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  • 1.
    Andrée, Martin
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    BIM and 3D property visualisation2018In: FIG Congress 2018: Proceedings, 2018, article id 9367Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of 3D property has only existed a short period of time in Sweden, being introduced in 2004 and expanded in 2009 by the addition of condominium (apartment) ownership. It is therefore a rather new form of land management, and the demand for 3D property formation has not been as high as initially expected. There is however an increased interest in 3D property and ownership apartments today, also as being part of the nation’s geospatial infrastructure together with related 3D information for e.g. buildings, utility networks and other features. An effective management of 3D property is depending on, among other things, visualization, representation and storage of 3D real property data, such as legal boundaries and real property rights. There are at present a number of ongoing 3D development and research projects focusing on visualization and standardization of 3D cadastral boundaries. They are part of the national "Smart Built Environment" development and research program, which includes the use of BIM in the (future) 3D property formation process with focus on visualization of 3D real property and condominiums, and specification of requirements and evaluation of 3D digital real property information created and managed in the processes.

    This paper presents the preliminary results of the working group on visualization of 3D boundaries in the project "Smart planning, construction and management processes throughout the life cycle". The aim is to test the results produced in the project "Information for planning, real property formation and building permission", working group "BIM for 3D property formation." The purpose of this working group is to set the requirements for and evaluate the test bed for 3D property information. The focus is on visualization of 3D property and ownership apartments. The proposed model for digitization and visualization of 3D property formation will be tested in a test bed environment. A pilot case from the Stockholm area is then used in the test bed to see how it could work in practice.

    The expected outcome is recommendations for the exchange of documentation and other digital information in 3D processes, the visualization of legal boundaries for stakeholders, registration of legal 3D objects in the Swedish national real property register and how to communicate 3D models to right holders/stakeholders for 3D property and condominiums and the property market, as well as suggestions for a homogeneous, effective and digital flow of 3D information to be used by actors and other stakeholders in the property formation, planning and building processes.

  • 2.
    Charupa, Thanaporn
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Perspectives on RFID Readiness: A Comparative Analysis Between Skanska and Datema2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In global supply chain management, radio frequency identification RFID has emerged within the last decade and became a superior technology for information storage. However, the technology has not yet been widely accepted or used in comparison to the barcode.

    The underlying interest is to explore RFID technology, to understand the benefits and drawback that this innovation brings. Once functionality and application comprehension is overviewed, specific models such as SWOT analysis, Real Option Theory, Technology Push-Pull model and RFID Implementation stages can be applied to evaluate a firm’s RFID readiness.

    The findings are based on two Swedish case companies Skanska Maskin AB and Datema. Information from the case companies are consolidated and aggregated to analyze and derive the methods used to discover the firm’s ability to adopt RFID. The analysis will discuss the factors involved with the technology and recommendations for future studies are given.

  • 3.
    Eklund, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Hedblom, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Robust internetinfrastruktur med DNSSEC och IPv6: En studie av DNSSEC- och IPv6-implementationen hos utvalda organisationer i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Domännamnssystemet DNS är en vital och ofrånkomlig del av internet. Det är dock sårbart för attacker. DNSSEC är ett sätt att minska sårbarheten hos DNS. I detta examensarbete har data om ett antal domäner samlats in med hjälp av Zonemaster och domain information groper för att sedan bearbetas med hjälp av bash-skript och java-kod. Detta data har sedan analyserats. Resultatet visar att användandet av och statusen på DNSSEC-implementeringen hos flera av de undersökta domänerna är bristfällig och lämnar utrymme för förbättringar.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Helen
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet – the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden; Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Harrie, Lars
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Lantmäteriet – the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    What is the need for building parts? - A comparison of CityGML, INSPIRE building and a swedish building standard2018In: International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives / [ed] Agugiaro G., Stoter J., Labetski A., Koeva M., and Arroyo Ohori K., International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing , 2018, Vol. 42, p. 27-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for digital building information is increasing, both in the form of 3D city models (as geodata) and of more detailed building information models (BIM). BIM models are mainly used in the architecture, engineering and construction industry, but have recently become interesting also for municipalities. The overall aim of this paper is to study one way of dividing a building, namely the division of a building into building parts in both 3D city models and in BIM models. The study starts by an inventory of how building parts are defined in 3D city model standards (CityGML, the INSPIRE building specification and a Swedish national specification for buildings) and in BIM models (Industry Foundation Classes, IFC). The definition of building parts in these specifications are compared and evaluated. The paper also describes potential applications for the use of building parts, on what grounds a building could be divided into building parts, advantages and disadvantages of having building parts and what consequences it can have on the usage of the building information. One finding is that building parts is defined similar, but not identical in the studied geodata specifications and there are no requirements, only recommendations on how buildings should be divided into building parts. This can complicate the modelling, exchange and reuse of building information, and in a longer perspective, it would be desirable to have recommendations of how to define and use building parts in for example a national context.

