse gas emissions more than a package including ventilation measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 106, p. 45-53
Keywords [en]
Energy efficiency, District heating system, Refurbishment, Simulation, Greenhouse gases, Buildings
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-21766DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2016.03.043ISI: 000378659700005Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84977503634OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-21766DiVA, id: diva2:939745
Funder
Knowledge FoundationAvailable from: 2016-06-20 Created: 2016-06-20 Last updated: 2020-09-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Influences from Building Energy Efficiency Refurbishment on a Regional District Heating System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influences from Building Energy Efficiency Refurbishment on a Regional District Heating System
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Improving energy performance of existing buildings is an important part in decreasing energy use and in turn reduce the greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activity and the primary energy use.

To be able to evaluate how energy refurbishment influences the greenhouse gas emissions and the primary energy use a wider system perspective is needed that puts the building in its context. This thesis deals with energy refurbishment packages performed on multi-family buildings within district heated areas and how they influence greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use when the district heating use is altered.

A simulated building is used to evaluate several energy refurbishment packages. The results are used as input data for models of district heating systems to cost optimize the district heating production. The results from the cost optimization are used to evaluate the impact on greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use.

The results show a difference between measures that saves district heating without increasing the use of electricity and measures that increases the use of electricity while district heating is saved. For example, a building refurbishment package including only building envelope improvements saves the same amount of district heating as a package including only mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. Despite this, the emissions of greenhouse gases and the use of primary energy is to a greater extent reduced in the first package because the use of electricity remains unchanged.

Comparing energy refurbishment packages performed on the same building, but within different district heating systems, show the importance of the design of the district heating system. Depending on the fuel types used and to which extent electricity is co-produced in the district heating system, the results of implementing the energy refurbishment packages vary. The largest reduction of greenhouse gases and primary energy use occurs when a refurbishment package is performed on a building in a district heating system with high share of biofuel and no electricity production.

Abstract [sv]

Att förbättra energiprestanda hos befintliga byggnader är en viktig del i arbetet med att minska energianvändningen och i sin tur minska utsläpp av växthusgaser orsakade av mänsklig aktivitet samt att minska användningen av primärenergi.

För att kunna utvärdera hur energieffektivisering av byggnader påverkar växthusgasutsläpp och primärenergianvändning behövs ett brett systemperspektiv som sätter byggnaden i sitt sammanhang. Denna avhandling handlar om hur paket av energieffektiviseringsåtgärder som utförs på flerfamiljshus inom fjärrvärmeuppvärmda områden påverkar växthusgasutsläpp och primärenergianvändning när fjärrvärmeanvändningen förändras.

Resultaten visar på skillnader mellan åtgärder som sparar fjärrvärme utan att öka användningen av el och åtgärder som ökar användningen av el medan fjärrvärme sparas. Till exempel sparar ett energieffektiviseringspaket som endast omfattar byggnadsskalsförbättringar samma mängd fjärrvärme som ett paket som endast omfattar installation av mekanisk ventilation med värmeåtervinning. Trots detta minskar utsläppen av växthusgaser och användningen av primärenergi i större utsträckning i det första paketet på grund av att elanvändningen förblir oförändrad.

Vikten av fjärrvärmesystemets utformning visas då en byggnad där olika energieffektiviseringspaket testats, flyttas runt till olika fjärrvärmesystem. Beroende på vilka bränsletyper som används och i vilken utsträckning som el produceras i fjärrvärmesystemet så varierar resultaten. Den största minskningen av växthusgaser uppstår när ett renoveringspaket utförs på en byggnad i ett fjärrvärmesystem med hög andel biobränsle och ingen elproduktion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Gävle University Press, 2018. p. 27
Series
Studies in the Research Profile Built Environment. Licentiate thesis ; 4
Keywords
District heating, energy efficiency, building refurbishment, greenhouse gases, primary energy, Fjärrvärme, energieffektivitet, byggnadsrenovering, växthusgaser, primärenergi
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-26499 (URN)978-91-88145-26-0 (ISBN)978-91-88145-27-7 (ISBN)
Presentation
2018-06-05, B322, Högskolan Dalarna, Borlänge, 11:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2018-06-05 Created: 2018-04-25 Last updated: 2021-02-17Bibliographically approved
2. Building Energy Efficiency Measures in District Heating Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building Energy Efficiency Measures in District Heating Systems
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Improving energy performance of existing buildings is an important part in decreasing energy use and in turn reducing greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use. To be able to evaluate how energy refurbishment influences greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use a wider system perspective is needed which puts the building in its context.

