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  • 1.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    On the Disciplinary Affordances of Semiotic Resources2014Inngår i: IACS-2014 Book of abstracts, 2014, s. 54-55Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 70’s Gibson (1979) introduced the concept of affordance. Initially framed around the needs of an organism in its environment, over the years the term has been appropriated and debated at length by a number of researchers in various fields. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman (1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when they are perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Linder (2013) for a recent example). Here, Kress et al. (2001) have claimed that different modes have different specialized affordances. Then, building on this idea, Airey and Linder (2009) suggested that there is a critical constellation of modes that students need to achieve fluency in before they can experience a concept in an appropriate disciplinary manner. Later, Airey (2009) nuanced this claim, shifting the focus from the modes themselves to a critical constellation of semiotic resources, thus acknowledging that different semiotic resources within a mode often have different affordances (e.g. two or more diagrams may form the critical constellation).

    In this theoretical paper the concept of disciplinary affordance (Fredlund et al., 2012) is suggested as a useful analytical tool for use in education. The concept makes a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the discernment of one individual, it refers to the disciplinary community as a whole. Put simply, the disciplinary affordances of a given semiotic resource are determined by those functions that the resource is expected to fulfil by the disciplinary community. Disciplinary affordances have thus been negotiated and developed within the discipline over time. As such, the question of whether these affordances are inherent or discerned becomes moot. Rather, from an educational perspective the issue is whether the meaning that a semiotic resource affords to an individual matches the disciplinary affordance assigned by the community. The power of the term for educational work is that learning can now be framed as coming to discern the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources.

    In this paper we will briefly discuss the history of the term affordance, define the term disciplinary affordance and illustrate its usefulness in a number of educational settings.

  • 2.
    Backenhamn Ohlsson, Margareta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö.
    Fysik genom musik: en introduktion av fysikaliska fenomen i förskolans vardag med stöd av ett arbetsmaterial och en lärarhandledning2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 210 hpOppgave
  • 3.
    Bennett, J. M.
    et al.
    Physics Division, Michelson Laboratory, Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA, United States.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Test of Opticlean strip coating material for removing surface contamination2000Inngår i: Applied Optics, ISSN 0003-6935, E-ISSN 1539-4522, Vol. 39, nr 16, s. 2737-2739Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The strip coating material, Opticlean, which has been reformulated, has been shown to remove 1-5-mu m-diameter particles as well as contamination remaining from previous drag wipe cleaning on a used silicon wafer. In addition, no residue that produced scattering was found on a fresh silicon wafer when Opticlean was applied and then stripped off. The total integrated scattering technique used for the measurements could measure scattering levels of He-Ne laser light as low as a few ppm (parts in 106), corresponding to a surface roughness of <1 Angstrom rms.

  • 4. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Björling, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Kemi för de yngre åren2016Inngår i: Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik / [ed] Mikael Björling, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2016, 1, s. 109-132Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är bakgrunden till att små barn är fascinerande av att leka Titt-ut,men som alla föräldrar vet så försvinner den lekens lockelse när barnet blir äldre. Barn utvecklas snabbt i de yngre åren, vilket skapar både möjligheter och begränsningar för hur lärande i naturvetenskap och kemi uppstår i förskolan och grundskolan. Det finns många skäl till att kemirelaterade aktiviteter bör introduceras i de yngre åren och i det här kapitlet diskuteras några av dessa skäl ur ett kemididaktiskt perspektiv. Kapitlet är uppbyggt kring några av de betydande framsteg som gjorts i den utvecklingspsykologiska forskningen under de senaste tjugo åren (Gärdenfors, 2006). Idag vet vi ganska mycket om hur våra hjärnor fungerar och utvecklas. Insprängt i denna beskrivning kommer jag att reflektera kring hur detta skulle kunna påverka valet av innehåll när det gäller naturvetenskapligt lärande för yngre barn. På slutet sammanfattar jag tankarna om innehåll med ett speciellt fokus på kemi.

  • 5.
    Bustad, Johnny
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap. Natur.
    Computational studies of core level XPS satellites in transition metal systems: Department of Quantum Chemistry, Uppsala University1995Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Upon core ionization of a free molecule or a molecule adsorbed on a metal surface, higher binding energy satellites are observed, so called "shake-up" satellites, which can be viewed as valence excitations simultaneously to the creation of the core hole. In this thesis, theoretical studies of such core level XPS satellites in transition metal systems are presented, as well as cluster calculations of XES spectra, using the quantum mechanical INDO method. The main motivation of these studies is to get a more detailed understanding of the bonding between the adsorbed molecules and the metal and the screening process accompanying the creation of the core hole. This interest is motivated by fundamental questions about the adsorbate-substrate interaction as well as technical applications, such as catalysis.

    It has been found that many aspects of extended adsorbate systems, where CO is coordinated to metal atoms, can be modelled by transition metal carbonyls such as Mo(CO)6, Cr(CO)6 and Ni(CO)4. The bonding between the core ionized CO group and the transition metal, consists of an interaction between, on the one hand, the sigma lone pair of the ligand and, on the other hand, the metal d-orbitals and the CO antibonding pi-star orbital of the CO-group, i.e. a sigma donation from the ligand and pi donation from the metal. It is the changes in this bonding which are responsible for the dominant features of the shake-up spectra in the studied model molecules. The main conclusion of the three abovementioned case studies is that new excitations involving charge transfer from the metal to the ionized ligand occur with significant probability in the metal carbonyls, in addition to the internal excitations present also in free CO.

    In extending the model towards larger systems, calculations of CO/Ni(100), N2//Ni(100), CO/Cu(100) and benzene/Cu(100) were undertaken, where the metal surface was modelled by clusters of 1-12 metal atoms. Many of the features from the metal carbonyls are found also in these systems. The most important added feature is the presence of high-intensity metal-metal excitations, which mainly affect the shape of the main line.

    Ground state cluster calculations were performed to explain the XES spectra of CO adsorbed on Ni(100) and Cu(100) surfaces. It was found that the calculations reproduce the important characteristics of the experimental spectra, and were used as a support for the assignments of the involved states.