  • 5.
    Gutke Jonsson, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Kartläggning av navigationsenheters noggrannhet med hjälp av geovisualisering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingen av digital hälsa har bidragit till att flera aktörer är villiga att satsa på e-hälsa för förbättringar inom hälsovård, som t.ex. vid effektivisering och utbyte av patientinformation. I framtiden kan även utbyte av information mellan patienter och sjukvårdare, vid bedömning och kartläggning av patientens fysiska aktivitet, vara aktuellt. Syftet med studien är att utvärdera olika navigationsenheter i olika prisklasser samt redovisa deras pålitlighet vid påverkande faktorer. För analys och visualisering av resultatet tillämpades GIS.

    För studien samlades data in med hjälp av testpiloter. För utvärdering av navigationsenheterna utfördes 10 mätningar med mätinstrumentet GNSS RTK- nätverk i varierande terräng. Dessa mätpunkter fungerade som referenspunkter vid beräkning av avvikelse hos samtliga navigationsenheter. Resultatet av visualiseringen visar navigationsenheternas positionering och att påverkande faktorer kan kopplas till avvikelserna. Av resultatet kan navigationsenheternas noggrannhet visuellt avläsas i olika miljöförhållanden.

  • 6.
    Hjelmblom, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    State Transitions and Normative Positions within Normative Systems2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many multi-agent systems are naturally viewed as transition systems, in which the transitions between states are connected to the actions of the agents in the system. The behaviour of the individual agents can be regulated by a normative system in which norms are formulated in terms of permissible or prohibited state transitions. This report examines the set of types of such transitions, and their connection to different interpretations of the Kanger-Lindahl theory of normative positions. A refinement of Lindahl's system of one-agent types of normative positions is presented and discussed, and is put in relation to another refinement by Jones and Sergot. It is shown in the report that, based on different interpretations of the action operator Do, each of these refinements can be given an interpretation within the context of norm-regulated Dalmas (a class of transition systems regulated by conditional norms based on the theory of normative positions) and other similar systems.

  • 7.
    Hu, Wensheng
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Guizhou Institute of Technology, Gui Zhou, Gui Yang, China.
    Mao, Jingjing
    School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Guizhou Institute of Technology, Gui Zhou, Gui Yang, China.
    Yang, Jianfeng
    School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Guizhou Institute of Technology, Gui Zhou, Gui Yang, China.
    Zhao, Ming
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Maintainability design based on complex network2017In: 2017 14th International Computer Conference on Wavelet Active Media Technology and Information Processing (ICCWAMTIP), 2017, p. 309-314Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many faults come from the design phase. In order to improve the maintainability of the software, the design of software architecture must be adopted modular design. This paper presents a method of UML class diagram translated into a directed complex network with weight value. The relation weight coefficient matrix between classes can be calculated by Dijkstra algorithm. The clustering algorithm is implemented on the relation weight coefficient matrix. The result of clustering analysis is that the closely related classes can be clustered into a component. Finally, modular design of the software system can be realized. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 8. Ivan, Igor
    et al.
    Benenson, ItzhakJiang, BinUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.Horák, JiříHaworth, JamesInspektor, Tomáš
    Geoinformatics for intelligent transportation2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Karlsson, Janni
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    REWA (Realtime Evacuation Wind Application): en prototyp för datorstödd lokalisering av evakueringsvägar med hänsyn tagen till aktuell vindriktning.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag används inte vinden som en påverkande faktor i realtid i befintliga datoriserade evaukueringssystem. Detta påverkar systemet tillförlitlighet negativt. Syftet med denna studie är att påvisa vindens inverkan vid beräkning av lämpliga flyktvägar från ett område som drabbats av brand. Utifrån tidigare forskning och intervjuer av experter inom området brand, framkommer de riktlinjer som ligger till grund för denna typ av datorstöd. Utifrån dessa konstruerades en prototyp, REWA (RealTime Evacuation Wind Application), ett datoriserat stöd i evakueringssyfte där vinden är den centralt påverkande faktorn. Vinden och avståndet till vägar i närområdet är de två faktorer som används i REWA för att påvisa lämpliga flyktvägar vid evakuering. Studiens resultat påvisar att vindens föränderlighet inverkar på lämpliga flyktvägar, vilket således påvisar GIS lämplighet även i realtidslösningar. Slutligen konstateras att REWA behöver testas och utvecklas i samverkan med experter inom olika områden för att dess funktioner ska bli optimala.

