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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Dolovan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Fadul, Mohammed Erik Jamal
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Utsläpp från svenska reningsverk till Östersjön: Granskning av Henriksdals reningsverk, Ryaverket, Sjölunda reningsverk, Kungssängsverket och Duvbackens reningsverk2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From domestic and industrial waste water will have to be cleaned before it can be released into lakes and streams again. This purification takes place through various stages of treatment plants. Wastewater contains many substances that are harmful to the environment as well as human and animal health, so it is important that the purification that is done is done in an efficient and thoughtful manner. The steps that are common in Swedish cleaning plants are mechanical, biological and chemical purification. These purification steps ensure that larger particles do not come out to the open water, convert nitrogen into nitrogen through the activation process, and that by chemical treatment, the emission of phosphorus is reduced. All of these purification steps can be designed differently and vary from purification plants to purification plants. Therefore, the degree of purification and emissions can distinguish between different treatment plants. Because there are many factors involved in the processes at Swedish waste treatment plants, it is important to carry out annual audits to detect problems that can lead to environmental damage.If cleaning does not work, exercise can increase in lakes and seas, which causes people and animals to suffer. Bottom dead and acid deficiency are already a major problem for the Baltic Sea. In order to reduce the negative environmental effects, emissions of nutrients are drastically reduced. This concerns the release of nutrients from all countries around the Baltic Sea.This study focuses on nitrogen and phosphorus purification from 5 wastewater treatment plants, Henriksdal's purification plant (Stockholm), Ryaverket (Gothenburg), Sjölunda purification plant (Malmö), Kungssängsverket (Uppsala) and Duvbacken purification plant (Gävle). Information about its activities has been obtained through interviews and works own reports.The purification plants use different technical solutions, and all treatment plants meet today's requirements for purification. The biggest difference is the degree of nitrogen purification. All wastewater treatment plants have a history of changes in technical solutions to improve treatment. Cleaning wastewater from households and industries costs a lot of money for the treatment plants, so it's always a challenge for the wastewater treatment plants to clean the water in the best possible way without costing too much.It is expected that the cleaning requirements will be tightened and all treatment plants should continue to develop to increase efficiency. Current purification requirements are designed to suit the recipient's sensitivity. If the EU's idea of ​​the same degree of purification across the country is transformed into requirements, Duvbacken will need to significantly improve the nitrogen treatment at the waste water treatment plant.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gren, Åsa
    The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Understanding how built urban form influences biodiversity2014In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 221-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study seeks to contribute to a more complete understanding of how urban form influences biodiversity by investigating the effects of green area distribution and that of built form. We investigated breeding bird diversity in three types of housing development with approximately the same amount of tree cover. No significant differences in terms of bird communities were found between housing types in any of the survey periods. However, detached housing, especially with interspersed trees, had more neotropical insectivores and higher overall diversity of insectivores. Based on our results and theory we suggest a complementary approach to managing biodiversity in urban landscapes - instead of maximising the value and quality of individual patches efforts could go into enhancing over-all landscape quality at the neighbourhood scale by splitting up part of the green infrastructure. The relatively small differences in bird communities also suggest that different stakeholder groups may be engaged in management.

  • 4.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Belton, Sophie
    Msterstudent.
    Raymond, Christopher
    SLU.
    Giusti, Matteo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Fostering Children’s Connection to Nature Through Authentic Situations: The Case of Saving Salamanders at School2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, article id 9:28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The aim of this paper is to explore how children learn to form new relationships

    with nature. It draws on a longitudinal case study of children participating in a

    stewardship project involving the conservation of salamanders during the school day

    in Stockholm, Sweden. The qualitative method includes two waves of data collection:

    when a group of 10-year-old children participated in the project (2015) and 2 years

    after they participated (2017). We conducted 49 interviews with children as well as

    using participant observations and questionnaires. We found indications that children

    developed sympathy for salamanders and increased concern and care for nature, and

    that such relationships persisted 2 years after participation. Our rich qualitative data

    suggest that whole situations of sufficient unpredictability triggering free exploration

    of the area, direct sensory contact and significant experiences of interacting with a

    species were important for children’s development of affective relationships  with the

    salamander species and with nature in an open-ended sense. Saving the lives of trapped

    animals enabled direct sensory interaction, feedback, increased understanding, and

    development of new skills for dynamically exploring further ways of saving species in an

    interactive process experienced as deeply meaningful, enjoyable and connecting. The

    behavioral setting instilled a sense of pride and commitment, and the high degree of

    responsibility given to the children while exploring the habitat during authentic situations

    enriched children’s enjoyment. The study has implications for the design of education

    programs that aim to connect children with nature and for a child-sensitive urban policy

    that supports authentic nature situations in close spatial proximity to preschools and

    schools.

  • 5.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms Universitet.
    A Critical Perspective on the “Smart City” Model2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    As urban ecologists we support developing smoother traffic systems, providing citizens with more easily accessible information, and of course promoting citizen-participation and local democracy in political decision-making. However, and as is normally the common destiny when new models for sustainable development are appearing, investments in these “smarter” models run the risk of making people blind to problems that need more immediate concern. In short, governance is a matter of prioritizing among different goals. Governance is also about making sure that strong and powerful enterprises and business interests do not hijack the public debate

  • 6.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms Universitet.
    The Smart (Cyborg) City Needs Smarter Ecological Resilience Thinking2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Employing a sort of a cyborg worldview—meaning a living system of intertwined human and machine parts—the Smart City system is seen as contributing to urban sustainability with the basic assumption that ‘the Internet of Things’ serves social and public ends. These ends include economic benefits, improving efficiency and quality of life for people by optimizing control of infrastructures. In this view, urban residents are at the center of a city’s sustainability transformation, while at the same time serving as “data sources”, providing urban planners (central controllers of the cyborg) various sources of information about human behavior that may or may not be exploited. While various efficiency measures often are beneficial for society, at least in the short term, the discussions of resilience of such a cyborg is mostly entirely avoided.