  • 6.
    Cardona, M.
    et al.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Santos, P. V.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Ellipsometric investigations of piezo-optical effects1998Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 313-314, s. 10-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An introduction to the stress-induced birefringence of solids, with emphasis on cubic and amorphous materials, is given. Most available experimental data have been obtained in the frequency region below the electronic absorption edge: the corresponding coefficients of the stress-optical tensor are then real. Above the edge (and also in the IR region of the Reststrahlen) they become complex. Ellipsometry is an excellent tool for the investigation of complex stress-optical functions. It also yields the hydrostatic pressure induced changes in the dielectric functions. Data obtained recently for diamond and zincblende-type crystals and their theoretical interpretation are discussed.

  • 7.
    Carreras Bertran, Antoni
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö.
    Energy System and Economic Analysis of District coolingin the city hall of Gävle2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 8. Chen, R.
    et al.
    Wang, M.
    Wang, S.
    Liang, Hao
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Hu, X.
    Sun, X.
    Zhu, J.
    Ma, L.
    Jiang, M.
    Hu, J.
    Li, J.
    A low cost surface plasmon resonance biosensor using a laser line generator2015Inngår i: Optics Communications, ISSN 0030-4018, E-ISSN 1873-0310, Vol. 349, s. 83-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the instrument designed by using a common surface plasmon resonance biosensor is extremely expensive, we established a portable and cost-effective surface plasmon resonance biosensing system. It is mainly composed of laser line generator, P-polarizer, customized prism, microfluidic cell, and line Charge Coupled Device (CCD) array. Microprocessor PIC24FJ128GA006 with embedded A/D converter, communication interface circuit and photoelectric signal amplifier circuit are used to obtain the weak signals from the biosensing system. Moreover, the line CCD module is checked and optimized on the number of pixels, pixels dimension, output amplifier and the timing diagram. The micro-flow cell is made of stainless steel with a high thermal conductivity, and the microprocessor based Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) temperature-controlled algorithm was designed to keep the constant temperature (25 °C) of the sample solutions. Correspondingly, the data algorithms designed especially to this biosensing system including amplitude-limiting filtering algorithm, data normalization and curve plotting were programmed efficiently. To validate the performance of the biosensor, ethanol solution samples at the concentrations of 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% in volumetric fractions were used, respectively. The fitting equation ΔRU=-752987.265+570237.348×RI with the R-Square of 0.97344 was established by delta response units (ΔRUs) to refractive indexes (RI). The maximum relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.8% was obtained. 

  • 9.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Exploring physics education using a social semiotic perspective: the critical role of semiotic resources2013Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Exploring Representations in Physics Teaching and Learning2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Learning science and the selection of apt signifiers: an example from physics2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Multimodality in Students Physics Discussions2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Using a Social Semiotic Perspective to Inform the Teaching and Learning of Physics2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines meaning-making in three different areas of undergraduate physics: the refraction of light; electric circuits; and, electric potential and electric potential energy. In order to do this, a social semiotic perspective was constituted for the thesis to facilitate the analysis of meaning-making in terms of the semiotic resources that are typically used in the teaching and learning of physics. These semiotic resources include, for example, spoken and written language, diagrams, graphs, mathematical equations, gestures, simulations, laboratory equipment and working practices.

    The empirical context of the thesis is introductory undergraduate physics where interactive engagement was part of the educational setting. This setting presents a rich data source, which is made up of video- and audio recordings and field notes for examining how semiotic resources affect physics teaching and learning.

    Theory building is an integral part of the analysis in the thesis, which led to the constitution of a new analytical tool – patterns of disciplinary-relevant aspects. Part of this process then resulted in the development of a new construct, disciplinary affordance, which for a discipline such as physics, refers to the inherent potential of a semiotic resource to provide access to disciplinary knowledge. These two aspects, in turn, led to an exploration of new empirical and theoretical links to the Variation Theory of Learning.

    The implications of this work for the teaching and learning of physics means that new focus is brought to the physics content (object of learning), the semiotic resources that are used to deal with that content, and how the semiotic resources are used to create patterns of variation within and across the disciplinary-relevant aspects. As such, the thesis provides physics teachers with new and powerful ways to analyze the semiotic resources that get used in efforts to optimize the teaching and learning of physics. 

  • 14.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Att välja lämpliga semiotiska resurser2013Inngår i: Scientific literacy: teori och praktik / [ed] E. Lundqvist, R. Säljö & L. Östman, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2013, s. 59-70Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 15.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Choosing appropriate resources: investigating students’ scientific literacy2012Inngår i: ECER 2012, 2012, artikkel-id 18275Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Critical aspects of scientific phenomena -- to the fore, in the background, or not present in scientific representations2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Enhancing the possibilities for learning: Variation of disciplinary-relevant aspects in physics representations2015Inngår i: European journal of physics, ISSN 0143-0807, E-ISSN 1361-6404, Vol. 36, nr 5, artikkel-id 055001Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this theoretical article we propose three factors that can enhance the possibilities for learning physics from representations, namely: (1) the identification of disciplinary-relevant aspects for a particular disciplinary task, such as solving a physics problem or explaining a phenomenon, (2) the selection of appropriate representations that showcase these disciplinary-relevant aspects, and (3) the creation of variation within the selected representations to help students notice these disciplinary-relevant aspects and the ways in which they are related to each other. An illustration of how these three factors can guide teachers in their efforts to promote physics learning is presented.

  • 18.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction2012Inngår i: European journal of physics, ISSN 0143-0807, E-ISSN 1361-6404, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 657-666Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that interactive engagement enhances student learning outcomes. A growing body of research suggests that the representations we use in physics are important in such learning environments. In this paper we draw on a number of sources in the literature to explore the role of representations in interactive engagement in physics. In particular we are interested in the potential for sharing disciplinary knowledge inherent in so-called persistent representations (such as equations, diagrams and graphs), which we use in physics. We use selected extracts from a case study, where a group of senior undergraduate physics students are asked to explain the phenomenon of refraction, to illustrate implications for interactive engagement. In this study the ray diagram that was initially introduced by the students did not appear to sufficiently support their interactive engagement. However, the introduction of a wavefront diagram quickly led their discussion to an agreed conclusion. From our analysis we conclude that in interactive engagement it is important to choose appropriate persistent representations to coordinate the use of other representations such as speech and gestures. Pedagogical implications and future research are proposed.

