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  • 1.
    Ahrné, Karin
    et al.
    SLU.
    Bengtsson, Bengt Åke
    Björklund, Jan-Olof
    Cederberg, Björn
    Eliasson, Claes
    Hydén, Nils
    Jonasson, Jan
    Lindeborg, Mats
    Lst Kalmar Län.
    Ohlsson, Anders
    Palmqvist, Göran
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Rödlista över fjärilar Lepidoptera2015In: Rödlistade arter i Sverige 2015 / [ed] Westling, Anna, Uppsala: ArtDatabanken SLU , 2015, p. 98-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Amselem, Yohanna
    University of Gävle. University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Hemträdgårdens Skafferi: inventering av ätbara, skötselextensiva växter för hemträdgården2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur vi lever och vad vi konsumerar får konsekvenser på miljön. Idag orsakar en stor del av livsmedelsproduktionen allvarliga miljöproblem. Att odla delar av sin mat i den egna trädgården bidrar till en ekologiskt hållbar livsstil, minskar den individuella miljöpåverkan och därmed det egna ekologiska fotavtrycket.  En allmän trend råder gentemot skötselextensiva trädgårdar, ofta anses det oförenligt med en nyttoträdgård. En utgångspunkt för detta arbete är att skötselextensiva odlingsmetoder kan vara av intresse för en växande målgrupp av miljömedvetna människor. Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka hur det går att förena skötselextensivitet med produktivitet i hemträdgården med tanke på växtval och komposition. Frågeställningar som besvaras är; vilka växter kan vara av intresse för den som vill odla skötselextensiva ätbara växter i sin hemträdgård? Hur kan dessa växter planteras så att trädgården blir skötselextensiv? Metoden som används är informationssökning i litteratur och internet.  I resultatets första del tas olika skötselextensiva kategorier av växter upp. Träd och buskar lyfts fram som dem mest skötselextensiva växtkategorierna. Även örtartade perenner innebär ett flertal fördelar när det gäller skötselextensivitet. Andra växtgrupper är perenna vattenväxter samt annueller och bienner som självsår sig. Odling av örtartade och vedartade ätliga perenner i form av polykulturer och skogsträdgårdar kan efter etableringsfasen innebära lite skötsel i förhållande till produktivitet. Därmed   anges polykulturer och skogsträdgårdar (en särskild form av polykultur) som exempel på skötselextensiv växtkomposition. Resultatets slutliga del består av en växtlista redovisad i tabeller och listar 233 ätbara växter som kan användas i skötselextensiva planteringar, inklusive träd, buskar, bambu, perenner, lökväxter,  vattenväxter samt annueller och bienner som självsår sig. Samtliga växter är härdiga i zon 3 och kallare. Dessa växter kan förslagsvis kombineras i polykulturer och skogsträdgårdar. Systemet som innebär att odla i skogsträdgårdar, det vill säga i flerskiktade planteringar av ätbara och användbara träd, buskar, perenner och marktäckare av skiftande höjd är ännu relativt obeprövad i zon 3  och kallare men har potential såväl för intresserade trädgårdsägare som för skolor och i annan pedagogisk och rekreativ verksamhet. Min förhoppning att  växtlistorna  underlättar för den som vill påbörja ett planteringsförsök, så väl i liten som i större skala.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Undersökningav oosporförekomst från kransalger i sediment från olika provtagningspunkter i en gloflad i Gårdskärsområdet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Längs den svenska kusten verkar landhöjningen, en process där landet höjs efter den senaste istiden. Mest påtaglig är landhöjningen i Östersjön. Till följd av landhöjningen avsnörs grunda havsvikar från havet och bildar nya sjöar, så kallade flader, gloflader och glon. Målet med denna studie var att undersöka sediment från olika provtagningspunkter i en gloflad i Gårdskärsområdet i Lövstabukten (norra Uppland), för att se hur fördelningen av olika arter av kransalger varierat i glofladen under åren när miljön successivt förändrats. För att undersöka detta har oosporförekomst från kransalger i sediment studerats. I det undersökta området får landhöjningen verka ganska ostört, vilket gör det intressant att undersöka just detta område. Denna undersökning visar att Chara aspera, Chara globularis och Chara tomentosa tidigare funnits i den undersökta glofladen. C. aspera förekom vid samtliga fem provtagningspunkter och under längst tid, medan C. globularis noterades vid två provtagningspunkter och C. tomentosa fanns vid endast en provtagningspunkt och är den art som växt i glofladen under de senaste åren. Inga stora skillnader fanns i sedimentet mellan de fem olika provtagningspunkterna. Färgen varierade från mossigt grön och vattenrik i ytsediment till fast lera i de djupare delarna av sedimentet.  

  • 4.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Memory carriers and stewardship of metropolitan landscapes2016In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 70, p. 606-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    History matters, and can be an active and dynamic component in the present. We explore social-ecological memory as way to diagnose and engage with urban green space performance and resilience. Rapidly changing cities pose a threat and a challenge to the continuity that has helped to support biodiversity and ecological functions by upholding similar or only slowly changing adaptive cycles over time. Continuity is perpetuated through memory carriers, slowly changing variables and features that retain or make available information on how different situations have been dealt with before. Ecological memory carriers comprise memory banks, spatial connections and mobile link species. These can be supported by social memory carriers, represented by collectively created social features like habits, oral tradition, rules-in-use and artifacts, as well as media and external sources. Loss or lack of memory can be diagnoses by the absence or disconnect between memory carriers, as will be illustrated by several typical situations. Drawing on a set of example situations, we present an outline for a look-up table approach that connects ecological memory carriers to the social memory carriers that support them and use these connections to set diagnoses and indicate potential remedies. The inclusion of memory carriers in planning and management considerations may facilitate preservation of feedbacks and disturbance regimes as well as species and habitats, and the cultural values and meanings that go with them.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gren, Åsa
    The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Karin
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Årsta Odlingar: Möjligheter och omöjligheter för en kommersiell grönsaksodling i stadsrummet2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Andersson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Bergviksäpplet och dess fruktsättning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Trees of Bergvik apple (Bergviksäpple) planted between 2001 and 2007 have shown varying harvest. This study investigates why some trees gets low or no harvest while others get significantly higher harvest. The aim is to identify some reasons why fruiting differs between the trees and if possible suggest and/or enlighten the tree owners what can be done to improve fruiting. The study includes 25 trees, mostly located in Hälsingland, Sweden. The tree owners have answered two questionnaires, first in the spring with questions regarding flowering and the second in the autumn, regarding harvest. The answers to these questionnaires form the foundation for this work.