 This thesis deals with energy efficiency refurbishment performed on multi-family buildings within district heated areas and how greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use is influenced. Both energy demand and temperature levels are considered.

A simulated building is used to evaluate energy refurbishment packages. The results are used as input data for models of district heating systems to cost optimize district heating production. One district heating system model is also used to evaluate the impact of lowered district heating supply temperatures. The results from the cost optimizations are used to evaluate the impact on greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use.

The results show that all refurbishment packages decreases greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use, but to a different extent. Depending on the fuel types used and to which extent electricity is co-produced in the district heating system, the results of implementing the refurbishment packages vary. The largest reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use occurs in a district heating system with a high share of biofuel and no electricity production. Another result is that the temperature levels of a building’s heating system can be reduced when refurbished which promotes low-temperature district heating. The results also indicates that greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy use can be decreased from a short- and medium term perspective if the supply temperature of a district heating system is lowered. From a long term perspective primary energy use is still decreased while greenhouse gas emissions are increased.

Abstract [sv]

Att förbättra energiprestanda hos befintliga byggnader är en viktig del i arbetet med att minska energianvändningen och i sin tur minska utsläppen av växthusgaser och användningen av primärenergi. För att kunna utvärdera hur energieffektivisering av byggnader påverkar växthusgasutsläpp och primärenergianvändning behövs ett brett systemperspektiv som sätter byggnaden i sitt sammanhang. Denna avhandling handlar om energieffektivisering av flerfamiljshus inom fjärrvärmeuppvärmda områden och hur växthusgasutsläpp och primärenergianvändning påverkas. Både energibehov och temperaturnivåer beaktas. En simulerad byggnad används för att utvärdera energieffektiviserings-paket. Resultaten används sedan som indata för modeller av fjärrvärmesy-stem där fjärrvärmeproduktionen kostnadsoptimeras. En fjärrvärme-systemsmodell används också för att utvärdera effekterna av sänkta fram-ledningstemperaturer. Resultaten från kostnadsoptimeringarna används för att sedan utvärdera effekterna på växthusgasutsläpp och primärenergian-vändning. Enligt resultaten bidrar alla energieffektiviseringspaket med att minska utsläppen av växthusgaser och primärenergianvändning, dock i olika utsträckning. Beroende på vilka bränsletyper som används och i vilken utsträckning som el produceras i fjärrvärmesystemet varierar resultaten för implementering av energieffektiviseringspaketen. Den största minskningen av växthusgasutsläpp och primärenergianvändning sker i ett fjärrvärmesystem med en hög andel biobränsle och ingen elproduktion. Ett annat resultat är att temperaturnivåerna i en byggnads värmesystem kan sänkas när den renoveras vilket främjar lågtemperaturfjärrvärme. Resultaten tyder också på att växthusgasutsläpp och primärenergianvändning kan minskas ur ett kort- och medellångt perspektiv om framledningstemperaturen för ett fjärrvärme-system sänks. Ur ett långsiktigt perspektiv minskar fortfarande primärenergi-användningen medan växthusgasutsläppen ökar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gävle: Gävle University Press, 2020. p. 51
Series
Doctoral thesis ; 16
Keywords
building simulation, combined heat and power, district heating, domestic hot water, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emission, low-temperature, multi-family building, primary energy, refurbishment, byggnadsimulering, energieffektivitet, flerfamiljshus, fjärrvärme, kraftvärme, lågtemperatur, primärenergi, renovering, tappvarmvatten, växthusgas
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Sustainable Urban Development
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-33940 (URN)978-91-88145-52-9 (ISBN)978-91-88145-53-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-11-06, 322, Röda vägen 3, Borlänge, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20120273
Available from: 2020-10-19 Created: 2020-09-13 Last updated: 2021-02-17Bibliographically approved

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Lidberg, TinaTrygg, Louise

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