  • 19.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Making physics learning possible: exploring a variation perspective on representations2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Naturvetarnas ‘språk’: användandet av figurer, artefakter, ekvationer och ord i studentdiskussioner om fysikaliska fenomen2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Klyftan mellan vardagsspråket och språkbruket i en naturvetenskaplig disciplin, som t.ex. fysik, kan upplevas problematisk av den som inte har tillägnat sig det aktuella vetenskapliga språket. Detta blir extra tydligt om vi utökar definitionen av ”språk” till att också innefatta andra semiotiska resurser än talad och skriven text, som t.ex figurer, grafer, ekvationer och andra ”artefakter” såsom laboratorieutrustning. Olika semiotiska resurser kan antas ha olika styrkor, och lämna kompletterande information. Från ett lärandeperspektiv är det viktigt att veta hur den nämnda språkklyftan kan överbryggas, särskilt när nya fenomen ska introduceras i undervisningen. Finns det för ett visst fenomen någon semiotisk resurs (läs språngbräda) som är särskilt viktig för förståelsen av de vetenskapliga förklaringarna?

    Refraktion är ett fysikaliskt fenomen som innebär att exempelvis ljus ändrar riktning, bryts, när det går från ett medium till ett annat, i vilka ljushastigheterna är olika. Denna riktningsändring ger upphov till att en rak pinne som är delvis i luften och delvis nedsänkt i vatten, ser ut att böjas vid vattenytan. Detta fenomen kan beskrivas av en rad olika semiotiska resurser, som olika typer av diagram och ekvationer. I denna undersökning har jag tittat på vilka semiotiska resurser som används när tre fysikstudenter diskuterar hur de skulle förklara upplevelsen att en pinne delvis nedsänkt i vatten ser ut att böjas vid vattenytan för dels en icke fysik-studerande, dels en kurskamrat i en fysikkurs. Diskussionen har videofilmats och transkriberats. Ytterligare material har insamlats från liknande gruppdiskussioner, där deltagarna fått anteckna sina resultat på papper. Data har analyserats efter vilka semiotiska resurser som förekommer, och vilken betydelse de haft för diskussionen.

    Resultatet av undersökningen kommer att presenteras i form av en poster, där bilder på de använda semiotiska resurserna visas. Den pågående analysen antyder att en viss typ av diagram, som utnyttjar ljusets vågnatur, är av särskild vikt för förståelsen av detta fenomen, och en möjlig nyckel till djupare förståelse av fenomenet.

  • 21.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    A case study of the role of representations in enabling and constraining the sharing of physics knowledge in peer discussions2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 22.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    A social semiotic approach to identifying critical aspects2015Inngår i: International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, ISSN 2046-8253, E-ISSN 2046-8261, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 302-316Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This article proposes a social semiotic approach to analysing objects of learning in terms of their critical aspects.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The design for this article focuses on how the semiotic resources – including language, equations, and diagrams – that are commonly used in physics teaching realise the critical aspects of a common physics object of learning. A social semiotic approach to the analysis of a canonical text extract from optics is presented to illustrate how critical aspects can be identified. 

    Findings

    Implications for university teaching and learning of physics stemming from this social semiotic approach are suggested.

    Originality/value

    Hitherto under-explored similarities between the Variation Theory of Learning, which underpins learning studies, and a social semiotic approach to meaning-making are identified. These similarities are used to propose a new, potentially very powerful approach to identifying critical aspects of objects of learning.

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    Halliday, M.A.K. and Matthiessen, C.M.I.M. (1999), Construing Experience Through Meaning, Cassell, New York, NY.

    Halliday, M.A.K. and Matthiessen, C.M.I.M. (2004), An Introduction to Functional Grammar, Hodder Education, London.

    Hodge, R. and Kress, G. (1988), Social Semiotics, Cornell University Press, New York, NY.

    Ingerman, Å., Linder, C. and Marshall, D. (2009), “The learners’ experience of variation: following students’ threads of learning physics in computer simulation sessions”, Instructional Science, Vol. 37 No. 3, pp. 273-292.

    Kress, G. (1997), Before Writing: Rethinking the Paths to Literacy, Routledge, London.

    Kress, G. (2010), Multimodality: A Social Semiotic Approach to Contemporary Communication, Routledge, London.

    Kress, G. and Van Leeuwen, T. (2006), Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design, Routledge, New York, NY. 

    Kryjevskaia, M., Stetzer, M.R. and Heron, P.R.L. (2012), “Student understanding of wave behavior at a boundary: the relationships among wavelength, propagation speed, and frequency”, Am. J. Phys., Vol. 80 No. 4, pp. 339-347.

    Lemke, J.L. (1983), “Thematic analysis, systems, structures, and strategies”, Semiotic Inquiry, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 159-187.

    Lemke, J.L. (1990), Talking Science, Ablex Publishing, Norwood, NJ. Lemke, J.L. (1998), “Multiplying meaning: visual and verbal semiotics in scientific text”, in Martin, J.R. and Veel, R. (Eds), Reading Science: Critical and Functional Perspectives on Discourses of Science, Routledge, London, pp. 87-114.

    Lemke, J.L. (2003), “Mathematics in the middle: measure, picture, gesture, sign and word”, in Anderson M., Saenz-Ludlow A., Zellweger S. and Cifarelli V. (Eds), Educational Perspectives on Mathematics as Semiosis: From Thinking to Interpreting to Knowing, Legas, Ottawa, pp. 215-234.

    Linder, C., Fraser, D. and Pang, M.F. (2006), “Using a variation approach to enhance physics learning in a college classroom”, The Physics Teacher, Vol. 44 No. 9, pp. 589-592.

    Lo, M.L. (2012), Variation Theory and the Improvement of Teaching and Learning, Göteborgs Universitet, Gothenburg.

    Lo, M.L. and Marton, F. (2011), “Towards a science of the art of teaching: using variation theory as a guiding principle of pedagogical design”, International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 7-22.

    Mahoney, M.S. (1994), The Mathematical Career of Pierre de Fermat, 1601-1665, Princeton University Press, Princeton, MA.

    Marton, F. (2006), “Sameness and difference in transfer”, The Journal of the Learning Sciences, Vol. 15 No. 4, pp. 499-535.

    Marton, F. (2015), Necessary Conditions of Learning, Routledge, New York, NY.

    Marton, F. and Booth, S. (1997), Learning and Awareness, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.

    Marton, F. and Pang, M.F. (2013), “Meanings are acquired from experiencing differences against a background of sameness, rather than from experiencing sameness against a background of difference: putting a conjecture to the test by embedding it in a pedagogical tool”, Frontline Learning Research, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 24-41.