    The result of the study reveals differences in harvest. Older trees and/or trees with good vegetative growth have larger harvest while trees with poor growth in some cases didn’t even get flowers. Younger trees with good growth gave good harvest. This concludes that the single most important factor to get good harvest is good vegetative growth.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Maria
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Ett gestaltningsförslag på en trädgård anpassad till äldre vårdtagare och personer med demenssjukdom i särskilt boende2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9.
    Andersson, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Fysisk aktivitets betydelse för hälsan: Hur arbetar pedagoger inom årskurs 1-3 med detta?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet fokuserar på fysisk aktivitet och hälsa inom årskurs 1–3. Syftet är att belysa på vilka sätt pedagoger arbetar för att öka elevers förståelse kring fysisk aktivitets betydelse för hälsan och vilken påverkan detta har på eleverna. Urvalsgruppen är verksamma pedagoger. Undersökningen är en kvalitativ forskningsansats med semistrukturerade intervjuer som har kompletterats med ”critical incidents” observationer. Resultatet visar att pedagogerna ofta upprepar fysisk aktivitets betydelse för hälsan för att öka elevernas förståelse kring detta, genom samtal och fysiska aktivitets upplevelser. Kunskap om människokroppen anses även behövas. Slutsatser är att kroppsuppfattning - kunskap om människokroppen, förmåga att använda sin kropp och fysiska aktiviteter - är viktigt för barns förståelse om dess betydelse för hälsan. Studiens resultat ger idéer till pedagoger inom skolan om olika arbetssätt kring fysisk aktivitet för att skapa förståelse, främja hälsosamma vanor och bättre förutsättningar för lärande. Resultatet antyder att elevers totala skolprestationer förbättras av fysisk aktivitet.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Tony
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Habitatval hos yngel av öring (Salmo trutta) i en undersökning i Nedre Dalälven2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project was to examine important parameters for juvenile brown trout habitat selection in their first months after hatching. The study was carried out after approximately 30 000 fry had been released by the County Administrative Board of Gävleborg. Data on habitat selection was collected from five different localities at the river Dalälven, near Gysinge, Sweden. The method of estimating preferred habitat was to determine remaining fry after a period of seven weeks by electrofishing.

    This study confirms that the optimal local habitat choice for juvenile trout is where the substrate size 60- 200 mm is present and a hypothesis is proposed that this substrate is of importance for juvenile trout survival as it gives shelter in the presence of predators. Based on previous research the study gives some suggestions to which important habitat characteristics that were missing where no trout were recaptured.

  • 11.
    Appel, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kulturarvets mosaiklandskap i ny tappning för trädgårdar och balkonger: En litteraturstudie med designförslag som bidrag för bevarandet av mångfalden för solitära bins överlevnad2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. The purpose of this study is to find out what can be done in gardens and balconies for solitary bees survival, species have already been lost or are red-listed because of poor conditions in terms of habitat. What can design-proposals look like for gardens and balconies? What do suitable habitats contain and what do threats look like for solitary bees?The goal with this literature study was to find answers to my questions. Based on facts that emerged from the results, design proposals have been made for gardens and balconies. Increased biotope-surface from ancient times mosaic-landscape can in modern environments like gardens and balconies be designed as non-toxic and flower-rich meadows, flowering border zones, ditches and flower beds, potted plants, flowering trees and shrubs. Solitary bees need shelter, water to drink and food to eat as in nectar and pollen-rich plants. They need flowering plants from early spring to late autumn to survive. It´s important to spread knowledge and understanding how solitary bees live their lives, that people can cooperate to achieve long-term sustainable habitat solutions. Solitary bees need many flowering plant-surfaces that can act as dispersal corridors in to urban environments, where every single square meter flowering-surface is of importance. Solitary bees increase in number with increasing biotope-surfaces which are facts that design proposals are based on. Devastating threats for solitary bees are floral shortage in urban areas, spraying with various poisons, domestic bees spreading diseases, human fear of small insects and altered habitats.

  • 12.
    Askvärn, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kan växter lindra klimakteriebesvär?: Behandling av vasomotoriska symptom med hjälp av örtmedicin2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of herbal medicine for vasomotor symptoms during menopause. The questions posed were which herbs that were used, what parts of the herbs that were used, and how the plant parts were prepared and utilized. The last question covered how much the plants alleviated the vasomotor symptoms.

    A review of the scientific literature was carried out. In the articles, 20 herbs and plants were used, but only five of them were said to relieve the vasomotor symptoms. The five plants were Actaea racemosa, Angelica sinensis, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine sp. and Pimpinella anisum.  The most commonly used parts of the herbs were the roots, often through extracts that were processed in order to increase the concentration and to transform the plant parts into powder. The powder was then for the most part transformed to tablets and capsules. Sometimes, information was missing, such as the scientific names of the plants, what parts of the plants that were used and how the herbs were prepared and utilized.

    On average, the herbs alleviated the vasomotor symptoms by 60 %. Most of the herbs appeared to relieve mild symptoms more than they alleviated strong symptoms. An exception was P. anisum, which decreased both the amount of and the strength of the flushes by 74 %.

    This literature study shows that there are plants that influence the vasomotor symptoms in a positive direction. At the same time, it shows that the information in the articles is sometimes incomplete and that the scientists do not always study if the herbs can give side effects.

    Herbal medicine could be an alternative for women who, for different reasons, cannot or do not want to take synthetic hormones or other pharmacological medicines. However, in order to make herbal medicine part of the treatment offered by public health care, longitudinal studies that also investigate possible side effects or risks are needed for securing the effect of the herbs on the human body.