  • 10.
    Kordi, Maryam
    et al.
    National University of Ireland, National Centre for Geocomputation.
    Brandt, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Effects of increasing fuzziness on analytic hierarchy process for spatial multicriteria decision analysis2012In: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, ISSN 0198-9715, E-ISSN 1873-7587, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 43-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) involves techniques which relatively recently have received great increase in interest for their capabilities of solving spatial decision problems. One of the most frequently used techniques of MCDA is Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the AHP, decision-makers make pairwise comparisons between different criteria to obtain values of their relative importance. The AHP initially only dealt with crisp numbers or exact values in the pairwise comparisons, but later it has been modified and adapted to also consider fuzzy values. It is necessary to empirically validate the ability of the fuzzified AHP for solving spatial problems. Further, the effects of different levels of fuzzification on the method have to be studied. In the context of a hypothetical GIS-based decision-making problem of locating a dam in Costa Rica using real-world data, this paper illustrates and compares the effects of increasing levels of uncertainty exemplified through different levels of fuzzification of the AHP. Practical comparison of the methods in this work, in accordance with the theoretical research, revealed that by increasing the level of uncertainty or fuzziness in the fuzzy AHP, differences between results of the conventional and fuzzy AHPs become more significant. These differences in the results of the methods may affect the final decisions in decision-making processes. This study concludes that the AHP is sensitive to the level of fuzzification and decision-makers should be aware of this sensitivity while using the fuzzy AHP. Furthermore, the methodology described may serve as a guideline on how to perform a sensitivity analysis in spatial MCDA. Depending on the character of criteria weights, i.e. the degree of fuzzification, and its impact on the results of a selected decision rule (e.g. AHP), the results from a fuzzy analysis may be used to produce sensitivity estimates for crisp AHP MCDA methods.

  • 11.
    Li, Tao
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) in China: Some potentials and shortcomings2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) is required to make the spatial data be fully used and well shared by the society. In China, SDI’s has also been established progressively. A thorough understanding of the potentials and shortcomings about SDI in China has a positive significance to clearly identify the future direction and actions.In order to find out the potentials and shortcomings of SDI in China, the current situation of SDI and SDI in China have been assessed through literature review and interview. Then a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis has been developed. Based on the current experiences of SDI development in China, the thesis concludes that China have a good potential to develop its SDI function. It also points out that there still are some weaknesses needed to be surmounted, such as: lacking advanced technology, data duplication, and lack of skilled workforce. There is a big room and capability to improve the development of Chinese SDI well in the future.

  • 12.
    Lim, Nancy J.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sahlin, Eva A. U.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A cartographic framework for visualising flood uncertainties2018In: Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Lim, Nancy J.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Assessment of spatial-based decisions and user perspectives in utilisation of flood certainty mapsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Lim, Nancy Joy
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Sahlin, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Quantification, classification and mapping of spatial uncertainties of floods2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In flood modelling studies, spatial uncertainties may be visualised differently. This will rely on the characteristics of the information produced from the quantification method applied, which may vary depending on the type of model uncertainty taken into account. It is important to be able to characterise and generally classify the different types of spatial uncertainty information in hydraulic model results, because this can help determine how they can be best represented and visualised.

    In this paper, two methods of quantifying uncertainties were employed to derive uncertainty information. The first was ensemble-based modelling, which combined the results of 100 simulations considering the effects of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Manning’s roughness coefficient to the model output. Each result from the individual model run was assessed on how likely it depicted the spatial extent of an observed flood event. Afterwards, the results were weighted and aggregated. In the second method, the most optimal output based on a series of calibrations from one-dimensional flood modelling was used and applied with the empirical disparity-distance equation to account for further errors brought about by the resolution of the underlying DEM and the slope. The equation was implemented with an algorithm that created uncertainty zones based on the 95% prediction confidence. The resulting information from the two quantification methods were then classified, discretised and visualised using different map types, visual variables, and overlay techniques.

    Based on these results, four types of uncertainty information for flood modelling were produced that can be classified according to the characteristics of the data they show: (1) diverging, which is distinguished by two opposing conditions (certain to be dry and flooded) and a middle condition (highly uncertain); (2) sequential, where values range from lowest (uncertain) to highest (certain); (3) multiple calibration results, which show simultaneously the flood extents produced using different parameters for comparative purposes; and, (4) inundation zones which identify areas that are both certain and uncertain to be flooded.

    The results from both diverging and sequential uncertainty information were presented as continuous and discrete data in choropleth and graduated symbol maps. The gradation from uncertain-to-certain conditions was displayed using lightest-to-darkest colour and/or smallest-to-largest point symbols. With certainty/uncertainty zone, the binary statuses were represented in choropleth maps as: (a) blue/red colours; (b) organised/disorganised arrangements; and, (c) fine/coarse grain textures. For multiple calibration results, isopleths maps were used with a combination of at least two visual variables (size, shape, colour) to emphasise the differences in the lines, and facilitate visual comparison of results.