    Marton, F. and Tsui, A.B.M. (2004), Classroom Discourse and the Space of Learning, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, London.

    Marton, F., Runesson, U. and Tsui, A.B.M. (2004), “The space of learning”, in Marton, F. and Tsui, A.B.M. (Eds), Classroom Discourse and the Space of Learning, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, London, pp. 3-40.

    New London Group (1996), “A pedagogy of multiliteracies: designing social futures”, Harvard Educational Review, Vol. 66 No. 1, pp. 60-93. Norris, S.P. and Phillips, L.M. (2003), “How literacy in its fundamental sense is central to scientific literacy”, Science Education, Vol. 87 No. 2, pp. 224-240.

    O’Halloran, K.L. (2005), Mathematical Discourse: Language, Symbolism and Visual Images, Continuum, London.

    Pang, M.F. and Marton, F. (2013), “Interaction between the learners’ initial grasp of the object of learning and the learning resource orded”, Instructional Science, Vol. 41 No. 6, pp. 1065-1082.

    Van Leeuwen, T. (2005), Introducing Social Semiotics, Routledge, New York, NY.

    Warrell, D. A. (1994), “Sea snake bites in the Asia-Pacific region”, in Gopalakrishnakone, P. (Ed.), Sea Snake Toxinology, Singapore University Press, Singapore, pp. 1-36. 

    Wignell, P., Martin, J.R. and Eggins, S. (1993), “The discourse of geography: ordering and explaining the experiential world”, in Halliday, M.A.K. and Martin, J.R. (Eds), Writing Science: Literacy and Discursive Power, The Falmer Press, London, pp. 151-183.

    Wood, K. (2013), “A design for teacher education based on a systematic framework of variation to link teaching with learners’ ways of experiencing the object of learning”, International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 56-71.

    Young, H.D. and Freedman, R.A. (2004), University Physics with Modern Physics, Pearson, San Francisco, CA.

  • 23.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Learning in terms of the semiotic enactment of patterns of disciplinary-relevant aspects2014Inngår i: IACS-2014 Book of abstracts, 2014, s. 94-94Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Student learning typically takes place in a range of situational contexts. In this paper we consider “sets of situations that have certain relevant aspects in common” (Marton, 2006, p. 503) where each aspect involved is qualitatively unique. We argue that in order for students to come to holistically experience the relevant disciplinary knowledge, they need to become familiar with enacting those relevant aspects (i.e. expressing them with semiotic resources, such as spoken and written language, equations and images.).

    We suggest it is possible to construct idealized patterns of the aspects that a discipline deems to be relevant for a given field of knowledge – thus characterizing its typical situations and phenomena. We call such a pattern an “idealized pattern of disciplinary relevant aspects” (IPDRA). Each of the aspects that together constitute an IPDRA can be seen to be manifested in discourse in terms of particular configurations, partly prescribed by the “rules” governing the semiotic resource at hand (such as grammar for language). The discursive configurational patterns (cf. Lemke's, 1990, "thematic patterns"; and Tang et al.'s, 2011, "multimodal thematic patterns") that can be empirically found in student discourse can then be compared with the IPDRA to see whether the required aspects have been enacted.

    The semiotic resources that are used in a scientific discipline are often highly specialized. Any given semiotic resource may therefore be more appropriate for expressing certain (combinations of) situational aspects (what we have called its “disciplinary affordances”, see Fredlund, Airey, & Linder, 2012). We argue it is the disciplinary affordances that determine which semiotic resources that can do which work in terms of representing the knowledge captured by an IPDRA. A pedagogical implication of this is that students need to become fluent in, and learn to choose, those semiotic resources that have the most appropriate disciplinary affordances for enacting a given IPDRA.

    In this paper we demonstrate how different semiotic resources have different disciplinary affordances and thus how changing the semiotic resource can lead to the possibility to enact different aspects of disciplinary knowledge. 

    References

    Fredlund, T., Airey, J., & Linder, C. (2012). Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction. Eur. J. Phys., 33, 657-666. doi: 10.1088/0143-0807/33/3/657

    Lemke, J. L. (1990). Talking Science. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing.

    Marton, F. (2006). Sameness and difference in transfer. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15(4), 499-535. 

    Tang, K. S., Tan, S. C., & Yeo, J. (2011). Students' multimodal construction of the work-energy concept. International Journal of Science Education, 33(13), 1775-1804. 

  • 24.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Towards addressing transient learning challenges in undergraduate physics: An example from electrostatics2015Inngår i: European journal of physics, ISSN 0143-0807, E-ISSN 1361-6404, Vol. 36, nr 5, artikkel-id 055002Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we characterize transient learning challenges as learning challenges that arise out of teaching situations rather than conflicts with prior knowledge. We propose that these learning challenges can be identified by paying careful attention to the representations that students produce. Once a transient learning challenge has been identified, teachers can create interventions to address it. By illustration, we argue that an appropriate way to design such interventions is to create variation around the disciplinary-relevant aspects associated with the transient learning challenge.

  • 25.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Variation as a method for perceiving the disciplinary affordances of physics representations2014Inngår i: IACS-2014 Book of Abstracts, 2014, s. 32-33Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sharing of knowledge in physics uses representations that the discipline has built a great deal of information into. In many cases, much of this information is not immediately visible because it has been “packed” in ways that can only be accessed by specific disciplinary ways of seeing. For example, consider the de Sitter space represented by a particular hyperboloid.

    This is a powerful representation for physicists working in the field of string theory because, inter alia, it can provide de Sitter space with a multiplicity of coordinate systems (Domert, 2006, p. 30). At the same time such a representation can present challenges to student learning; students would have to learn to “see” what “lies behind” the representation. In this case, for example, how R is related to the concept of a de Sitter horizon.

    While for physicists such a representation might evoke a rich awareness (or perhaps rather help constraining that awareness, cf. Ainsworth, 2006), it conceivably evokes little appropriate disciplinary meaning when first met by students. Northedge (2002) argues that physics teachers may not be aware that what they have learnt to “see” is not directly accessible to learners. That is, while physicists have developed a competency that allows them to immediately see the “disciplinary affordances” of a representation (“the inherent potential of that representation to provide access to disciplinary knowledge”, Fredlund, Airey, & Linder, 2012, p. 658) they fail to recognize that their students may not, or even cannot, see what lies behind that representation.