  • 13.
    Backlund, Elin
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences. University of Gävle.
    Betongångest de Luxe: En Trädgårdsmästares examensarbete om barns kontakt med naturen.2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 14.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Recalling Urban Nature: Linking City People to Ecosystem Services2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal development is dependent on the generation of ecosystem services (ES) to sustain it; however, many ES are degrading. This thesis investigates how social-ecological features behind practices of actor groups shape the generation of ES. The empirical basis is case studies in the urban landscape of Stockholm, Sweden, and the methodological approach is interdisciplinary. Paper I shows that the urban landscape owes it current flow of ES to co-evolutionary processes and that governance with the aim of sustaining ES must take into account historical property rights and the involvement of a diversity of actor groups, as well as ecological processes of the larger landscape. Paper II studies allotment gardens, cemeteries and city parks in relation to the generation of pollination, seed dispersal and pest regulation. Differences in social features behind practice are reflected primary as higher abundance of pollinators in the informally managed allotment gardens and as differences in the compositions of seed dispersers and insectivores’ birds. Thus, voluntary and often ignored actor groups, motivated by sense-of-place, support the generation of some ES here. Paper III shows how practice, linked to ES generation, is retained and stored among allotment gardeners, and modified and transmitted through time, by means of social-ecological memory (SE-memory). SE-memory is an emergent property of a dual process of participation and reification and it facilitates monitoring of local change and links practice, often in habits, to place specific processes that underlie provisioning ES. Paper IV explores how spatial scale mismatches between ecological process and processes of management can be bridged by a spatially explicit and flexible social network structure of governance. Urban ES are a product of human driven co-evolution, consequently sustaining ES in urban landscapes is not about conservation without people, but shaped by and dependent on management practice by people. Practice that links to generation of ES are facilitated by SE-memory of local actors that holds long term management rights. Consequently, local communities of ecosystem practice, which contribute to the production of ES should explicitly be taken into account in urban green governance.

  • 15.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Natural Resource Management, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Natural Resource Management, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social-ecological memory in urban gardens-Retaining the capacity for management of ecosystem services2010In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 255-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many ecosystem services are in decline. Local ecological knowledge and associated practice are essential to sustain and enhance ecosystem services on the ground. Here, we focus on social or collective memory in relation to management practice that sustains ecosystem services, and investigate where and how ecological practices, knowledge and experience are retained and transmitted. We analyze such social-ecological memory of allotment gardens in the Stockholm urban area, Sweden. Allotment gardens support ecosystem services such as pollination, seed dispersal and pest regulation in the broader urban landscape. Surveys and interviews were preformed over a four-year period with several hundreds of gardeners. We found that the allotment gardens function as communities-of-practice, where participation and reification interact and social-ecological memory is a shared source of resilience of the community by being both emergent and persistent. Ecological practices and knowledge in allotment gardens are retained and transmitted by imitation of practices, oral communication and collective rituals and habits, as well as by the physical gardens, artifacts, metaphors and rules-in-use (institutions). Finally, a wider social context provides external support through various forms of media, markets, social networks, collaborative organizations, and legal structures. We exemplify the role of urban gardens in generating ecosystem services in times of crisis and change and conclude that stewards of urban green areas and the social memory that they carry may help counteract further decline of critical ecosystem services. .

  • 16.
    Bekele, Yared
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    GIS Based Factor Identification for the Change in Occurrence of Genista pilosa: a Case Study in Southern Sweden2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has the objective of identifying the possible environmental constraints that has role for the continuous loss of heathland plant Genista pilosa. The study has assessed different environmental settings where the plant occurs by way of overlaying analysis based on multiple spatial data sets. Thereafter empirical change detection analyses on the land use of the study area have been performed on the GIS environment by combining temporal based remotely sensed spatial data. The result was then analyzed using land use dynamicity model and the rates of change on each land use type are identified. Expansion of human activity, especially the spreading of agricultural land and urbanization, is found to be the most determinant factor for the dramatic loss of the plant. Finally serious attention for the protection of the plant is recommended by mentioning the possible problem that would occur due to a loss of biodiversity.

  • 17.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Erhagen, Björn
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    University of Gävle.
    Vesterdal, Lars
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Faituri, Mikaeel
    Omar AlMuktar University, Elbeida, Libya.
    Sanborn, Paul
    University of British Columbia, Prince George, Canada.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Manganese dynamics in decomposing needle and leaf litter: a synthesis2013In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 1127-1136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present synthesis paper was to determine whether concentration changes and net release of manganese (Mn), as related to accumulated litter mass loss, are related to initial Mn concentration, mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP), and tree genus or species. We also examined whether limit values for decomposition are related to initial litter Mn concentration, MAT, and MAP. We compiled 84 foliar litter decomposition studies, conducted mainly in boreal and temperate forest ecosystems, for which Mn dynamics had been well documented. Manganese concentration and amount were related to accumulated litter mass loss at each sampling time for each single study, as well as for (i) all studies combined (n = 748) and (ii) for species groups viz. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) (n = 284), pine (Pinus) species (n = 330), and deciduous species (n = 214). The changes in Mn concentration with accumulated mass loss followed quadratic functions showing significantly higher Mn concentrations for Norway spruce vs. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) (p < 0.0001) and vs. deciduous species (p < 0.01), as well as significantly higher for deciduous species vs. Scots pine (p < 0.0001). Manganese release rates were different among the three species groups (p < 0.001). Still, rates were related to initial Mn concentrations (p < 0.001) for all litter types combined and for the three species groups. Norway spruce released Mn more slowly than pine and deciduous species. Rates were related to climatic factors for litter of Norway spruce and deciduous species. Limit values for all litter and for pine species separately were related to Mn (p < 0.001) and MAT (p < 0.001). For Norway spruce, limit values were related to MAT (p < 0.001) and MAP (p < 0.01). It appears that Norway spruce litter retains Mn more strongly in the litter structure, producing humus richer in Mn than does litter of pine and deciduous species.

  • 18. Berggren Kleja, Dan
    et al.
    Svensson, M
    Majdi, Hooshang
    Langvall, O
    Jansson, P-E
    Lindroth, A
    Weslien, P
    Bergkvist, B
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Pools and fluxes of carbon in three Norway spruce ecosystems along a climatic gradient in Sweden2008In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 7-25Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Bergman, Annie
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Värdet i en tomat: om hur trädgårdar kan användas i arbetet med ungdomar2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att ta reda på varför och hur trädgårdsmästare och/eller trädgårdsterapeuter använder gröna miljöer i arbetet med ungdomar som befinner sig i problematiska livssituationer.