    Furthermore, since giving geographic context to flood uncertainty is an important aspect in the visualisation, three types of overlay were considered: map pairs, sequential and bivariate representations. Sequential representation worked well for all map types. Bivariate maps, on the other hand, were best for uncertainty represented as [one-coloured] symbol, texture, arrangement and linear features, which do not obscure the information behind. The background map had also to be displayed with increased transparency to prevent its dominance over the uncertainty data. Map pairs were the most suitable for choropleth maps using fill colour in order to avoid problems caused by colour blending when two maps are overlain. 

    Classification of the uncertainty information facilitated the choice of data representation. Even when using other quantification methods, hydraulic modellers can adopt the suggested visualisation using similar characteristic data.  This can be an initial step in producing guidelines for flood uncertainty visualisation. Moreover, testing the effectiveness of these visualisations can be the next relevant step to see how the information is communicated, interpreted and used, e.g. in spatial planning, flood risk management and insurance policies.

  • 15.
    Lim, Nancy Joy
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Åhlén, Julia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Geovisualisation of uncertainty in simulated flood maps2014In: Proceedings of the International Conferences on Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction 2014, Game and Entertainment Technologies 2014 and Computer Graphics, Visualization, Computer Vision and Image Processing 2014 - Part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems, MCCSIS 2014 / [ed] Katherine Blashki and Yingcai Xiao, IADIS Press , 2014, p. 206-214Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) geovisualisation model of uncertainties in simulated flood maps that can help communicate uncertain information in the data being used. An entropy-based measure was employed for uncertainty quantification. In developing the model, Visualisation Toolkit (VTK) was utilised. Different data derived from earlier simulation study and other maps were represented in the model. Cartographic principles were considered in the map design. A Graphical User Interface (GUI), which was developed in Tkinter, was also created to further support exploratory data analysis. The resulting model allowed visual identification of uncertain areas, as well as displaying spatial relationship between the entropy and the slope values. This geovisualisation has still to be tested to assess its effectiveness as a communication tool. However, this type of uncertainty visualisation in flood mapping is an initial step that can lead to its adoption in decision-making when presented comprehensively to its users. Thus, further improvement and development is still suggested for this kind of information presentation.

  • 16.
    Liu, Fei
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science. Centre for Image Analysis, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science. Centre for Image Analysis, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Infrared-visible image registration for augmented reality-based thermographic building diagnostics2015In: Visualization in Engineering, ISSN 2213-7459, Vol. 3, no 1, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In virtue of their capability to measure temperature, thermal infrared cameras have been widely used in building diagnostics for detecting heat loss, air leakage, water damage etc. However, the lack of visual details in thermal infrared images makes the complement of visible images a necessity. Therefore, it is often useful to register images of these two modalities for further inspection of architectures. Augmented reality (AR) technology, which supplements the real world with virtual objects, offers an ideal tool for presenting the combined results of thermal infrared and visible images. This paper addresses the problem of registering thermal infrared and visible façade images, which is essential towards developing an AR-based building diagnostics application. Methods: A novel quadrilateral feature is devised for this task, which models the shapes of commonly present façade elements, such as windows. The features result from grouping edge line segments with the help of image perspective information, namely, vanishing points. Our method adopts a forward selection algorithm to determine feature correspondences needed for estimating the transformation model. During the formation of the feature correspondence set, the correctness of selected feature correspondences at each step is verified by the quality of the resulting registration, which is based on the ratio of areas between the transformed features and the reference features. Results and conclusions: Quantitative evaluation of our method shows that registration errors are lower than errors reported in similar studies and registration performance is usable for most tasks in thermographic inspection of building façades.

  • 17.
    Lundsten, Jonas
    et al.
    Malmö Högskola.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Motives for Participation in Formal Standardisation Processes for Geographic Information: An Empirical Study in Sweden2017In: International Journal of Standardization Research (IJSR), ISSN 2470-8542, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 16-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the personal motives for participation in formalstandardization processes for geographic information. The method involved interviewing membersof technical committees at the Swedish Standards Institute, SIS. The results are that the majority ofthe interviewees are very motivated in their work and they think their participation is well-financedby their organizations allocating them to a technical committee. The main motives are to contributeto development of society and be at the forefront of development. However, this article also showsthat several members participating in this study felt that they do not have sufficient time for workingwith tasks related to their technical committees. Their daily work in their respective organizationsoften has higher priority in relation to standardization work. This contrasts with the organizationalgoals of the participating organizations and may slow down the development of standards and otherpublications due to lack of resources.