  • 7.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Parker, John
    National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA; Barrett Honors College, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Urban gardens: pockets of social-ecological memory2014In: Greening in the Red Zone: Disaster, Resilience, and Community Greening Part II / [ed] Keith G. Tidball and Marianne E. Krasny, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands , 2014, p. 145-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that urban allotment gardens provide important ecosystem services. Their potential to act as sources of local resilience during times of crisis is less appreciated, despite the role they have played as areas of food security during times of crisis in history. Their ability to provide such relief, however, requires that the skills and knowledge needed for effective gardening can be transmitted over time and across social groups. In short, some portion of urban society must remember how to grow food. This chapter proposes that collectively managed gardens function as ‘pockets’ of social-ecological memory in urban landscapes by storing the knowledge and experience required to grow food. Allotment gardeners operate as ‘communities of practice’ with ecosystem stewardship reflecting long-term, dynamic interactions between community members and gardening sites. Social-ecological memories about food production and past crises are retained and transmitted through habits, traditions, informal institutions, artifacts and the physical structure of the gardens themselves. Allotment gardens thus serve as incubators of social-ecological knowledge with experiences that can be accessed and transferred to other land uses in times of crisis, contributing to urban resilience. Conversely, failure to protect these pockets of social-ecological memory could result in a collective ‘forgetting’ of important social-ecological knowledge and reduce social-ecological resilience.

  • 8.
    Bendt, Pim
    et al.
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; .
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Civic greening and environmental learning in public-access community gardens in Berlin2013In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 18-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse environmental learning in public-access community gardens (‘PAC-gardens’) in Berlin, representing public green spaces that are collectively managed by civil society groups. Through extensive fieldwork, and drawing upon social theories of learning, we describe learning communities in four PAC-gardens and analyse factors that influence participation and boundary interaction, that is when experiences brought in from the outside encounter socially defined competences. Results show that these PAC-gardens have self-generated social and physical structures, which to different degrees inhibit or facilitate boundary interactions, whereas skills of individuals to put those to work, in combination with the quality of the surrounding neighbourhoods, can be ascribed for creating broader participation and greater diversity in the content of learning about local sustainability. Identified learning streams included learning about gardening and local ecological conditions; about urban politics, and about social entrepreneurship. We discuss results in relation to environmental learning that combats the generational amnesia in cities about our dependence on nature, where PAC-gardens clearly distinguish themselves from more closed forms of urban gardening such as allotment gardens and gated community gardens. We conclude that PAC-gardens that intertwine gardening with social, political and economic practices can create broader and more heterogeneous learning about social–ecological conditions, and help develop sense-of-place in degraded neighbourhoods.

  • 9.
    Buck, Sine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Determining the best location for a nature-like fishway in Gavle River, Sweden2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction of dams and hydro-power stations are some of the most common anthropogenic changes of watercourses and rivers. While being important to humans and society by providing electricity, these obstructions of watercourses can have severe consequences for the aquatic ecosystems. One consequence is that dams often hinder the important movement of migrating fish species between habitats. This can lead to decline and even extinction of important fish populations. To prevent these negative effects, a number of different fish passage systems, including nature-like fishways, have been developed. Nature-like fishways mimic natural streams in order to function as a natural corridor for a wide range of species. Planning and construction of a nature-like fishway is a complex task that often involves many different interests. In the present study a combination of multi-criteria decision analysis and least-cost path analysis is used for determining the best location for a nature-like fishway past Strömdalen dam in Gavleån, Sweden. An anisotropic least-cost path algorithm is applied on a friction-layer and a digital elevation model, and the least-cost path for a nature-like fishway is determined. The results show that the method is useful in areas of varying topography and steep slopes. However, because low slope is a very important factor when constructing a nature-like fishway, slope becomes the dominating factor in this analysis at the expense of e.g. distance to roads. Combining the methods with results from biological studies of fish behavior and detailed hydrological modelling would provide a very strong tool for the planning of nature-like fishways.

  • 10.
    Börjeson, Fia Christina
    et al.
    Chalmers bibliotek, Centrum för fackspråk och kommunikation.
    Eriksson, Ann-Marie
    Chalmers bibliotek, Centrum för fackspråk och kommunikation.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    Institutionen för energi och miljö, Miljösystemanalys.
    Hillman, Karl
    Institutionen för energi och miljö, Miljösystemanalys, Chalmers tekniska universitet, Göteborg.
    Molander, Sverker
    Institutionen för energi och miljö, Miljösystemanalys, Chalmers tekniska universitet, Göteborg.
    Rex, Emma
    Institutionen för energi och miljö, Miljösystemanalys, Chalmers tekniska universitet, Göteborg.
    Ger koppling av kunskapsinlärning och färdighetsövning ökad djupinlärning?: "Utveckling av kursmoment i ”Miljö- och resursanalys för hållbar utveckling V2”2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kursen ”Miljö- och resursanalys för hållbar utveckling V2”, som är en av de obli-gatoriska kurserna under andra året i civilingenjörsutbildningen (Väg och Vat-ten) vid Chalmers tekniska högskola har omfattats av ett pedagogiskt utveck-lingsarbete. Utgångspunkten till de förändringar som prövats har varit grundade i och inspirerade av Experiential Learning Theory1. Lärarlaget utvecklade, med stöd av en gemensamt producerad begreppsmodell, metoder för att intervenera på olika stadier, och på olika sätt, i studenternas lärprocess. Arbetet har handlat om att skapa goda förutsättningar för att förstärka studenternas lärande. Ett så-dant lärande innebär att studenterna tillägnar sig en ökad förståelse och fördju-pade kunskaper, genom att koppla samman färdigheter som reflektion och kommunikation med tillägnandet av ett relativt abstrakt stoff (miljö- och resurs-analys). Detta har skett med hjälp av att modifiera kursens organisation och struktur, genom att utveckla återkommande och varierande typer av reflektions-övningar samt genom att arbeta fram återkommande och varierande former för olika typer av återkoppling till studenterna. En viktig del av arbetet har också va-rit att försöka utvärdera utfallet av de förändringar som genomförts i kursen. Ut-ifrån de begränsningar som det empiriska materialet innebär är det inte helt klart om titelns fråga besvarats i undersökningen, men studenternas resultat liksom deras utvärdering av kursen pekar tydligt på positiva effekter ifråga om lärandet.