    Much research has shown that students often learn surprisingly little from traditional teaching resources such as talk-and-chalk followed by problem solving (Redish, 2003). To deal with this challenge several research-informed resources have been developed and empirically shown to enhance students’ learning outcomes. Widely used examples include Tutorials (McDermott & Shaffer, 2002), Active Learning (Van Heuvelen & Etkina, 2006) and Peer Instruction (Crouch & Mazur, 2001). However, these resources have not been accompanied with a theoretical framing that would enable physics teachers to develop their own teaching resources. We believe that such a theoretical framing exists: creating the explicit experience of dimensions of variation (Marton & Booth, 1997). 

    In this presentation we develop this argument and illustrate it using examples of how representations can be varied in ways that facilitate the noticing of educationally critical aspects.

    References

    Ainsworth, S. (2006). DeFT: A conceptual framework for considering learning with multiple representations. Learning and Instruction, 16(3), 183-198.

    Crouch, C. H., & Mazur, E. (2001). Peer Instruction: Ten years of experience and results. Am. J. Phys., 69(9), 970-977.

    Domert, D. (2006). Explorations of university physics in abstract contexts: from de Sitter space to learning space. PhD thesis, Uppsala University, Uppsala.

    Fredlund, T., Airey, J., & Linder, C. (2012). Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction. Eur. J. Phys., 33, 657- 666.

    Marton, F., & Booth, S. (1997). Learning and Awareness. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 

  • 26.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Airey, John
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Anne
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Unpacking physics representations: Towards an appreciation of disciplinary affordance2014Inngår i: Physical Review Special Topics : Physics Education Research, ISSN 1554-9178, E-ISSN 1554-9178, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikkel-id 020129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This theoretical article problematizes the access to disciplinary knowledge that different physics representations have the possibility to provide; that is, their disciplinary affordances. It is argued that historically such access has become increasingly constrained for students as physics representations have been rationalized over time. Thus, the case is made that such rationalized representations, while powerful for communication from a disciplinary point of view, manifest as learning challenges for students. The proposal is illustrated using a vignette from a student discussion in the physics laboratory about circuit connections for an experimental investigation of the charging and discharging of a capacitor. It is concluded that in order for students to come to appreciate the disciplinary affordances of representations, more attention needs to be paid to their “unpacking.” Building on this conclusion, two questions are proposed that teachers can ask themselves in order to begin to unpack the representations that they use in their teaching. The paper ends by proposing directions for future research in this area.

  • 27.
    Granqvist, C. G.
    et al.
    Department of Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Azens, A.
    Department of Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kullman, L.
    Department of Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Department of Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Progress in Smart Windows Research: Improved Electrochromic W Oxide Films and Transparent Ti-Ce Oxide Counter Electrodes1996Inngår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 8, nr 1-4, s. 97-106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We review recent work on sputter deposited W-oxide-based films. Improved electrochemical durability was obtained by electron bombardment during deposition, and enhanced coloration/bleaching dynamics was obtained by fluorination. Spectrally resolved scattering measurements indicated that haze levels ≪ 1 % could be reached. Oblique angle deposition could yield angular selectivity. New results are given for sputtered Ti-Ce oxide films, showing their capacity as counter electrodes in transparent electrochromic devices.

  • 28.
    Granqvist, C.-G.
    et al.
    The Ångström Laboratory, Deptartment of Material Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Azens, A.
    The Ångström Laboratory, Deptartment of Material Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hjelm, A.
    The Ångström Laboratory, Deptartment of Material Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kullman, L.
    The Ångström Laboratory, Deptartment of Material Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Niklasson, G. A.
    The Ångström Laboratory, Deptartment of Material Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    The Ångström Laboratory, Deptartment of Material Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Strömme, M.
    The Ångström Laboratory, Deptartment of Material Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Veszelei, M.
    The Ångström Laboratory, Deptartment of Material Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vaivars, G.
    Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Recent advances in electrochromics for smart windows applications1998Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Iggland, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi.
    Johansson, Dan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi.
    En studie om Varumärken i media - Hur ska GävleTidningar förhålla sig till Arbetarbladet och GefleDagblad?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka varumärkesproblematiken i denna dubbla konkurrens- och samarbetssituation.

  • 30.
    Ivarsson, Jenny
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Fysik.
    Att lära sig ett modelltänkande: exemplet magnetism2012Inngår i: I mötet mellan vetenskap och lärande: 13 högskolepedagogiska utmaningar / [ed] Göran Fransson & Helena Hammarström, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2012, s. 217-234Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 31. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Ivarsson, Jenny
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Fysik.
    Einstein för alla2016Inngår i: Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik / [ed] Mikael Björling, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2016, 1, s. 75-88Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Varför är det så få elever som väljer att läsa fysik nuförtiden? Många citat tillskrivna Albert Einstein vittnar om en glädje att lära sig förstå naturen. Ändå är det idag många som upplever att fysik i skolan är tråkigt (Lindahl, 2003). Måste det verkligen vara så? Tänk om skolan kunde fånga något av det som lockade Einstein.

  • 32. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Ivarsson, Jenny
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Fysik.
    Renässans för filosofisk fysik2016Inngår i: Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik / [ed] Mikael Björling, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2016, 1, s. 89-108Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fysik kan ge omskakande insikter om vår värld på ett filosofiskt plan. Ofta förmedlas fysik i undervisningen som en odiskutabel och färdig produkt, trots att vi fortfarande inte vet särskilt mycket om hur världen fungerar egentligen. Kanske skulle det inspirera flera att läsa fysik om undervisningen även tog upp frågor som inte har färdiga svar. Går det att väcka liv i den filosofiska diskussionen som fördes mellan Albert Einstein och Niels Bohr om tolkningen av kvantfysik?

  • 33.
    Kullman, L.
    et al.
    Department of Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Department of Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Granqvist, C. G.
    Department of Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Elastic Light Scattering and Electrochemical Durability of Electrochromic Tungsten-oxide-based Films1996Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 288, nr 1-2, s. 330-333Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic W-oxide-based films were produced by reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering. Fluorination and substrate bias were used to modify the film properties. Spectral measurements of the total and diffuse light scattering showed that the diffuse component remained at much less than 1% in the visible, irrespective of electrochemical degradation, which is low enough for smart windows applications.