  • 18.
    Ma, Ding
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Characterizing the Heterogeneity of the OpenStreetMap Data and Community2015In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 535-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OpenStreetMap (OSM) constitutes an unprecedented, free, geographical information source contributed by millions of individuals, resulting in a database of great volume and heterogeneity. In this study, we characterize the heterogeneity of the entire OSM database and historical archive in the context of big data. We consider all users, geographic elements and user contributions from an eight-year data archive, at a size of 692 GB. We rely on some nonlinear methods such as power law statistics and head/tail breaks to uncover and illustrate the underlying scaling properties. All three aspects (users, elements, and contributions) demonstrate striking power laws or heavy-tailed distributions. The heavy-tailed distributions imply that there are far more small elements than large ones, far more inactive users than active ones, and far more lightly edited elements than heavy-edited ones. Furthermore, about 500 users in the core group of the OSM are highly networked in terms of collaboration.

  • 19.
    McCartney, Robert
    et al.
    Computer Science and Engineering Department, University of Connecticut,, Storrs, CT, United States .
    Boustedt, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Eckerdal, Anna
    Information Technology, Department of Scientific Computing, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Sanders, Kate
    Mathematics and Computer Science, Rhode Island College, Providence, RI, United States .
    Thomas, Lynda
    Department of Computer Science, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, United Kingdom .
    Zander, Carol
    Computing and Software Systems, University of Washington Bothell, Bothell, WA, United States .
    Why computing students learn on their own: motivation for self-directed learning of computing2016In: ACM Transactions on Computing Education, ISSN 1946-6226, E-ISSN 1946-6226, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 2:1-2:18, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we address the question of why computing students choose to learn computing topics on their own. A better understanding of why some students choose to learn on their own may help us to motivate other students to develop this important skill. In addition, it may help in curriculum design; if we need to leave some topics out of our expanding curriculum, a good choice might be those topics that students readily learn on their own.

    Based on a thematic analysis of 17 semistructured interviews, we found that computing students’ motivations for self-directed learning fall into four general themes: projects, social and peer interactions, joy of learning, and fear. Under these, we describe several more specific subthemes, illustrated in the words of the students.

    The project-related and social motivations are quite prominent. Although these motivations appear in theliterature, they received greater emphasis from our interviewees. Perhaps most characteristic of computingis the motivation to learn to complete some project, both projects done for fun and projects required for schoolor work.

  • 20.
    McCartney, Robert
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of Connecticut Storrs, USA.
    Boustedt, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Eckerdal, Anna
    Department of Information Technology Uppsala University Uppsala.
    Sanders, Kate
    Mathematics and Computer Science Department Rhode Island College Providence, USA.
    Zander, Carol
    Computing & Software Systems University of Washington Bothell Bothell, USA.
    Can first–year students program yet?: a study revisited2013In: ICER´13: Proceedings of the ninth International Conference on International Computing Education Research / [ed] Beth Simon, Alison Clear, Quintin Cutts, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2013, p. 91-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Threshold concepts can be used to both organize disciplinaryknowledge and explain why students have diculties at cer-tain points in the curriculum. Threshold concepts transforma student's view of the discipline; before being learned, theycan block a student's progress.In this paper, we propose that in computing, skills, inaddition to concepts, can sometimes be thresholds. Somestudents report nding skills more dicult than concepts.We discuss some computing skills that may be thresholdsand compare threshold skills and threshold concepts.

  • 21.
    Moreira, J. M. M.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management. University of Extremadura, Spain .
    Nex, F.
    3D Optical Metrology Unit, Bruno Kessler Foundation (FBK), Trento, Italy .
    Agugiaro, G.
    3D Optical Metrology Unit, Bruno Kessler Foundation (FBK), Trento, Italy .
    Remondino, F.
    3D Optical Metrology Unit, Bruno Kessler Foundation (FBK), Trento, Italy .
    Lim, Nancy Joy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    From DSM to 3D building models: A quantitative evaluation2013In: International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives / [ed] Sorgel U., Heipke C., Jacobsen K., Rottensteiner F., Gottingen: Copernicus gesellschaft MBH , 2013, Vol. 40, no 1W1, p. 213-219Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper reviews the state-of-the-art in 3D city models and building block generation, with a description of the most common solutions and approaches. Then the digital reconstruction and comparison of LoD1 and LoD2 building models obtained with commercial packages and using different input data are presented. As input data, a DSM at 1m resolution derived from a GeoEye-1 stereo-pair, a DSM from an aerial block at 50 cm GSD and a LiDAR-based DSM at 1m resolution are used. The geometric buildings produced with each dataset are evaluated with respect to some ground-truth measurements but also compared between them. Problems such as the quality of the input DSM, the accuracy of the necessary vector datasets containing the building footprints, the flexibility of the approaches and the potentialities of each dataset will be discussed. As reconstruction of the building models is largely influenced by the quality of the building footprints, which may be out-of-date or slightly shifted with respect to the employed DSMs/DTMs, an in-house method is being developed to derive them starting from the produced DSMs.