    Studien baseras på fyra e-postintervjuer med tre trädgårdsmästare och en socionom som i sitt arbete möter ungdomar med problem kring; familjeförhållanden, kriminalitet, missbruk, psykisk ohälsa och arbetslöshet.

    Resultatet visar att gröna miljöer är ett verktyg som hjälper informanterna att stödja ungdomarnas utveckling, dels genom att miljön i sig är hälsofrämjande och dels för att trädgårdsarbetet/aktiviteterna går bra att anpassa efter ungdomarnas förmåga. Detta kräver en professionell handledare som kan se deras förutsättningar och verka både som medmänniska, pedagog och terapeut. Trädgården ger ungdomarna bland annat stärkt självtillit och glädje.

  • 20.
    Bergroth, Sylvia
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Öppna dörren och gå ut!: Om utemiljöns betydelse för lärande2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Bergström, Joel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Belysning i trädgården: inspiration tips och idéer2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med att mörkret tränger sig på blir utevistelsen och dagarna allt kortare. Det bidrar till att trädgårdarna finns där ute men de syns inte. För att råda bot på dagens mörka trädgårdar har jag i och med detta arbete gjort en inspirationsstudie. Syftet med studien är att visa hur man kan använda sig av belysning i en trädgård och att inspirera läsaren genom att ge förslag på belysning i två olika trädgårdsmiljöer, en skogstomt samt en modern stadstomt. Jag har studerat litteratur och tagit fram fakta om hur olika delar i en trädgård kan belysas. Därtill har jag gjort två exempelträdgårdar som visar metoder på belysning i olika trädgårdsmiljöer med hjälp av skisser och foton som förhoppningsvis väcker en nyfikenhet hos läsaren.

  • 22.
    Berkes, Fikret
    et al.
    Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Colding, Johan
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment (CNM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Introduction2002In: Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change / [ed] Berkes, F., Colding, J. and Folke, C., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 1, , p. 393p. 1-29Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common perspective until recently was that our problem-solving abilities have been improving over the years. In the area of resource and environmental management, for example, there was a great deal of faith in our growing scientific understanding of ecosystems, our bag of increasingly sophisticated tools and technologies, and the application of market mechanisms to problems such as air pollution control and fishery management through individually allocated quotas. However, the experience over the last few decades does not support such optimism (e.g., Clark and Munn, 1986; Ludwig, Hilborn, and Walters, 1993; Gunderson, Holling, and Light, 1995). Many of our resource and environmental problems are proving resistant to solutions. A gap has developed between environmental problems and our lagging ability to solve them. This is coming at a time when the Earth has become an increasingly human-dominated system. Many of the changes in the biosphere, including the modification of landscapes, loss of biodiversity and, according to some, climate change, are driven by human activities. Furthermore, changes are occurring at an increasingly faster rate than previously experienced in human history.

    There is an emerging consensus regarding the need to look for broader approaches and solutions, not only with resource and environmental issues but along a wide front of societal problems. A survey of senior American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) scientists revealed an intriguing insight.

  • 23.
    Berkes, Fikret
    et al.
    Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Colding, Johan
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment (CNM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Living with disturbance: Building resilience in social-ecological systems2002In: Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change / [ed] Berkes, F., Colding, J. and Folke, C., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 1, , p. 393p. 163-186Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disturbances such as fire, cyclones, and pest outbreaks create variation in natural systems and ecosystem renewal that may be important for the maintenance of biological diversity. Many natural disturbances are inherent in the internal dynamics of ecosystems, and often set the timing of ecosystem renewal processes fundamental for maintaining resilience in ecosystems (Holling et al., 1995).

    By disturbance we mean ‘any relatively discrete event in time that disrupts ecosystem community or population structure and changes resources, substrate availability, or the physical environment’ (White and Pickett, 1985: 7). We distinguish between abiotic and biotic disturbances. Abiotic disturbances are those where the direct cause of disturbance is generated by nonbiotic agents. Examples include fires, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, flooding, and drought. Examples of biotic disturbances include insect and pest attacks, predators, invasion of exotic species, and the grazing and browsing of herbivores.

    Conventional resource management, based on economic production targets, commonly seeks to reduce natural variation in target resources, because fluctuations impose problems for the industry dependent on the resource (Holling and Meffe, 1996). Control of resource stock variability and flows can be achieved in a number of ways. For instance, by increasing financial investments in technologies for harvesting, a modern fishing industry can invest in larger fleets and more effective gear in order to maintain an even flow of production. Maintenance of high and even flows of monoculture crops in large-scale agriculture may be achieved by investing in various energy inputs, such as insecticides, pesticides, and irrigation.

  • 24.
    Berkes, Fikret
    et al.
    University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Colding, JohanBeijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.Folke, CarlBeijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change2002Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the effort towards sustainability, it has become increasingly important to develop conceptual frames to understand the dynamics of social and ecological systems. Drawing on complex systems theory, this book investigates how human societies deal with change in linked social-ecological systems, and build capacity to adapt to change. The concept of resilience is central in this context. Resilient social-ecological systems have the potential to sustain development by responding to and shaping change in a manner that does not lead to loss of future options. Resilient systems also provide capacity for renewal and innovation in the face of rapid transformation and crisis. The term navigating in the title is meant to capture this dynamic process. Case studies and examples from several geographic areas, cultures and resource types are included, merging forefront research from natural sciences, social sciences and the humanities into a common framework for new insights on sustainability.