  • 34.
    Lastras-Martínez, L. F.
    et al.
    Max-Planck-Institut Festkorperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany; Instituto de Investigación en Comunicación Optica, Universidad Autonóma de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, Mexico.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Max-Planck-Institut Festkorperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Santos, P. V.
    Max-Planck-Institut Festkorperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany; Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Berlin, Germany.
    Cardona, M.
    Max-Planck-Institut Festkorperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Eberl, K.
    Max-Planck-Institut Festkorperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Optical anisotropy of (001)-GaAs surface quantum wells2001Inngår i: Physical Review B Condensed Matter, ISSN 0163-1829, E-ISSN 1095-3795, Vol. 64, nr 24, s. 2453031-2453038, artikkel-id 245303Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a reflectance difference spectroscopy (RDS) study of the optical anisotropy of GaAs:(001) surface quantum wells consisting of a thin GaAs layer (3-30 nm thick) embedded between an arsenic reconstructed surface and an AlAs barrier. The RDS spectra display anisotropic contributions from the free surface and from the GaAs/AlAs interface. By comparing RDS spectra for the c(4×4) and (2×4) surface reconstructions, we separate these two contributions, and demonstrate that the anisotropy around the E1 and E11 transitions comprises a component originating from modifications of bulk states near the surface. The latter is attributed to anisotropic strains induced by the surface reconstruction. The experimental data are well described by a model for the RDS response of the multilayer structures, which also takes into account the blue energy shifts and the changes in oscillator strength of the E1 and E11 transitions induced by quantum-well confinement.

  • 35.
    Lastras-Martí­nez, L. F.
    et al.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Santos, P. V.
    Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Berlin, Germany.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Cardona, M.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Specht, P.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Eberl, K.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Reflectance difference spectroscopy of GaAs asymmetric surface quantum wells above the fundamental gap1998Inngår i: Physica status solidi. A, Applied research, ISSN 0031-8965, E-ISSN 1521-396X, Vol. 170, nr 2, s. 317-321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report Reflectance Difference (RD) measurement on (001) GaAs surface quantum wells (QW) under Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) conditions from 1.7 to 5.0eV. The QW is embedded between an arsenic-rich reconstructed GaAs surface and an AlAs barrier. The samples, grown by MBE with a protective arsenic cap layer, were heated to 320 and 430°C to desorb the As layer and form c(4 x 4) and (2 x 4) surface reconstructions, respectively. By modifying the surface reconstructure, we are able to separate the contributions to the optical anisotropy from the surface region (mainly associated with the As dimers) from those originating below the surface.

  • 36.
    Lindstrom, T
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science, Ångström Laboratory, Uppspla University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    ACREO AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Total integrated scattering from transparent substrates in the infrared region: validity of scalar theory2000Inngår i: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 478-487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrated light scattering, from thin, transparent silicon wafers with different front and backside surface roughness is investigated. The measurements are made at near normal incidence in the IR wavelength region 5 to 20 μm using an integrating sphere. A method to separate the scattering contribution from each interface for measurements on transparent samples is introduced. Scalar scattering theory is used to calculate the effective root mean square roughness from reflectance and transmittance measurements, and these values are compared to profilometer data, correcting for the different bandwidth limits. Scattering measurements are performed with both the rough and the smooth surface of the wafer oriented toward the light source, which results in additional knowledge. The maximum ratio between the root mean square roughness and the wavelength of the light, to be used in scalar theory, is found to be considerably higher for the transmittance case than for the reflectance case. In agreement with theory, the calculated root mean square roughness is found to be proportional to the refractive index of incident medium in reflectance, and to the difference in refractive indices of incident and refracting medium for the transmittance case.

  • 37.
    Lindström, T.
    et al.
    Department of Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kullman, L.
    Department of Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Stuttgart ,Germany.
    Ribbing, C. G.
    Department of Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Granqvist, C. G.
    Department of Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Electrochromic control of thin film light scattering1997Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 81, nr 3, s. 1464-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Total and diffuse reflectance spectra were measured on Al surfaces covered with electrochromic W oxide films in colored and bleached states. Vector perturbation theory was used for analyzing the spectra. The diffuse reflectance appeared to originate from correlated (uncorrelated) interface roughness when the W oxide film was fully colored (bleached). Assuming partially correlated interfaces led to agreement between experimental and calculated spectra. The use of an electrochromic film appears a promising method to control the relative contributions of the interfaces to the resulting scattering.

  • 38.
    Madfors, Ingela
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi.
    Backward time travel and its relevance for theological study: An explorative literature study based on physics, philosophy, counterfactual thinking and theology2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the possibility and relevance of theological study of backward time travel and its consequences. An examination of current research on backward time travel reveals a number of interdisciplinary topics which are not handled within physics. Some of these topics, mainly concerning free will and determination, are of interest to philosophers, whereas topics such as meaning and responsibility are left aside.   In theology, there is a general dismissal of the idea of backward time travel. This study claims that this negative stance may be the result of taking science and its methods too seriously. The result of the study is that the interdisciplinary questions connected to backward time travel makes the subject very relevant for theological reflection. Thought experiments on backward time travel can provide valuable insights on how we deal with our lives, our world, time, and God today.  

  • 39.
    Medvedik, M. Y.
    et al.
    Department of mathematics and supercomputing, Penza State University, Penza, Russia.
    Smirnov, Yu. G.
    Department of mathematics and supercomputing, Penza State University, Penza, Russia.
    Smolkin, Eugene Yu.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö.
    Tsupak, Aleksei A.
    Department of mathematics and supercomputing, Penza State University, Penza, Russia.
    Electromagnetic wave diffraction by a system of non-intersecting obstacles of various dimensions2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications: ICEAA 2015, 2015, s. 1568-1571Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The vector problem of time-harmonic electromagnetic wave diffraction by a system of non-intersecting solid inhomogeneous bodies, infinitely thin perfectly conducting screens and wire antennas is considered. The original boundary value problem for Maxwell’s equations is reduced to a system of integro-differential equations over the volume domains, the screen surfaces and antennas. To solve the integral equations approximately, the Bubnov-Galerkin method is applied; basis functions on the body, the screens and antennas are introduced as well as formulas for matrix elements in the Galerkin method. To solve the problem of diffraction by obstacles of complex shape, the subhierarchical approach is applied. © 2015 IEEE.