  • 11.
    Casao, Marah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Study of quality of drinking water: In rural areas of Souss Massa region2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The scarcity of water affects many developing nations. Today, Morocco,characterized by an arid and semi-arid climate, is approaching absolute scarcityof freshwater availability of 730 m3/capita/year. The effect of the scarcity ofwater is highly evident in rural localities, which are driven to rely on wellwater and rainwater harvesting. Potability of alternative water sources isuncertain as it is not monitored by municipal treatment plants.The objective of this investigation was to study the quality and quantity ofdrinking water in rural areas of Souss Massa region. Water samples collectedfrom seven study sites were sent to private laboratories for microbiologicaland physicochemical analysis.The results of the tests revealed that the drinking water in Agadir Ouguejgal,Ben Anfar and Ait Said was unsafe for human consumption due to fecalcontamination. Concerning physicochemical examination, nitrate levels inTouamal as well as iron levels in Agadir Ouguejgal exceeded the maximumallowable concentration provided by the WHO and the Moroccan regulations.This constitutes serious health risk to its population. To prevent diseaseoutbreaks and long-term illness in these areas, anomalies to MoroccanStandards, should be addressed.The scarcity of water is highly evident in Agadir Ouguejgal, where waterconsumption is approximately 8 l/capita/day. With this amount of waterconsumption, proper sanitation cannot be assured.Statistically, a strong correlation was found between E. coli and totalcoliform. Trend analysis demonstrated a downward trend on water balance inthe Souss Massa region.To mitigate water quality issues in the Souss Massa region, a morecomprehensive investigation is mandatory which focuses on the exact sourceof the pollution and measures that is applicable to rural villages.

  • 12.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Creating incentives for increased public engagement in ecosystem management through urban commons2011In: Adapting Institutions: Governance, Complexity and Social-Ecological Resilience / [ed] Boyd, E. and Folke, C., Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press , 2011, 1, p. 101-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over half the world's population currently lives in urban areas; by 2030, nearly five billion people are expected to live in cities (Ash et al. 2008). Between 2010 and 2030, the amount of the built mass on the earth is predicted to double, creating ever-greater demands on the services that nearby and distant ecosystems provide (Grimm et al. 2008). With a greater proportion of humans living in metropolitan areas, urban ecosystems will experience increased land-use and land-cover change. Currently, urbanisation endangers more species and is more geographically ubiquitous than any other human activity; urban sprawl is rapidly transforming critical habitats of global value, such as the Atlantic Forest Region of Brazil, the Cape of South Africa and coastal Central America (Elmqvist et al. 2008). Urbanisation leads not only to increased homogenisation of fauna and flora (McKinney 2002) but also to an impoverished biology in metropolitan areas, which arguably serves as a constant reminder of the presumed unimportance of biodiversity and so may contribute to ‘environmental generational amnesia’ among the greater public (Miller 2005). To gain the much-needed broad-based public support for a sustainable use of ecosystems, both within and outside cities, the places where people live and work need to offer opportunities for meaningful interactions with functioning ecosystems (Rosenzweig 2003, Miller 2005, Andersson et al. 2007, Colding 2007). In this respect, and to help mitigate the growing disconnection of urban residents from nature (Pyle 1978, 1993), the dynamics of property rights determining human relationships to land can have powerful ramifications and be worthy of scholarly analysis to provide propositions about both the manner in which land ownership in cities evolves (Webster 2003) and its potential outcomes, such as the provision of the ecosystem services critical to human well-being (Daily 1997, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). It is increasingly recognised that today's institutions match current changes in ecosystems and their dynamics poorly (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005, Folke et al. 2007).

  • 13.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ekosystem sliter i städer2011In: Miljöforskning : Formas tidning för ett uthålligt samhälle, ISSN 1650-4925, no 9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots att grönområden har stor betydelse för städers klimat och för människors välbefinnande är kunskap om detta bristfällig bland stadsplanerare. Pollinering av växter och grödor, fröspridning eller vatten- och luftrening är arbete som naturen utför och som vi är beroende av i våra samhällen. Hur man med hjälp av ekosystemtjänster kan planera och bygga mer hållbara städer studeras i ett stort internationellt projekt SUPER (Sustainable Urban Planning for Ecosystems Services and Resilience).

  • 14.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Local Assessment of Stockholm: Revisiting the Stockholm Urban Assessment2013In: Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities: A Global Assessment / [ed] Thomas Elmqvist, Michail Fragkias, Julie Goodness, Burak Güneralp, Peter J. Marcotullio, Robert I. McDonald, Susan Parnell, Maria Schewenius, Marte Sendstad, Karen C. Seto, and Cathy Wilkinson, New York: Springer Netherlands , 2013, 1, p. 313-335Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the year 2003, the Stockholm Urban Assessment (SUA) was selected as a sub-global assessment within the global Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA, Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC, 2005). This chapter revisits SUA and fills in important knowledge gaps in the assessment as well as provides insights on urban resilience building. The chapter applies a critical perspective on the present urban development trajectory of the Stockholm metropolitan area. It emphasizes the need to understand ways in which informally managed green spaces contribute to ecological functions in urban settings. The chapter provides a background of the Stockholm region and the current challenges it faces, followed by a synthesis of the major insights conveyed in SUA related to informal ecosystem management. The chapter concludes by proposing policy recommendations of general implications for urban resilience building.

  • 15.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The role of ecosystem services in contemporary urban planning2011In: Urban Ecology: patterns, processes and applications / [ed] Jari Niemelä, Jürgen H. Breuste, Thomas Elmqvist, Glenn Guntenspergen, Philip James, and Nancy E. McIntyre, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press , 2011, p. 228-237Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban sprawl is often characterised as a serious land use problem. It refers to the spread of urban congestion into adjoining suburbs and rural areas, often resulting in the loss of ecosystems and their services. This chapter reviews two of the most prevalent planning strategies proposed to combat urban sprawl, i.e. smart growth (or new urbanism) and green infrastructure planning. The former is predominantly derived from a frustration over the failure of American planning projects, and is increasingly adopted among planners in North American and European metropolitan regions. The latter is predominantly proposed by ecologists and biodiversity conservationists, and has shaped conservation planning in many countries. Both planning strategies propose compact urban development as a way to combat adverse effects of urban sprawl. However, and as pointed out in this chapter, many types of ecosystem services are generated in the developed landscape, also in sprawling suburban settings. It is also important to account for ecosystem services in smart growth projects and to engage a wider set of urban residents in management of these services in order to mitigate ecological illiteracy. The chapter elucidates some of the key characteristics and propositions of both approaches and provides examples of urban designs that hold potential to work as frameworks in contributing to sustainable governance of ecosystem services.