  • 25.
    Berkes, Fikret
    et al.
    Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Colding, Johan
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment (CNM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Synthesis: Building Resilience and Adaptive Capacity in Social-Ecological Systems2002In: Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change / [ed] Berkes, F., Colding, J. and Folke, C., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 1, , p. 393p. 352-387Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A weekly magazine on business development issued an analysis of Madonna, the pop star, and raised the question ‘How come Madonna has been at the very top in pop music for more than 20 years, in a sector characterized by so much rapid change?’ A few decades ago, successful companies developed their brand around stability and security. To stay in business this is no longer sufficient, according to the magazine. You must add change, renewal, and variation as well. However, change, renewal, and variation by themselves will seldom lead to success and survival. To be effective, a context of experience, history, remembrance, and trust, to act within, is required. Changing, renewing, and diversifying within such a foundation of stability and maintaining high quality have been the recipe for success and survival of Madonna, and for rock stars such as Neil Young and U2. It requires an active adaptation to change, not only responding to change, but also creating and shaping it. In the same spirit, Sven-Göran Eriksson, coach of several soccer teams in Europe, claimed that it is the wrong strategy not to change a winning team. A winning team will always need a certain amount, but not too much, of renewal to be sustained as a winning team. Sustaining a winning team requires a context for renewal, or ‘framed creativity,’ borrowing from the language of the advertiser.

  • 26.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden .
    Pettersson, Lars B
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Halle, Germany .
    With that diet, you will go far: trait-based analysis reveals a link between rapid range expansion and a nitrogen-favoured diet2013In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 280, no 1750, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent global change has had a substantial influence on the distribution of organisms, and many species are currently expanding their ranges. To evaluate the underlying processes, long-term data with good geographic resolution are essential. One important but generally overlooked data source is offered by the taxon-specific national catalogues of first provincial records that are kept in many countries. Here, we use such data to quantify trait-based influences on range expansion in Swedish butterflies and moths between 1973 and 2010. Of 282 species meeting pre-defined quality criteria, 170 expanded their northern range margin, with a mean expansion rate of 2.7 km per year. The analyses demonstrate that habitat and diet generalists, forest species and species active during warm conditions have expanded their ranges more rapidly than other species. Notably, range expansion in diet specialists was positively related to a nitrogen-favoured larval diet, an effect not found among oligo- or polyphagous species. In contrast to the general view, this shows that specialist species can undergo rapid range expansion. We suggest that increased areas of nitrogen-rich habitat, and increased availability of a nitrogen-favoured diet, are among the most important drivers of range expansions, potentially having far-reaching consequences for a wide variety of organisms.

  • 27.
    Björk, Robert G.
    et al.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Majdi, Hooshang
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lewis-Johnsson, Lotta
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Molau, Ulf
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Long-term warming effects on root morphology, root mass distribution, and microbial activity in two dry tundra plant communities in northern Sweden2007In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 176, no 4, p. 862-873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    • Effects of warming on root morphology, root mass distribution and microbialactivity were studied in organic and mineral soil layers in two alpine ecosystems over > 10 yr, using open-top chambers, in Swedish Lapland.

    • Root mass was estimated using soil cores. Washed roots were scanned and sortedinto four diameter classes, for which variables including root mass (g dry matter(g DM) m –2 ), root length density (RLD; cm cm –3 soil), specific root length (SRL; m gDM –1 ), specific root area (SRA; m 2 kg DM –1 ), and number of root tips m –2 weredetermined. Nitrification (NEA) and denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) in the top10 cm of soil were measured.

    • Soil warming shifted the rooting zone towards the upper soil organic layer in bothplant communities. In the dry heath, warming increased SRL and SRA of the finestroots in both soil layers, whereas the dry meadow was unaffected. Neither NEA norDEA exhibited differences attributable to warming.

    • Tundra plants may respond to climate change by altering their root morphologyand mass while microbial activity may be unaffected. This suggests that carbon maybe incorporated in tundra soils partly as a result of increases in the mass of the finerroots if temperatures rise.

  • 28.
    Björkman, Stefanie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    En åländsk trädgårdsmästare och hans trädgård.: Fredrik Sundberg, Hasselbo Trädgård på 1950-talet2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tänk att du träffar din livspartner, ni flyttar in hos dina föräldrar och bor i en liten kammare. Ni får barn och börjar bygga ett hus på en bit mark ni bryter ut från din fars mark. Arbetet pågår i över två år och ni flyttar in i det nybyggda huset med tillhörande växthus och en ladugård med era tre små barn. Mannen i huset försörjer er genom att dra upp plantor och göra begravningsbuketter och kransar. Ni har en ko, några höns, grisar och odlar det mesta av maten själva. Till en början har ni ingen telefon i huset och ni har ingen bil, bara cyklar. Er granne, din far, har häst och kärra om det behövs. Hur är det möjligt att försörja familjen på enbart mat ni själva odlar? Idag år 2010 är det en knepig kombination att få ihop men för Fredrik Sundberg på 1950-talet var det hans enda möjlighet.

    Min nyfikenhet väcktes kring den här personen eftersom det är min gammelmorfar, min mammas morfar. Fredrik Sundberg hade en av Ålands första handelsträdgårdar, Hasselbo Trädgård under åren 1930-1997. Tyvärr gick han bort när jag var liten men nu har intresset väckts för hur hans trädgård såg ut på den tiden han var verksam. Huset, växthuset och trädgården finns kvar inom släkten och jag har studerat hur trädgårdsmästaren Fredrik Sundberg levde och hur hans trädgård såg med fokus på 1950-talet.

  • 29.
    Blomkvist, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Belastningsergonomi för trädgårdsmästare2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt rapporter från Arbetsmiljöverket är arbetsrelaterade besvär som inte beror på arbetsplatsolycka vanliga inom trädgårdsnäringen. Orsakerna till besvären är huvudsakligen en följd av påfrestande arbetsställningar, korta upprepade arbetsmoment och tung manuell hantering. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva vad trädgårdsmästare bör tänka på vad gäller belastningsergonomi för att minska risken för skador i sitt arbete. Sökningar gjordes i databaserna Medline via PubMed, ScienceDirect och Academic Search Elite med sökorden horticulture, gardening, agriculture, ergonomics, pruning, shoveling, stoop, lifting technique and musculoskeletal injuries.

    Resultatet visade att när det gäller lyftteknik och arbetsställningar bör man i möjligaste mån undvika att utföra dessa med en framåtböjd överkropp och raka ben. Denna kroppshållning visade sig vara sämre i jämförelse med andra tekniker och kroppspositioner med hänsyn taget till påfrestningsgraden av ländryggen.