  • 22.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lantmäteriet, Gävle, Sverige.
    GeoSkills+: EU-projekt för kompetens inom geodata2015In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2001-578X, no 6, p. 42-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    KTH, Fastigheter och byggande.
    Modelling the Cadastral Domain2004In: ESDI: State of the Art, European Commission Joint Research Centre , 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a Swedish approach construction a model of the cadastral domain. The National Land Survey of Sweden (Lantmäteriet) has developed an UML-based, objectorientated information model describing real property information stored in the Swedish Real Property Register. The register is part of the Swedish Land Data Bank System.

    The work has been initiated due to a general need for an object-orientated and application independent description of real property information. The project is part of a greater task describing all information handled by Lantmäteriet in an object-orientated way, not focussing on the technical storage of the information, but the information itself. A non-technical modelling approach is the foundation for more cost-efficient development of new software and routines managing and processing cadastral information in the future.

    The model is the result of co-operation between governmental agencies, describing the Swedish cadastre. The cadastral domain model has been constructed in a project initiated by Lantmäteriet with the purpose to establish a common description of real property information not limited to local, technical solutions. The work has been done in co-operation with national and local agencies handling cadastral information. The model acts as a basis for an increased data and information interchange between governmental and non-governmental agencies and is a part of the Swedish, digital infrastructure. The model is not a Swedish standard, but might be a contribution to a future Swedish standardisation process.

  • 24.
    Seipel, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Ahreberg, L
    Distributed Rendering in Heterogeneous Display Environments: A Functional Framework Design and Performan Assessment2002In: Proceedings of the Annual SIGRAD Conference, 2002, p. 23-28Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Seipel, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Lim, Nancy J.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Color map design for visualization in flood risk assessment2017In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 31, no 11, p. 2286-2309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visualizations of flood maps from simulation models are widely used for assessing the likelihood of flood hazards in spatial planning. The choice of a suitable type of visualization as well as efficient color maps is critical to avoid errors or bias when interpreting the data. Based on a review of previous flood uncertainty visualization techniques, this paper identifies areas of improvements and suggests criteria for the design of a task-specific color scale in flood map visualization. We contribute a novel color map design for visualizing probabilities and uncertainties from flood simulation ensembles. A user study encompassing 83 participants was carried out to evaluate the effects of this new color map on user’s decisions in a spatial planning task. We found that the type of visualization makes a difference when it comes to identification of non-hazardous sites in the flood risk map and when accepting risks in more uncertain areas. In comparison with two other existing visualization techniques, we observed that the new design was superior both in terms of task compliance and efficiency. In regions with uncertain flood statuses, users were biased toward accepting less risky locations with our new color map design.

  • 26.
    Sognestrand, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Österberg, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    KOLLEKTIVTRAFIKENS GEOGRAFISKA VARIATIONER I TID OCH KOSTNAD – HUR PÅVERKAR DETTA BOSTADSPRISERNA?: Fallstudie Uppsala län med pendlingsomland2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The distance between home and work has increased in recent decades. By the development of infrastructure and public transport, jobs farther from home have become more accessible and this development has in turn increased commuting. Commuting travellers often pass over administrative boundaries which often serve as borders for public transport pricing. Also the market control prices. Research shows that travel times and costs significantly affect commuting choice. Many people have an upper limit of 60 minutes commuting distance between home and work. How commuting costs affect the individual's choice of commuting will vary depending on the individual's income and housing costs. The aim of our study was to see how public transport costs and travel times may vary geographically. GIS, Geographic Information System was used to make a network analysis which showed time distances and travel costs on maps. We also examined whether there was a link between towns accessibility by public transport and housing market which we did with help of correlation and regression analysis. In order to answer our questions we started from a study area consisting of Uppsala County with its surrounding commuting area. The maps showed how accessibility to larger towns varies among the smaller towns. The access is often best between bigger towns while there is less accessibility between smaller towns. The distance to bus stops or railway station also has a significant effect on how long the total travel time will be. Urban areas with access to rail services had the best opportunities to reach larger cities and that give also better access to labour market. From our study of the Uppsala County with a monocentric structure, we could indicate a link between accessibility to the bigger cities and housing prices in the surrounding towns. The higher commuting costs and longer travel time to the central place the lower the housing prices. A similar study of Stockholm which has a polycentric structure showed that the relationship between accessibility and house prices not are applicable to all regions. Here we can conclude that housing markets depends on many other factors than access to rapid public transport. House prices can depend on things like closeness to nature and water.