  • 16.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An urban ecology critique on the "Smart City" model2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 164, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this letter is to raise some critical concerns and gaps in the booming literature on Smart Cities; concerns that we think deserve greater attention from scientists, policy makers and urban planners. Using an urban ecology lens, we provide some reflections that need to forgo any wider-scale implementation of the Smart City-model with the goal to enhance urban sustainability. We discuss that the Smart City literature must better include analysis around social sustainability issues for city dwellers. Focus here should start on health issues and more critical analysis about whom the Smart City is for. Also, the literature must address issues of resilience and cyber security, including how Smart City solutions may affect the autonomy of urban governance, personal integrity and how it may affect the resilience of infrastructures that provide inhabitants with basic needs, such as food, energy and water security. A third major gap in this literature is how smart city developments may change human-nature relations. Focus here should start on how Smart City technologies may hinder or support children’s learning towards a stronger psychological connection with nature. Discussions are also needed on how the Smart City model may affect pro-environmental behavior more broadly.

  • 17.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Science; Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Resilience and Sustainable Development2017In: Dreams and Seeds: The role of campuses in sustainable urban development / [ed] Schewenius, M., Keränen, P., al Rawaf, R., Stockholm: Stockholm Resilience Centre and Metropolia University of Applied Sciences , 2017, 1, p. 28-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The potential of ‘Urban Green Commons’ in the resilience building of cities2013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, p. 156-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While cultural diversity is increasing in cities at a global level as a result of urbanization, biodiversity is decreasing with a subsequent loss of ecosystem services. It is clear that diversity plays a pivotal role in the resilience building of ecosystems; however, it is less clear what role cultural diversity plays in the resil- ience building of urban systems. In this paper we provide innovative insights on how common property sys- tems could contribute to urban resilience building. Through a review of recent findings on urban common property systems and the relevant literature, we deal with urban green commons (UGCs) and discuss their potential to manage cultural and biological diversity in cities. We describe three examples of UGCs, i.e. col- lectively managed parks, community gardens, and allotment areas, with a focus on their institutional characteristics, their role in promoting diverse learning streams, environmental stewardship, and social– ecological memory. We discuss how UGCs can facilitate cultural integration through civic participation in urban land-management, conditions for the emergence of UGCs, the importance of cognitive resilience building, and what role property-rights diversity plays in urban settings. We conclude by elucidating some key insights on how UGCs can promote urban resilience building.

  • 19.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Role of University Campuses in Reconnecting Humans to the Biosphere2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 2349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore the potential for integrating university campuses in a global sustainability agenda for a closer reconnection of urban residents to the biosphere. This calls for a socio-cultural transition that allows universities and colleges to reconnect to the biosphere and become active stewards of the Earth System. Recognizing their pivotal role of fostering coming generations of humans, university campuses represent a unique socio-cultural setting to promote sustainable development in practice. Among others, this involves the nurturing of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Antropocene era, which is characterized by ongoing climate change and massive loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. We explore the traditional campus setting, its role as a community for rejuvenating town planning and its role as a governance authority that may promote or retard sustainable development with an ecological focus. We explore the “sustainable” university and describe the campus as an ecosystem and how a resilient campus can be designed to meet the novel and critical challenges of the Anthropocene. We conclude by providing some policy recommendations for higher educational institutes to speed up their ambitions in the area of sustainable biosphere management.

  • 20.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Colding, Magnus
    Egen företagare.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    The smart city model: A new panacea for urban sustainability or unmanageable complexity?2018In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Despite several calls in this journal of debating the rapid growth of the literature on ‘‘smart cities’’,

    such a debate has in large been absent. Smart cities are often un-critically launched as a sustainable

    way of developing cities. When cities become increasingly complex as its features are wired into

    the Internet, theories for their understanding is lagging behind. As it is prospected that a greater

    number of people and things will become connected by Information and Computer Technology,

    the complexity of urban systems will over time increase. Historical insights reveal that as

    complexity in societies increase, growth in energy consumption tends to follow. In this paper,

    we discuss whether complexity carried too far could lead to diminishing returns of energy saving

    and create unmanageable urban systems. As part of initiating such a debate, this commentary asks

    whether the smart cities development has a bearing on the issue whether a society can erode its

    capacity of sustaining itself? We pose this question against the backdrop that no one actually

    knows what type of society the smart cities model in the end will generate.

  • 21.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment and Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment and Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comment on Ruttan, L. M. and Borgerhoff Mulder, M. (1999) Are East African Pastoralists Truly Conservationists?1999In: Current Anthropology, ISSN 0011-3204, E-ISSN 1537-5382, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 638-639Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Profu i Göteborg AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Multiple system modelling of waste management2011In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 12, p. 2620-2630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increased environmental awareness, planning and performance of waste management has become more and more complex. Therefore waste management has early been subject to different types of modelling. Another field with long experience of modelling and systems perspective is energy systems. The two modelling traditions have developed side by side, but so far there are very few attempts to combine them. Waste management systems can be linked together with energy systems through incineration plants. The models for waste management can be modelled on a quite detailed level whereas surrounding systems are modelled in a more simplistic way. This is a problem, as previous studies have shown that assumptions on the surrounding system often tend to be important for the conclusions. In this paper it is shown how two models, one for the district heating system (MARTES) and another one for the waste management system (ORWARE), can be linked together. The strengths and weaknesses with model linking are discussed when compared to simplistic assumptions on effects in the energy and waste management systems. It is concluded that the linking of models will provide a more complete, correct and credible picture of the consequences of different simultaneous changes in the systems. The linking procedure is easy to perform and also leads to activation of project partners. However, the simulation procedure is a bit more complicated and calls for the ability to run both models.

  • 23.
    Eriksson, Philip
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Andra slänger mat, inte jag: Nudging för mindre matsvinn i skolor2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste is a problem that permeates the whole food supply chain and cause economic losses, negative effects on the climate and environment and depletion of finite resources. The scale of required change necessary to counteract the negative effects is huge. In Swedens schools food waste loss is a matter of a costly wastage, both from an environmental perspective, but also with regard to municipalities' limited resources. Due to this, there is a big demand for waste loss reducing measures. Something that can help mitigate the extent of the food waste problem is behavioral change. Unfortunately, we cannot expect change to occur on one’s own. We need tools that can nudge us in the right direction.