    Även vid grävning finns per automatik ett starkt inslag av att luta sig fram med böjd överkropp med den följden att ryggen utsätts för krafter som kan vara skadliga. En stor del i detta har spadens utformning. En adekvat design på redskapet kan minska påfrestningen.

    Detsamma gäller inom beskärningsområdet. Utformningen av grensågar och sekatörer spelar en avsevärd roll i hur stor påfrestningen blir på muskler och leder i hand/arm och handled. Utöver ergonomisk formgivning är det också viktigt vid beskärningsarbetet att sekatören är bra slipad och att man även här tänker på arbetsställningen för att undvika onödig belastning. 

  • 30.
    Blomqvist, Erika
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Ett designförslag på en helande trädgård till Hälsohuset i Båstad: en processbeskrivning2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt examensarbete var ett uppdrag från Hälsohuset i Båstad som ville skapa en helande trädgård och få ett designförslag på en sådan. Hälsohusets nuvarande arbete med friskvård som meditationer, samtalsterapi och vanliga läkarundersökningar m.m. bedrivs inomhus. Målgruppen som besöker Hälsohuset är bred men alla har sin hälsa som fokus. Hälsohuset vill komplettera med utomhusverksamhet genom att anlägga en helande trädgård som kan erbjuda klienterna möjligheten att vistas i en restorativ utemiljö under besöken.

      Arbetet har skrivits som en processbeskrivning där syftet är att man ska kunna följa hela arbetets framskridande. Mina frågeställningar inför detta arbete var; Vad kan Hälsohuset vinna på att ha en del av sin verksamhet utomhus? Vilka är de viktigaste restorativa kvalitéer för målgruppen i Hälsohuset trädgård? För att besvara dessa frågor utfördes en litteraturgenomgång inom ämnesområdet natur och hälsa för att belysa hur utemiljöer kan främja vår hälsa. Att naturen har en positiv påverkan på människan allmänt finns det idag belägg för i forskningen. Det finns även teorier som säger att sjuka individer rehabiliteras snabbare om de får vistas i naturen. Man har kunnat fastställa vad som utgör och vad en helande plats bör ha för innehåll.

     Utifrån de fakta litteraturgenomgången gav kunde arbetets frågeställningar besvaras. Vinsterna av utomhusverksamhet för Hälsohuset presenteras utifrån mina egna slutsatser samt vilka de viktigaste restorativa kvalitéer för målgruppen är i Hälsohuset trädgård?

     Inför utformningen av den helande trädgården gjordes observationer, intervjuer och en inventeringsanalys av trädgården och dess omgivningar. Jag planerade utformningen utifrån svaret på min frågeställning om vilka restorativa trädgårdskvalitéer som är viktigast för Hälsohusets målgrupp. Jag tog även fasta på det fakta som min litteratursökning gav. I design förslaget till beställaren lyfter jag fram kvalitéer i trädgården som redan finns och det som behöver anläggas så att trädgården kan nyttjas utifrån sitt syfte vilket är att kunna använda utemiljön och bedriva olika behandlingar och aktiviteter där. Jag beskriver trädgårdens delar, mina val och visar en illustrationsplan och en planteringsplan med växtlista. Egna idéer om trädgårdens utformning och anläggning presenteras i slutet av arbetet.  

  • 31.
    Bohlin, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Trädgårdens betydelse för medlemmar i bostadsrättsföreningar: –ur ett hälsomässigt, estetiskt och skötselmässigt perspektiv2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien handlar om att försöka förstå vilken betydelse trädgårdsmiljön har för människor som bor i bostadsrättslägenheter - ur ett hälsomässigt, estetiskt och skötselmässigt perspektiv. Framför allt handlar studien om att ta reda på hur medlemmarna använder sin trädgård och om den har någon hälsomässig betydelse. Studien ska undersöka hur de ser på utformningen av trädgårdsmiljön i sitt bostadsområde, samt hur de skulle föredra att ha den. Den ska också undersöka vilken syn medlemmarna har på skötselfrågan och hur föreningen valt att lösa skötseln av trädgården. Studien bygger på fem kvalitativa intervjuer med representanter från bostadsrättsföreningar som fått besvara frågor om medlemmarnas syn på sina trädgårdsmiljöer.

  • 32. Bommarco, Riccardo
    et al.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Miljövetenskap.
    Danzer, Ulrika
    Pålsson, Karl-Johan
    Torstensson, Peter
    Genetic and phenotypic differences between thistle populations in response to habitat and weed management practices2010In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 99, no 4, p. 797-807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid evolutionary change is increasingly being recognized as commonplace, but the evolutionary consequences for species and ecosystems under human-induced selection regimes have not been explored in detail, although many species occur in such environments. In a common garden experiment and with amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, we examined whether genetic differentiation has taken place between spatially intermixed populations of creeping thistles Cirsium arvense (Asteraceae) collected from a natural habitat (maritime shores), a semi-natural habitat (road verges) and arable fields under two management regimes: conventional and organic farming. Populations of C. arvense have altered genetically and locally adapted their growth patterns with changed land use. Although plants from different habitats showed similar total biomass production, shoot and root production was higher for maritime populations, suggesting selection for increased competitive ability. Competitive ability then declined in the order semi-natural, conventional farms and organic farms. Thistles in arable fields may be more selected for tolerance against disturbances from herbicides and mechanical weed control. In addition, early shoot sprouting and genetic analysis showed differentiation between plants originating from conventional farms and farms that were converted to organic 9–30 years ago, suggesting some adaptation to altered crop cultivation practices

  • 33.
    Bosell Olsson, Helena
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Rondellen och dess växtmaterial2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 34.
    Bringmark, Ewa
    et al.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bringmark, Lage
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sonesten, Lars
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Mjöfors, Kristina
    Department of Soil and Environment, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    University of Gävle.
    Long-term monitoring of scots pine litter decomposition rates throughout sweden indicates formation of a more recalcitrant litter in the south2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 878-890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decomposition studies were carried out at sites throughout Sweden, including the four Integrated Monitoring sites. Scots pine needle litterbag weight loss measurements over 3 or 5 years were determined at 26 sites and repeated up to 27 times, depending on the site. Humus layer respiration rates were determined for 20 sites in 1987-1989 and repeated in 2007-2008. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression was used to elucidate the relative importance of climatic and soil factors. Annual needle weight losses decreased only slowly (20-10%) over 3-5 years for all northern (> 60A degrees N) sites but decreased sharply from 30 to 10% in the third year in southern (< 60A degrees N) sites. Respiration rates of southern sites were less (40% on average) than those of northern sites. Humus layer N was positively correlated to needle weight loss during the first and the second years, but negatively correlated in the third year and to respiration rates. The results indicated that litter formed in southern Sweden became more recalcitrant in later stages of decomposition compared to litter produced in northern Sweden.