  • 27.
    Thomas, Lynda
    et al.
    Aberystwyth University, Great Britain.
    Boustedt, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Eckerdal, Anna
    Uppsala University.
    McCartney, Robert
    University of Connecticut, USA.
    Moström, Jan-Erik
    Umeå University,.
    Sanders, Kate
    Rhode Island College, USA.
    Zander, Carol
    University of Washington, USA.
    A broader threshold: Including skills as well as concepts in computing education2014In: Threshold Concepts: From personal practice to communities of practice: Proceedings of the National Academy’s Sixth Annual Conference and the Fourth Biennial Threshold Concepts Conference / [ed] Catherine O´Mahony, Aril Buchanan,Mary O´Rourke, Bettie Higgs, Cork, Ireland: NAIRTL , 2014, p. 154-158Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose ‘threshold skills’ as a complement to threshold concepts. The definition of threshold concepts assumes that theoretical knowledge is paramount: gaining the understanding of particular concepts irreversibly transforms the learners.

    Mastering computing, like many disciplines, however, requires learning a combination of concepts and skills. Mathematicians learn to do proofs, musicians learn to play their instruments, and martial artists learn to make moves by doing these activities, not just intellectually understanding them. We propose some characteristics for threshold skills and outline implications for teaching and for future work.

  • 28.
    Thomas, Lynda
    et al.
    Computer Science, Aberystwyth University , UK.
    Boustedt, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Eckerdal, Anna
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    McCartney, Robert
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering University of Connecticut, USA.
    Moström, Jan-Erik
    Department of Computing Science, Umeå University , Sweden.
    Sanders, Kate
    Mathematics and Computer Science Department ,Rhode Island College, USA.
    Zander, Carol
    Computing & Software Systems, University of Washington Bothell , USA.
    In the liminal space: software design as a threshold skill2017In: Practice and Evidence of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, ISSN 1750-8428, E-ISSN 1750-8428, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 333-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous work we proposed the idea of ‘threshold skills’ as a complement to threshold concepts. The definition of threshold concepts assumes that theoretical knowledge is paramount: gaining the understanding of particular concepts irreversibly transforms the learners. We noted, however, that mastering computing, like many disciplines, requires learning a combination of concepts and skills, and we suggested that this required further investigation. In this paper we examine the activity of designing software as a possible example of such a threshold skill. We looked at 35 software designs collected from students nearing graduation in computing courses, and see many of the characteristics of threshold skill and also of students being in liminal space. A close examination of the students’ designs leads to some useful implications for teaching this fundamental activity.

  • 29.
    Thorsteinsson, Russell
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    WATER CONTAMINATION RISK DURING URBAN FLOODS: Using GIS to map and analyze risk at a local scale2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Water contamination during urban flood events can have a negative impact on human health and the environment. Prior flood studies lack investigation into how GIS can map and analyze this at a large scale (cadastral) level. This  thesis  focused on how GIS can  help map and analyze water contamination risk in urban  areas  using  LiDAR  elevation  data,  at  a  large-scale  (cadastral)  level,  and  symbology  and  flood classification  intervals  specifically  selected  for  contamination  risk.  This  was  done  by  first  completing a literature review about past research and studies  of similar scope. Based on  the findings, a method to map and analyze water contamination risk during sea-based flood scenarios was tested in the Näringen district of Gävle, Sweden. This study area was investigated and flood contamination risk maps were produced  for two different  flood scenarios which illustrated  which properties are vulnerable to flooding and at what depth, what their contamination risk is, and if they are hydrologically connected to the ocean.  The findings from this investigation  are that this method of examining water contamination risk could be useful to planning officials who are in charge of policies relating to land-use. These findings could help guide landuse  or  hazardous  material  storage  regulations  or  restrictions.  To  further  research  in  this  topic,  it  is recommended  that  similar  studies  are  performed  that  use  a  more  detailed  land-use  map  which  has information  on  what  type  and  quantity  of  possible  contaminants  are  stored  on  individual  properties. Furthermore, flood modeling should be employed in place of the flood mapping which was conducted in this thesis.