    This thesis is a theoretical base that explores and describes how nudging, a tool for sustainable behaviors, can be a part of the solution to the food waste problem in school canteens. Recommendations for design and implementation of such change strategies are presented, with a special focus on planned interventions (nudges) and practical application. The goal is that the study will contribute to the application of behavioral insights in the environmental field. The foundation of the thesis consists of two earlier studies, a literature study, aimed at examining nudging as a tool for sustainable societal development, and a pilot study, aimed at examining students' behavior in canteens, and how they deal with leftovers. The first study found a number of practical shortcomings if nudging (the tool) is to be used successfully, long-term and more extensively in environmental work. The pilot study found irrationally made decisions among students.

    In order to answer how nudging can be part of the solution to the food waste problem in schools, the thesis applied the strategic framework for sustainable development. According to the strategic framework for sustainable development nudges employs as a catalyzing action while nudging is a tangible tool for strategic behavior change management. In the thesis nudging and nudges are presented as two separate parts of the behavior change management process, this also illustrates how each part can be part of the solution to the problem, because it clarifies the scope of the notions and their role in resolving the issue. Based on knowledge gained from the pilot study, the thesis draws conclusions that there is a theoretical potential to use nudging to encourage sustainable development in school canteens and reduce food waste, especially when students are about to leave the canteen, but also in the serving situation and during everyday school hours. Identified areas to focus on when applying nudges were mainly evaluation and feedback, smart anchors, order, normative messages, commitment, reminders, fewer options, strategic planning, loss disclosure and less social proof.

    In addition to this, the thesis finally gave suggestions for working with nudging from an above- or below perspective (by integrating assessment questions in the decision-making process) to adjust the application of interventions.

  • 24.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630).
    von Borgstede, Chris
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Forsfält, Thomas
    Konjunkturinstitutet.
    Guath, Mona
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Ljunggren Söderman, Maria
    IVL.
    Stemarck, Åsa
    IVL.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olof
    IVL.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Åkesson, Lynn
    Lunds Universitet.
    Regeringen måste satsa på resurseffektivt samhälle2013In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2013-04-01Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Regeringen förbereder en avfallspolitisk proposition. Den kommer förhoppningsvis att klargöra vem som ska ha ansvaret att samla in våra förpackningar. Men fokus borde också ligga på hur vi kan gå mot ett samhälle där resurser används så effektivt som möjligt, skriver forskare på miljöområdet.

  • 25. Folke, Carl
    et al.
    Colding, Johan
    Olsson, Per
    Hahn, Thomas
    Interdependent Social-Ecological Systems and Adaptive Governance for Ecosystem Services2007In: The SAGE handbook of environment and society / [ed] Jules N. Pretty, Andy Ball, Ted Benton, Julia Guivant, David Lee, David Orr, Max Pfeffer and Hugh Ward, Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2007, p. 536-552Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Jakobsson, Sonny Karl Oskar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Local produced and organic food for sustainable development2017In: Consuming the Environment / [ed] Eva Åsén Ekstrand, 2017, p. 25-26Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the perceptions of consumers with regard to local produced and organic food in the region of Gävleborg, Sweden. The aim of the study is to investigate consumers` attitudes by giving insight in why consumers buy local produced and organic food and how they conceive them. Quantitative data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire. We approached six hundred seventeen consumers outside twelve grocery stores directly after their shopping.  The study shows consumers have the opinion that local produced and organic food have higher quality than other kind of food,  their production supports sustainable environmental development and promotes the local society and local business. Consumers older than 65 years are more positive than younger ones to local produced and organic food and women are willing to pay more for purchasing the food.

    The results illustrate that consumers think it is difficult to allocate local produced and organic food in the stores, the assortment is poor and the prices of organic food are high. The correlations between attitudes regarding Organic, Organic Local produced, and Local produced foods show that the consumers consider them as related, but not identical. It also indicates that consumers have vague attitudes about Local Produced foods and lack knowledge to define them.

    Differences in price sensitivity demonstrate that consumers are willing to pay more for Organic and Local produced foods, showing there is value in, and demand for reliable guarantee label systems such as KRAV. We suggest a cooperation between public authorities and business organizations to develop trustworthy guarantee label system for Local produced foods.

    We see a need for marketing and information campaigns to develop knowledge of what Organic and Local produced foods stand for to increase trust and awareness. By emphasizing on positive partial characteristics such as non-Genetically modified organisms (GMO) in marketing/information campaigns, negative connotation to organic as expensive may be avoided when educating consumers about the definition of organic foods.

    We propose comparative studies in other regions and countries as well as studies about visibility and availability of organic and/or local produced foods in the shops.

  • 27.
    Gordon, Line
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Crona, Bea
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Global Economic Dynamics and the Biosphere Program, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; WorldFish, Jalan Batu Maung, Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia.
    van Holt, Tracy
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Global Economic Dynamics and the Biosphere Program, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Leonard N Stern School of Business, Center for Sustainable Business, New York, NY, United States.
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Therese
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Global Economic Dynamics and the Biosphere Program, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haider, L. Jamila
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rewiring food systems to enhance human health and biosphere stewardship.2017In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 12, no 10, article id 100201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food lies at the heart of both health and sustainability challenges. We use a social-ecological framework to illustrate how major changes to the volume, nutrition and safety of food systems between 1961 and today impact health and sustainability. These changes have almost halved undernutrition while doubling the proportion who are overweight. They have also resulted in reduced resilience of the biosphere, pushing four out of six analysed planetary boundaries across the safe operating space of the biosphere. Our analysis further illustrates that consumers and producers have become more distant from one another, with substantial power consolidated within a small group of key actors. Solutions include a shift from a volume-focused production system to focus on quality, nutrition, resource use efficiency, and reduced antimicrobial use. To achieve this, we need to rewire food systems in ways that enhance transparency between producers and consumers, mobilize key actors to become biosphere stewards, and re-connect people to the biosphere

  • 28.
    Grift, Jeroen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Forest Change Mapping in Southwestern Madagascar using Landsat-5 TM Imagery, 1990 –20102016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of this study was to map and measure forest change in the southwestern part of Madagascar near the city of Toliara in the period 1990-2010. Recent studies show that forest change in Madagascar on a regional scale does not only deal with forest loss, but also with forest growth However, it is unclear how the study area is dealing with these patterns. In order to select the right classification method, pixel-based classification was compared with object-based classification. The results of this study shows that the object-based classification method was the most suitable method for this landscape. However, the pixel-based approaches also resulted in accurate results. Furthermore, the study shows that in the period 1990–2010, 42% of the forest cover disappeared and was converted into bare soil and savannahs. Next to the change in forest, stable forest regions were fragmented. This has negative effects on the amount of suitable habitats for Malagasy fauna. Finally, the scaling structure in landscape patches was investigated. The study shows that the patch size distribution has long-tail properties and that these properties do not change in periods of deforestation.