  • 40.
    Mirsakiyeva, Amina
    et al.
    Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kista, Sweden.
    Hugosson, Håkan W.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Fysik.
    Linares, Mathieu
    Department Theoretical Chemistry and Biology, School of Biotechnology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Swedish e-Science Research Center (SeRC), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Delin, Anna
    Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kista, Sweden; Swedish e-Science Research Center (SeRC), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory Division, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Temperature dependence of band gaps and conformational disorder in PEDOT and its selenium and tellurium derivatives: Density functional calculations2017Inngår i: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 147, nr 13, artikkel-id 134906Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), or PEDOT, is an attractive material for flexible electronics. We present combined molecular dynamics and quantum chemical calculations, based on density functional theory, of EDOT oligomers and isoelectronic selenium and tellurium derivatives (EDOS and EDOTe) to address the effect of temperature on the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems. With finite size scaling, we also extrapolate our results to the infinite polymers, i.e., PEDOT, PEDOS, and PEDOTe. Our computations indicate that the most favourable oligomer conformations at finite temperature are conformations around the flat trans-conformation and a non-flat conformation around 45° from the cis-conformation. Also, the dihedral stiffness increases with the atomic number of the heteroatom. We find excellent agreement with experimentally measured gaps for PEDOT and PEDOS. For PEDOT, the gap does not increase with temperature, whereas this is the case for its derivatives. The conformational disorder and the choice of the basis set both significantly affect the calculated gaps.

  • 41. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Nordlander, Edvard
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Grenholm, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Teknik i skolan – en utmaning för samhället2016Inngår i: Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik / [ed] Mikael Björling, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2016, 1, s. 133-151Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Varför är teknikyrket sällan något som ungdomar vill satsa på? Tror de att den teknik som de gärna använder – mobiltelefoner, datorer, spelkonsoler, surfplattor m.m. – utvecklas av sig själva så att man inte behöverbry sig om att bidra till detta? Kan man verkligen livnära sig på ”självförverkligande”, som tycks ha varit ledordet för tonåringar under alltför lång tid? De svenska industriföretagen som representeras av organisationen Teknikföretagen har reagerat och likaså fackföreningen Sveriges Ingenjörer. Teknikföretagen har å sin sida sedan länge alarmerat om bristerna i teknikundervisning i grundskolan och dess konsekvenser i två rapporter (Teknikföretagen, 2006, 2013) och Sveriges Ingenjörer konstaterade redan 2007 i ett pressmeddelande att ”bristen på kvalificerad arbetskraft har redan börjat visat sig och om inget görs kommer det år 2020 att fattas 50 000 ingenjörer” (Sveriges Ingenjörer, 2007). Denna siffra motsvarar ungefär 25 % av de ingenjörer, civilingenjörer, tekniker och arkitekter som Statistiska centralbyrån, SCB, redovisade i Sverige år 2006. Det är väl inte säkert att det behövs lika många ingenjörer 2020 som då, men man måste förmoda att Sverige även i framtiden har en industri som kräver kvalificerad teknisk personal. Hur skall vi annars bibehålla vårt välstånd i landet?

    I denna artikel beskrivs hur teknikundervisningen i den svenska grundskolan skall gå tillväga utifrån kursplanetexten, men frågan är om lärarna besitter kompetens i tillräcklig mån för att genomföra kursplanensintentioner. I artikeln diskuteras även möjligheten, eller svårigheten, till framtida lärarförsörjning genom att ta exempel från lärarutbildningen vid Högskolan i Gävle.

  • 42.
    Nordström, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Fysik.
    Fysik för nyfikna!: naturvetenskap för förskola och de tidiga skolåren2017Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 43.
    Nostell, P
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Roos, A.
    Department of Materials Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Max Planck Institut für Festkörperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Single-beam integrating sphere spectrophotometer for reflectance and transmittance measurements versus angle of incidence in the solar wavelength range on diffuse and specular samples1999Inngår i: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 70, nr 5, s. 2481-2494Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A multipurpose instrument for the measurement of reflectance and transmittance versus angle of incidence for both specular and diffuse samples in the solar wavelength range has been constructed and evaluated. The instrument operates in the single-beam mode and uses a common light source for three experimental setups. Two integrating spheres, 20 cm in diameter, are used for diffuse transmittance and reflectance measurements. The transmittance sphere can be turned around an axis through the sample to vary the angle of incidence. The reflectance sphere uses a center mounted sample and a special feature is the position of the detector, which is mounted on the sample holder at the center of the sphere. This way the detector always sees the same part of the sphere wall and no light can reach the detector directly from the sample. The third setup is an absolute instrument for specular samples. It uses a small averaging sphere as a detector. The detector is mounted on an arm which rotates around the center of the sample, and it can thus pick up both the reflected and transmitted beams including all multiply reflected components. The averaging sphere detector is insensitive to small side shifts of the detected beams and no multiple reflections between detector and optical system occur. In this report a number of calibration procedures are presented for the three experimental setups and models for the calculation of correct transmittance and reflectance values from measured data are presented. It is shown that for integrating sphere measurements, the geometry of the sphere and the diffusivity of the sample as well as the sphere wall reflectance and port losses are important factors that influence the result. For the center mounted configuration these factors are particularly important and special emphasis is given to the evaluation of the reflectance sphere model. All three instrument setups are calibrated using certified reference materials and nonscattering mirrors and substrates. The results are also compared to the results of a double-beam Beckman integrating sphere for near normal angles of incidence and Fresnel calculations. The results in this article show that good agreement is obtained between results from the different instruments if, and only if, proper evaluation procedures are applied to the measured signals.

  • 44.
    Prytz, Kjell
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Analysis of the QCD evolution in the pomeron and a search for gluon recombination2002Inngår i: Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, ISSN 0954-3899, E-ISSN 1361-6471, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 285-291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The pomeron structure function is-extracted from the HI data and is subject to a leading-order QCD analysis. We compare the results obtained from the DGLAP equations with and without corrected for gluon recombination. Both cases give good fits to data but different results for the gluon distribution.