  • 30.
    Wei, Da
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Ding, Yijie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Selecting Housing Development Sites using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA): A Case Study of Guangzhou, China2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Planning is of vital importance for the development urban areas to facilitate sustainable economic growth and social functions. The traditional, manual ways of planning that depend on biophysical data and use a hierarchical approach are no longer appropriate for site choice since information is rapidly updated today. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) has been used for about two decades with geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze spatial problems. GIS-based Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) provides tools for assessing the inherent tradeoffs and mechanisms for incorporating and documenting the value judgments of interest groups and decision makers and is thus a more reasonable and scientific way for site selection to development. Guangzhou, the study area of this paper, is one of the fastest developing and largest cities located in Southern China. This research used the GIS-based MCDA approaches to find the appropriate sites for residential areas in Guangzhou. Satellite images, DEM and several thematic maps of Guangzhou were used in this research. Using different methods and technologies, the data were used to create constraint and factor maps for multi-criteria analysis. After building the MCA model, the weights for multi-criteria analysis were obtained through an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) by comparing the importance of every two factors. Finally, a suitability map for housing development was generated. The result indicates that with the help of GIS and remote sensing technologies, the process of site selection and urban planning can be done in a more effective and scientific way. The limitation and future perspective of GIS based MCDA methods are discussed.

  • 31.
    Winkler Pettersson, Lars
    et al.
    Informationsteknologi, Uppsala universitet.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Collaborative pixel-accurate interaction with PixelActiveSurface2007In: Extended Abstracts 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Zhang, Li
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Ren, Xi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    A two-factor evaluation of bus delays based on GIS-T database and simulation2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the urbanization process, vehicles quantity increase with expansion in population. Under this situation, bus transportation system also suffers from bus delay. Bus delay could be caused by a series of factors, for instance, overload passengers, traffic jam, traffic accident and other unpredictable situations. Therefore, choosing crucial elements to efficiently evaluate bus delay is a complex problem in bus delay researches and operation management. The thesis propose an approach to evaluate and explain bus delay by two elements: traffic congestion and passengers’ waiting time. Those two elements would represent the action of external and internal factors on bus operation. This approach could be adaptive to explain the reasons for bus delays, thus to help the optimization of bus lines and give useful information for decision making of transportation company. To achieve the research aim, a GIS-T database was created by combining the GIS database and TIS database. Spatial data as well as attribute data are combined in the database to represent the crucial information for bus delay. Based on GIS-T the database, the impact of traffic congestion and passengers’ waiting time was calculated using the bus line simulation. By implementing the above steps, the main cause of bus delay was studied. A case study application of this method is narrated; focusing on optimize the bus system of Guiyang city, South China. Different methods are used to find out the problem of system and the reason for delay. Moreover, optimization suggestion is proposed according to result. Compared with other methods, the two-factor method has the advantage of locating the reason of delay for each station. The time performance is not superior to other methods. By comparing the situation of adjacent station, the proportion of traffic congestion and overload passenger in bus delay was determined. The two-factor method is applicable for other transit system in different cities which has similar structure as Guiyang. However, for cities with other structure, a feasibility should be made to select an appropriate model.

  • 33.
    Zhao, Ming
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Yang, Janfieng
    School of Data Science, Department of Data Science, Guizhou Institute of Technology, Guiyang, 550003, Chin.
    Zhao, Bo
    Department of Mathematics, Reliability Center of Guizhou Province, Guizhou University, Guiyang, 550025, China.
    Wu, Zhenpeng
    Department of Mathematics, Reliability Center of Guizhou Province, Guizhou University, Guiyang, 550025, China.
    Copula-based reliability modelling of wireless sensor networks with dependent failures2019In: International Journal of Sensor Networks (IJSNet), ISSN 1748-1279, E-ISSN 1748-1287, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 90-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have widely been applied in various industries and business fields covering large geographical regions. It is therefore important to be able to model, assess and predict the reliability of WSNs since the failures can have a great effect on the monitoring or control systems that are normally depending on the WSNs. In this paper, the general WSN reliability models are developed by deleting the independent assumption of component or subsystem failures and are consequently more reasonable to characterise the failure process of WSNs. The methodology in the proposed WSN reliability models is to consider that the failure times of subsystems are dependent variables and their joint distribution is obtained by binding their marginal failure distributions together through a copula function. For specific Frank copula functions, the Star-based WSN reliability models are derived and their properties are also discussed in this paper. 

  • 34.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Network for testing GI services2010In: Proceedings from Symposium GIS Ostrava 2010, 2010, p. 6 s.-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Östman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad. University of Gävle, GIS-institutet.
    Saio, Giorgio
    Granelli, Valeria
    Liljergren, Pär
    University of Gävle, GIS-institutet.
    Marchese, Alessandra
    GI-INDEED, an e-learning initiative in geo-information for environmental management compliant with the INSPIRE Directive2007In: Proceedings of the 13th EC-GIS Conference, July 4-6, 2007, Porto, Portugal, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
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