  • 29.
    Hillman, Karl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Damgaard, Anders
    Department of Environmental Engineering, DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Fluck, Lena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Climate Benefits of Material Recycling: Inventory of Average Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Denmark, Norway and Sweden2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is to compare emissions of greenhouse gases from material recycling with those from virgin material production, both from a material supply perspective and from a recycling system perspective. The method for estimating emissions and climate benefits is based on a review, followed by a selection, of the most relevant publications on life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials for use in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The proposed averages show that emissions from material recycling are lower in both perspectives, comparing either material supply or complete recycling systems. The results can be used by companies and industry associations in Denmark, Norway and Sweden to communicate the current climate benefits of material recycling in general. They may also contribute to discussions on a societal level, as long as their average and historic nature is recognised.

  • 30.
    Hillman, Karl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Rickne, Annika
    University of Gothenburg.
    Balancing Variety Creation and Selection: Governing Biofuels in Sweden 1990-20102012In: Paving the Road to Sustainable Transport: Governance and innovation in low-carbon vehicles / [ed] Måns Nilsson, Karl Hillman, Annika Rickne, Thomas Magnusson, Routledge, 2012, 1, p. 235-259Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Iguchi, Masahiko
    et al.
    Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    The Development of Fuel Economy Regulation for Passenger Cars in Japan2012In: Paving the Road to Sustainable Transport: Governance and innovation in low-carbon vehicles / [ed] Måns Nilsson, Karl Hillman, Annika Rickne, Thomas Magnusson, Routledge, 2012, 1, p. 57-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Isendahl, Christian
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Archeology, history, and urban food security: integrating cross-cultural and long term perspectives2018In: Routledge Handbook of Landscapes and Food, New York: Routledge, 2018, p. 61-73Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Ives, Christopher D.
    et al.
    School of Geography, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, United Kingdom; Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Fischer, Joern
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Abson, David J.
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Klaniecki, Kathleen
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Dorninger, Christian
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Laudan, Josefine
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Abernethy, Paivi
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg; Germany Royal Roads University, Victoria, BC, Canada.
    Martín-López, Berta
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Raymond, Christopher M.
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kendal, David
    School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences & Melbourne School of Design, The University of Melbourne, Australia.
    von Wehrden, Henrik
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Human–nature connection: a multidisciplinary review2017In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 26-27, p. 106-113Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sustainability science calls are increasing for humanity to (re-)connect with nature, yet no systematic synthesis of the empirical literature on human–nature connection (HNC) exists. We reviewed 475 publications on HNC and found that most research has concentrated on individuals at local scales, often leaving ‘nature’ undefined. Cluster analysis identified three subgroups of publications: first, HNC as mind, dominated by the use of psychometric scales, second, HNC as experience, characterised by observation and qualitative analysis; and third, HNC as place, emphasising place attachment and reserve visitation. To address the challenge of connecting humanity with nature, future HNC scholarship must pursue cross-fertilization of methods and approaches, extend research beyond individuals, local scales, and Western societies, and increase guidance for sustainability transformations.

  • 34.
    Jakobsson, Sonny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Ditt Val Spelar Roll: Gävleborgs konsumenters attityder till lokalproducerade livsmedel2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Johansson, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Miljöförutsättningar vid anläggande av snödeponi: Utvärdering av potentiella platser för ny snödeponi i Gävle2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In wintertime, a large amount of snow falls on roads, streets and parking lots in Gävle. Snow from urban areas may contain pollutants from sources such as atmospheric contamination, traffic emission and de-icing chemicals. These pollutants accumulate in the snow during the winter and are released when the snow melts in the spring and summer. Besides logistic and traffic safety, snow-handling strategies are an important issue for the municipal organization in terms of environmental effects from the melt water.

    Today, snow plowed in urban areas of Gävle are being transported to a snow deposit in the harbor of Gävle, Gävle hamn. In the future, the current location are going to be used by Gävle hamn. Therefore, the municipality of Gävle are looking at five different alternatives for localization of snow deposit.

    To determine which of the five alternative locations are suitable for construction of snow deposit in terms of environmental conditions, this study examines the different locations in terms of recipient, geology, biological consequences, land use and surroundings.

    If one large snow deposit, designed similar to the current one in Gävle hamn, is chosen to solve the snow handling in the future, location number 3 Ersbo syd would be the best option. Location 1 Fredriksskans, 2 Duvbacken and 5 Kungsbäck, has god potential to alone and/or in combination with another location, serve as area for snow deposit. Location number 4, Ersbo telepylon, should not be considered as an alternative location for a snow deposit.

    There are possibilities for unconventional solutions, such as district cooling or even use the snow to infiltrate in the ridge, the chance to reverse the snow-handling problem to a resource is great. Creative solutions could be a possibility to cover and prepare for the eventual environmental challenges the future may bring.      

  • 36.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Miljövetenskap.
    Lind, E. E.
    SLU.
    Corell, H.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörns högskola, Biologi.
    Smolarz, K.
    University of Gdańsk, Gdynia, Poland.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Biologi.
    Regional genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea area2016In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connectivity plays an important role in shaping the genetic structure and in evolution of local adaptation. In the marine environment barriers to gene flow are in most cases caused by gradients in environmental factors, ocean circulation and/or larval behavior. Despite the long pelagic larval stages, with high potential for dispersal many marine organisms have been shown to have a fine scale genetic structuring. In this study, by using a combination of high-resolution genetic markers, species hybridization data and biophysical modeling we can present a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary landscape for a keystone species in the Baltic Sea, the blue mussel. We identified distinct genetic differentiation between the West Coast, Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea regions, with lower gene diversity in the Bothnian Sea. Oceanographic connectivity together with salinity and to some extent species identity provides explanations for the genetic differentiation between the West Coast and the Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea). The genetic differentiation between the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea cannot be directly explained by oceanographic connectivity, species identity or salinity, while the lower connectivity to the Bothnian Sea may explain the lower gene diversity. © 2016.