  • 35.
    Bui, Tuyet T. A.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Fruit Breeding and Biotechnology, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Falk, Anders B.
    Valthornsvagen, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vanwalleghem, Tanja
    Department of Mycology, Proefcentrum Fruitteelt vzw, Sint-Truiden, Belgium.
    Van Hemelrijck, Wendy
    Department of Mycology, Proefcentrum Fruitteelt vzw, Sint-Truiden, Belgium.
    Hertog, Maarten L.A.T.M.
    Division of MeBioS, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineer-ing, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Keulemans, Johan
    Laboratory of Fruit Breeding and Biotechnology, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Davey, Mark W.
    Laboratory of Fruit Breeding and Biotechnology, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Botrytis cinerea differentially induces postharvest antioxidant responses in 'Braeburn' and 'Golden Delicious' apple fruit2019In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The fruit of two apple cultivars - 'Braeburn', which is susceptible to inoculation with Botrytis cinerea, and the less susceptible cv. 'Golden Delicious' - were investigated with respect to their response to inoculation with B. cinerea. Successful infection by B. cinerea leads to an oxidative burst and perturbation of plant redox homeostasis. To investigate the interaction between apple fruit and B. cinerea, antioxidant metabolism in fruit samples from sun-exposed and shaded sides of different tissue types was measured over time.

    RESULTS: The sun-exposed tissue of 'Braeburn' had higher initial levels of total vitamin C in the peel and phenolic compounds in the flesh than 'Golden Delicious', despite its greater susceptibility to gray mold. A substantial antioxidant response was recorded in diseased 'Braeburn' fruit 14 days after inoculation, which involved an elevated superoxide dismutase activity and ascorbate peroxidase activity, a progressive oxidation of total vitamin C, and a decrease in peroxidase activity and phenolic content. Disease development was slower on the sun-exposed sides than on the shaded sides.

    CONCLUSION: The two cultivars appeared to utilize different strategies to defend themselves against B. cinerea. 'Golden Delicious' almost entirely escaped infection. Preharvest exposure of apple fruit to high light / temperature stress appears to prepare them to better resist subsequent postharvest attack and disease. 

  • 36.
    Burman, Joseph
    et al.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden; Ecology Research Group, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent, United Kingdom .
    Westerberg, Lars
    IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Ostrow, Suzanne
    IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Winde, Inis
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden; Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Nyabuga, Franklin N.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden; Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Larsson, Mattias C.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Revealing hidden species distribution with pheromones: the case of Synanthedonvespiformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in Sweden2016In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 11-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synanthedonvespiformis L. (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is considered a rare insect in Sweden, discovered in 1860, with only a few observations recorded until a sex pheromone attractant became available recently. This study details a national survey conducted using pheromones as a sampling method for this species. Through pheromone trapping we captured 439 specimens in Southern Sweden at 77 sites, almost tripling the number of previously reported records for this species. The results suggest that S. vespiformis is truly a rare species with a genuinely scattered distribution, but can be locally abundant. Habitat analyses were conducted in order to test the relationship between habitat quality and the number of individuals caught. In Sweden, S. vespiformis is thought to be associated with oak hosts, but our attempts to predict its occurrence by the abundance of oaks yielded no significant relationships. We therefore suggest that sampling bias and limited knowledge on distribution may have led to the assumption that this species is primarily reliant on oaks in the northern part of its range, whereas it may in fact be polyphagous, similar to S. vespiformis found as an agricultural pest in Central and Southern Europe. We conclude that pheromones can massively enhance sampling potential for this and other rare lepidopteran species. Large-scale pheromone-based surveys provide a snapshot of true presences and absences across a considerable part of a species national distribution range, and thus for the first time provide a viable means of systematically assessing changes in distribution over time with high spatiotemporal resolution.

  • 37.
    Carlsson, Helena
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Det terapeutiska trädgårdsrummet2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen handlar om hur man kan utforma och använda trädgård i terapi och undervisning för barn med diagnosen autism. Jag har med hjälp av litteraturstudier av befintlig forskning om terapiträdgård och naturens betydelse för hälsan samt intervjuer med två lärare och en arbetsterapeut skapat ett förslag till utformning av en trädgård på en skolgård som hör till ett resurscentrum för barn med diagnosen autism i Borlänge. Mitt förslag är att trädgården ska vara en snitslad bana med fyra trädgårdsrum efter vägen. Rummen är indelade i de fyra grundfärgerna gult, grönt, rött och blått. Ledord som sinnesstimulering, färgterapi, en tydlig struktur i designen och tydliga arbetsscheman för en elevs uppgift har varit viktiga i utformningen. Jag har också fokuserat mycket på användningen av trädgårdsrummen och min målsättning har varit att rummen ska kunna användas bl a för motorisk träning, finmotorisk träning, stimulering av sinnena, rekreation, återhämtning från stress, och att umgås med andra barn. En målsättning med utformningen är att den ska ses som ett koncept som går att använda i många sammanhang, på andra skolgårdar, som lekparker eller i mindre form i en hemträdgård. Även om min målgrupp är barn med diagnosen autism så anser jag att alla barn kan ha nytta av en sådan här trädgård därför att jag tror att alla barn behöver den struktur, ordning, sinnesstimulans och rekreation som den erbjuder.