  • 45.
    Prytz, Kjell
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Analysis of the QCD Evolution in the Pomeron and a Search for Gluon Recombination2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 46.
    Prytz, Kjell
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Fysik.
    Electrodynamics: the field-free approach: Electrostatics, magnetism, induction, relativity and field theory2015 (oppl. 1)Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is intended as an undergraduate textbook in electrodynamics at basic or advanced level. The objective is to attain a general understanding of the electrodynamic theory and its basic experiments and phenomena in order to form a foundation for further studies in the engineering sciences as well as in modern quantum physics.

    The outline of the book is obtained from the following principles:

    •         Base the theory on the concept of force and mutual interaction

    •         Connect the theory to experiments and observations accessible to the student

    •         Treat the electric, magnetic and inductive phenomena cohesively with respect to force, energy, dipoles and material

    •         Present electrodynamics using the same principles as in the preceding mechanics course

    •         Aim at explaining that theory of relativity is based on the magnetic effect

    •         Introduce field theory after the basic phenomena have been explored in terms of force

    Although electrodynamics is described in this book from its 1st principles, prior knowledge of about one semester of university studies in mathematics and physics is required, including vector algebra, integral and differential calculus as well as a course in mechanics, treating Newton’s laws and the energy principle.

    The target groups are physics and engineering students, as well as professionals in the field, such as high school teachers and employees in the telecom industry. Chemistry and computer science students may also benefit from the book.

  • 47.
    Prytz, Kjell
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Electrolocation of the Weak Electric Fish2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 48.
    Prytz, Kjell
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Fysik.
    Elektrodynamik i nytt ljus: elektrostatik, magnetism, induktion och relativitetsteori2013 (oppl. 1)Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är kanske inte helt enkelt att ge en allmänt accepterad definition av ämnet fysik. Både uppslagsböcker och fysiker ger skiftande svar på frågan. Min egen uppfattning är att fysik handlar om och utgår ifrån begreppet kra  vilket tillsammans med begreppet energi bildar dess kärna. Särskilt vill jag framhålla den definition som anges av Bonniers svenska ordbok: Fysik är "vetenskapen om naturkrafterna och energin i dess olika former". Min strävan är att låta denna definition löpa som en röd tråd i undervisningen och i denna bok.

    Innehåll

    Vi lägger därför största vikt på kraftbegreppet och dess konsekvens: växelverkningen. I första kapitlet (kapitel 2) fokuserar vi på de olika slag av kraftverkan som förekommer mellan elektriska laddningar vilka direkt kan relateras till deras rörelse, dvs. laddningar i vila, i likformig rörelse och i acceleration. Dessa krafter benämns elektrisk, magnetisk respektive induktiv. Vi behandlar alltså dessa växelverkningar sammanhållet och formulerar de kraftformler som beskriver observationer och mätningar.

    De följande kapitlen är mer eller mindre raka tillämpningar av kraftformlerna. Begreppet energi, som införs i kapitel 3, utgår ifrån och är en direkt konsekvens av kraft via begreppet arbete. Vi visar hur denna princip tillämpas för både elektrisk och magnetisk energi. Kapitel 4 behandlar makroskopiska system vars egenskaper erhålls via en summering av ömsesidiga växelverkningar mellan infinitesimala element. I tillämpningar är systemen ofta homogena och beräkningarna kan då förenklas med hjälp av de geometriska kvantiteterna kapacitans och induktans. I kapitel 5 och 6 diskuteras ledaren och elektriska kretsar vilket utgör den experimentella miljö ur vilken elektrodynamiken har utvecklats och tekniska tillämpningar har sitt ursprung. Vi behandlar först den mikroskopiska beskrivningen av elektrisk ledning, resistansens ursprung och dess relation till värmeutveckling. Vidare diskuteras resonanskretsen och de övriga två kretskomponenterna: kapacitans och induktans.

    I kapitel 7 introduceras den elektriska och magnetiska dipolen, väsentliga begrepp eftersom naturen vanligen är konstruerad eller kan åtminstone approximeras till att bestå av dylika objekt. Centralt är då uttrycken för elektrisk och magnetisk dipol-dipolväxelverkan. Dessa är fundamentala för naturens dynamik. I kapitel 8 studerar vi hur olika elektriskt och magnetiskt neutrala material responderar på elektrisk och magnetisk påverkan och utgår då ifrån att materialet är uppbyggt av dipoler. Den matematiskt strikta behandlingen av dipol-, eller generellt multipol-, växelverkan presenteras i tillhörande appendix A och B.

    I kapitel 9 visar vi konceptuellt hur den magnetiska och induktiva dynamiken följer som rörelsekonsekvenser av den elektriska under antagandet att växelverkningar tar tid, de förmedlas med ljusets fart. Alternativt kan man utifrån kännedom om elektrisk och magnetisk kraft härleda ljusets fart. Vi kommer i ett specialfall kunna härleda såväl den magnetiska kraften som Faraday- Henrys induktionslag. Vidare visas hur elektrodynamiken är relaterad till relativitetsteorin. Faktum är att magnetism är den rörelsekonsekvens på vilken den speciella relativitetsteorin baseras. Eftersom vi utgår ifrån begreppet kraft är materialet unikt för denna bok.

    I kapitel 9 introduceras också Lorentz-tranformationer i form av en handledning för att självständigt kunna utveckla denna den formella basen för speciell relativitetsteori. Förkunskaper till kapitel 9 är endast kapitel 1-3 varför dessa fyra kapitel kan utgöra en kortkurs inom basal elektrodynamik och dess relation till relativitetsteori. I kapitel 10, slutligen, introduceras fältteorin för elektrodynamiken vilket leder oss till Maxwells ekvationer, grunden för den elektrobaserade ingenjörsvetenskapen. Fälten är förvisso redan definierade genom kraftformlerna, men uttrycks i Maxwells ekvationer som sin divergens och rotation. Vi motiverar detta genom att visa att fältens randvillkor är på så sätt givna.

    Ett viktigt särdrag hos denna bok är sålunda att fältteorin introduceras det att de fysiska fenomen som utgör elektrodynamiken beskrivits, tolkats och behandlats i termer av de grundläggande krafterna.

  • 49.
    Prytz, Kjell
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Evidence for Gluon Recombination in Deep Inelastic Scattering2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 50.
    Prytz, Kjell
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Gravitationen, elektromagnetismen, kvantmekaniken och ljuset2001Inngår i: Elementa : tidskrift för matematik, fysik och kemi, ISSN 0013-5933, Vol. 84, nr 3, s. 13s. 103-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
12 1 - 50 of 85
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