  • 37.
    Larsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Miljövetenskap.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Biologi.
    Lind, Emma E
    SLU.
    Świeżak, Justyna
    University of Gdansk, Gdynia , Poland.
    Smolarz, Katarzyna
    University of Gdansk, Gdynia , Poland.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörns högskola, Biologi.
    Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, article id e2628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites.

  • 38.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Institutionalising sustainability in HEIs: Experiences from the University of Gävle2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Reinforcing the holistic perspective of sustainability: Analysis of the importance of sustainability drivers in organisations2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    State of the art on sustainable business models: A discussion on sustainable business models : Providing a more holistic perspective on sustainable business models2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Reid, Angus
    Investors, Electricity Utility Companies, and Transformative Change in Europe2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Nilsson, Måns
    et al.
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University.
    How do we govern sustainable innovations? Mapping patterns of governance for biofuels and hybrid-electric vehicle technologies2012In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, Vol. 3, p. 50-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines patterns of governance aimed at sustainable technological innovation in the transport sector. It makes an overall assessment of governance emerging in the fields of biofuel and hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) technologies, and makes a classification of its characteristics. It examines the role of different actors and levels of governance as well as preferred mechanisms and targets of governance. The assessment reveals that there are rather differential patterns of governance influencing the two fields. For instance, international-level and market-based governance are much more prevalent in biofuels, whereas industry-led and cognitive governance play comparatively stronger roles in HEV. These patterns can be understood in light of both the different institutional and actor characteristics of the two technologies, and their positions in relation to socio-technical regimes.

  • 43.
    Nilsson, Måns
    et al.
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Hillman, KarlUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.Rickne, AnnikaUniversity of Gothenburg.Magnusson, ThomasLinköping University.
    Paving the Road to Sustainable Transport: Governance and innovation in low-carbon vehicles2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is about how societies around the world can accelerate innovation in sustainable transport. It examines the relationship between policy change and the development of technological innovations in low carbon vehicle technologies, including biofuels, hybrid-electric vehicles, electric vehicles and fuel cells. Examining this relationship across countries and regions that are leaders in vehicle manufacturing and innovation, such as the European Union, Germany, Sweden, China, Japan, Korea and USA, the books aims to learn lessons about policy and innovation performance.

  • 44.
    Nilsson, Måns
    et al.
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Rickne, Annika
    University of Gothenburg.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University.
    The Road Ahead: Conclusions and Governance Implications2012In: Paving the Road to Sustainable Transport: Governance and innovation in low-carbon vehicles / [ed] Måns Nilsson, Karl Hillman, Annika Rickne, Thomas Magnusson, New York: Routledge, 2012, 1, p. 277-289Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Norell, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Sundqvist, Josefine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Granulat på konstgräsplaner i Gävle kommun: Miljöpåverkan vid spridning via dagvattensystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial turfs have been shown to be a significant source of microplastics. The filling material used on artificial turf is called granules and are under the definition microplastic. There are different kinds of granules on the Swedish market, these are SBR, TPE, EPDM and R-EPDM. The granules spread mainly through stormwater from artificial turf, which may then end up in nearby streams. Previous studies have shown that the granules can release toxic substances that risk contaminating the water. Aquatic organisms can misinterpret microscopic particles as food, which can cause consequences such as constipation and starvation. The substances that may leach from the granules belongs to the collective name environmental toxins and are stable, toxic, reproductive and accumulative.

     

    The purpose of this study is to provide a description of the filling material that are used in artificial turfs in Gävle, investigate how these granules can spread and then identify suggestions to reduce the spread. The purpose is also to present the artificial turf's stormwateroutlets and water status to describe the potential environmental impact that the granulate may cause. The methods used in this work are literature studies, personal communication, field observations, map systems and figures and water samples.

     

    Gavlefastigheter owns five artificial turfs in the municipality of Gävle which are Träffen IP, Gavlevallen, Nynäs IP, Sörby IP and Andersberg. These turfs use SBR- TPE and R-EPDM granules. There are open water wells on every turf area and granules can spread to these by surface water at intensive rain, snow plowing and meltwater and with the players when they leave the turf. Most turfs have drainage systems connected to stormwater pipelines that can spread leachable substances to water. The water pipelines have outlets in Testeboriver, Bäckebrostream, Gavleriver and Hemlingbystream. The physical properties of the granules have a significant effect if the particle sinks to the bottom or if it is transported along with the water. The artificial turfs that are primarily in need of taking actions to reduce the spread of granules are Sörby, Anderberg and Nynäs.

     

    The waters do not achieve good chemical status and substances that occur at high concentrations varies depending on the kind of water. According to previous studies, several of these substances may leach from the granules which means that there is a risk of a contribution of these substances if spreading occurs.

  • 46.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Pettersson, Jacob
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Case Pöyry Sweden AB: Miljöprestandaindikatorer för ett tjänsteföretag2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world's natural resources are constantly being reduced, which increases the pressure on companies to actively engage themselves in environmental activities. Meanwhile, stakeholders focus is being broadened and it is now important not only to supply a particular product or service but also show that they are actively pursuing an environmental agenda. Companies can use various tools to aid in environmental efforts, but also to demonstrate to the world that the company is actively engaged in environmental activities. One such tool is the environmental standard ISO14001 which provides the company with guidance and support on how the business must manage its environmental efforts. To show a business' progress in environmental performance, it is advantageous to use environmental performance indicators as they enable stakeholders to easily understand how the business works with environmental issues.

    Authors in the field explain that the environmental management system propagation is limited in service organizations. It is known that also a service organization contributes to environmental impact in some way. Therefore, it is interesting to examine a service organization's direct environmental impact and to create environmental performance indicators to the organization.

    This case study has been carried out on a case-company that has the intention to implement an environmental management system. The case-company needs help to identify its environmental aspects, formulate environmental performance indicators and environmental goals and therefore the study's purpose is: to identify a service organizations environmental impact and to develop environmental indicators. This is going to be applied to a technology consulting company. And also identify and set the environmental goals to use in the environmental management system.  To identify the case-company’s environmental impact interviews have been conducted.

    Study results show that transports are judged to be the case- company's most significant environmental aspect. The conclusion from this study is that it is difficult to prove that a given model, a certain environmental impact or a certain aspect excels at technical consulting.

  • 47.
    Peng, Tao
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Wang, Xiaowen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    A Mobile-based Navigation Web Application: Finding the Shortest-time Path based on Factor Analysis2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the economic growth, the number of motor vehicles has increased rapidly for the last decades, especially in developing countries like China and India. Availability of more vehicles makes it more convenient for people to travel and merchandise transport. The increase of the number of vehicles also brings stresses to public traffic and pollution to the environment. When the number of vehicles on the road is over the available space, it results in traffic congestion. The problem is being studied and there are several solutions to it, like building more roads, rebuilding the existing streets and enlarging the cities. Based on the traffic reason and the environment reason, the government and the institute of environmental protection appeal to the public to take public transport means instead of private cars. But the measure affects the utilization ofmotor vehicles.

    Global Positioning System (GPS) provides autonomous geo-spatial positioningand navigation service. Once the user enters the destination, the navigation service will show the shortest path from the location of the user to the destination. Following the guide makes the vehicles running purposively, and it is also favorable for traffic control and management.

    Theoretically, if the diver keeps the same driving mode, the shortest path will cost the shortest time, but in reality, the traffic environment is complex and the driving speed is variable thus the shortest path is probably not the fastest path. In this study, the hinder factors of the speed and traffic are fixed constructions on the road, like: turnings, hospitals, schools, residential areas, traffic lights and the user-controlled factor (sites of traffic jams, accidents, and temporary construction on the road). We take the hinderfactors of traffic and driving speed into consideration while providing the route plan, finding the shortest-time path, and showing the result as an online map via the web Geographic Information System (GIS) application. We show that reducing the travelling time of motor vehicles, makes the traffic flow more rapid and efficient. Alsoreducing the emission time of motor vehicles, diminishes the greenhouse effect.

    Beside these, the achievement of our study also shows that the public can take advantage of open source tools and data to build their GIS application to do spatial and data analysis.

  • 48.
    Rosales, Oscar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Characterization of microbial growth in lignin-based residues and biodegradation of vanillin:: Optimizing factors for maximizing the extraction of a biodegradation compound of vanillin and investigating the potential for lipid accumulation.2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3methoxybenzaldehyde) is one of the most employed aromatic and flavoring additives in food and cosmetic industry. The industrial interest in vanillin could also apply to its biodegradation products. The microbial transformation of vanillin can open the possibility of new products with new areas of application for products related to vanillin. For example, vanillyl alcohol, vanillic acid and ferulic acid are currently used in the pharmaceutical or food industry. Some species reported to biodegrade vanillin into the related products vanillyl alcohol and vanillic acid, are: Brettanomyces anomalus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, certain microorganisms possess the ability to accumulate lipids when cultivated on different carbon sources, opening the possibility of microbial lipid production as another industrial application. The present investigation focuses on the optimization of extraction methods for vanillin biodegradation products, as well as identifying the isolates of a collection of microorganisms originating from the Faroe Islands that are amenable to being cultivated on a lignin-based media. Finally, the potential for microbial lipid accumulation was also studied. Two analytical methods, Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Gas Chromatography (GC) were employed for characterizing the biodegradation products obtained after 24 hours and 72 hours of culture in growth medium supplemented with 1 mM of vanillin. The results showed that after 24 hours of incubation, the model microorganism, strain FMYD002, had consumed some of the vanillin and transformed it into biodegradation products. TLC retention factors and GC chromatograms revealed that the main biodegradation product after 24 hours - when compared to a standard – is likely to be to vanillyl alcohol. Furthermore, vanillin and its biodegradation products were relatively temperature-stable based on a temperature test of supernatant from a 24-hour culture, however, when the 72-hour culture had been subjected to the highest temperature (60 °C) some spontaneous decomposition occurred. The biodegradation pattern of the 72-hour culture evidenced by TLC revealed two additional biodegradation products, one of which migrates in a similar fashion to vanillic acid. After 72 hours of incubation, the biodegradation product presumed to be vanillyl alcohol was no longer observed. Acidification tests showed that the best route for extraction of the product believed to be vanillyl alcohol is to adjust the extracted sample to a pH of 9. The cultivation test of the isolates in media prepared from different lignin-based residual products showed that 26 out of 60 initial strains grew regardless of the concentration of lignosulfonates and vanillin. Moreover, 17 strains grew in nitrogen-limited medium. Eight of the strains accumulated lipids. A preliminary categorization of isolates based on their colony morphology and capacity of growth on different substrates showed that to some extent, their morphology can predict the ability to grow on lignin- and vanillin-based media. This could help future scientists to easily screen for and select isolates with interesting activity for the ligno-cellulose industry.

  • 49.
    Samuelsson, Karl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Legeby, Ann
    School of Architecture, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Impact of environment on people’s everyday experiences in Stockholm2018In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 171, p. 7-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to construct urban environments that limit negative impacts for global sustainability while supporting human wellbeing, there is a need to better understand how features of the environment influence people’s everyday experiences. We present a novel method for studying this combining accessibility analysis and public participatory GIS (PPGIS). Seven environment features are defined and accessibility to them analysed across Stockholm municipality. We estimate the probabilities of positive and negative experiences in places based on these environment features, by using spatial regression to extrapolate from the results of an online PPGIS survey (1784 experiences of 1032 respondents). Six of the seven studied environment features have significant impact on experiential outcome, after accounting for spatial autocorrelation among the data. The results show that number of residents and proximity of nature environments and water, all common quality indicators in urban planning and research, have weak statistically significant effects on people’s experiences. However, areas dominated by large working populations or proximity to major roads have very low rates of positive experiences, while areas with high natural temperature regulating capacities have very high rates, showing that there are considerable qualitative differences within urban environments as well as nature environments. Current urban planning practices need to acknowledge these differences to limit impacts on the biosphere while promoting human wellbeing. We suggest that a good way to start addressing this is through transformation of negatively experienced urban areas through designs that integrate closeness to urbanity with possibilities to have nature experiences on a daily basis. 

  • 50.
    Schewenius, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-Ecological Integrated Planning and Design2017In: Dreams and Seeds: The role of campuses in sustainable urban development / [ed] Schewenius, M., Keränen, P., al Rawaf, R., Stockholm: Stockholm Resilience Centre; Metropolia University of Applied Sciences , 2017, 1, p. 47-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
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