     

  • 38.
    Carpio, Antonio J.
    et al.
    Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IAS, CSIC), Córdoba, Spain; Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.
    Guerrero-Casado, José
    Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; Universidad Técnica de Manabí, Portoviejo, Manabí, Ecuador.
    Barasona, José A.
    SABIO IREC Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain.
    Tortosa, Francisco S.
    Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; Escuela Superior Politécnica Agropecuaria de Manabí (ESPAM), Calceta, Ecuador.
    Vicente, Joaquín
    SABIO IREC Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain.
    Hillström, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel
    Instituto de Estudios Sociales Avanzados (IESA, CSIC), Córdoba, Spain; CIBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Universidade do Porto, Campus Agrario de Vairão, Vairão, Portugal; Departamento de Biología Vegetal y Ecología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain.
    Hunting as a source of alien species: a European review2017In: Biological Invasions, ISSN 1387-3547, E-ISSN 1573-1464, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1197-1211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hunting activities are responsible for the translocation and restocking of millions of animals throughout Europe, including the introduction of alien species. In a context of the growing use of game translocations and of increasing concern about the impact of biological invasions, our goal is to review the role of alien species introduced primarily for hunting purposes on the European scale. In particular, we explore: (1) the relative importance of game species in the context of alien species introductions; (2) the temporal evolution of the number of species introduced for hunting purposes; (3) the contribution of different taxa; (4) the pattern of introduced game species composition across countries (in terms of similarity), and (5) the underlying human demographic factors driving the diversity of introduced game species per country. According to our results, 24.3% of the mammals and 30.2% of the birds introduced into Europe during the last century were released primarily for hunting purposes, in total, 93 species (63 birds and 36 mammals), the most important taxa being Artiodactyls, Anseriformes and Galliformes. The species composition differed among countries, with a higher diversity of introduced game species in larger countries and in those with a higher human population density and proportion of hunters. This review stresses that hunting was a significant pathway for the introduction of invasive species into Europe in the last century. Since some of the game species introduced have had severe environmental impacts on many European regions, and introductions of non-native game species are still occurring, it is essential to improve regulations and increase public awareness regarding invasive game animals. This will help to preserve biodiversity and improve the sustainability of current hunting schemes in increasingly managed European ecosystems.

  • 39.
    Carpio, Antonio J.
    et al.
    Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IAS, CSIC), Alameda del Obispo s/n, Córdoba, Spain ; Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, C-1 Rabanales, Córdoba, Spain.
    Hillström, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Tortosa, Francisco S.
    Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, C-1 Rabanales, Córdoba, Spain.
    Effects of wild boar predation on nests of wading birds in various Swedish habitats2016In: European Journal of Wildlife Research, ISSN 1612-4642, E-ISSN 1439-0574, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 423-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wild boar has, over the past few decades, undergone an expansion in Europe, which may have negatively affected ground-nesting bird populations and particularly those of wading birds. The aim of this study was to evaluate predation on waders’ nests by wild boar in Sweden, where this species has been increasing since its reintroduction. This was done by placing artificial nests in seven different study areas. A comparison was then made of predation rates of the nests placed on control plots (areas in which no wild boar were present but other predators were) and plots containing different abundances of wild boar. Contrary to our expectations, the proportion of nests predated was significantly lower in those areas in which wild boar were present, with a predation rate of 54 %, whereas the predation rate was 87.5 % in the others. The wild boar was identified as the second most important nest predator in the plots in which it was present, accounting for 18 % of the predated nests. The main predator on both types of plots was the red fox, which was responsible for 28 and 38.5 % of the predated nests on plots with/without wild boar, respectively. Interestingly, predation by badgers occurred principally in areas in which the wild boar was absent (34.5 % of the predated nests), whereas only one nest was predated by this predator in areas containing wild boar. It is not, however, possible to state whether predation by badgers was lower because of the presence of wild boar or whether this was owing to the fact that badgers do not select those particular patches because of habitat features.

  • 40.
    Cassel-Lundhagen, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tammaru, Toomas
    Institute of Ecology, and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Windig, Jack
    Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Animal Sciences Group, Wageningen UR, Lelystad, Netherlands.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Nylin, Sören
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Are peripheral populations special? Congruent patterns in two butterfly species2009In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 591-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Populations at range margins may be genetically different from more central ones for a number of mutually non-exclusive reasons. Specific selection pressures may operate in environments that are more marginal for the species. Genetic drift may also have a strong effect in these populations if they are small, isolated and/or have experienced significant bottlenecks during the colonisation phase. The question if peripheral populations are special, and if yes then how and why, is of obvious relevance for speciation theory, as well as for conservation biology. To evaluate the uniqueness of populations at range margins and the influence of gene flow and selection, we performed a morphometric study of two grassland butterfly species: from Swedish populations that are peripheral and isolated from the main area of the species distributions and from populations in the Baltic states that are peripheral but connected to the main area of the species distributions. These samples were compared to those from central parts of the species distributions. The isolated populations in both species differed consistently from both peripheral and central populations in their wing size and shape. We interpret this as a result of selection caused by differences in population structure in these isolated locations, presumably favoring different dispersal propensity of these butterflies. Alternative explanations based on colonisation history, latitudinal effects, inbreeding or phenotypic plasticity appear less plausible. As a contrast, the much weaker and seemingly random amongregion differences in wing patterns are more likely to be ascribed to weaker selection pressures allowing genetic drift to be influential. In conclusion, both morphological data and results from neutral genetic markers in earlier studies of the same system provide congruent evidence of both adaptation and genetic drift in the isolated Swedish populations of both species.

     

  • 41.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet.
    Local institutions, biological conservation and management of ecosystem dynamics2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyze local institutions and management practices related to natural resources and ecosystem dynamics, with an emphasis on "traditional ecological knowledge" systems. Papers I, II and III analyze ‘resource and habitat taboos’ (RHTs) with the objective to synthesize knowledge about informal institutions behind resource management. Papers IV and V focus on resource management practices and social mechanisms with a capacity to confer resilience in ecosystems. Ecological resilience is the buffering capacity of ecosystems to incorporate disturbance and yet continue to provide biodiversity and ecological services critical to societal development. Cases for the synthesis were mainly derived from the literature. Examples of RHTs could be grouped in six different categories depending on their potential management and conservation functions. These included both use-taboos and non-use taboos. The former regulates access to, and methods and withdrawal of subsistence resources. These appear to be closely related to traditional ecological knowledge, as it is defined in this thesis. The latter prohibits human use of species and habitats, and is closely related to religious and cosmological belief systems. As discussed, both groups of taboos can be comparable to ethics of academic conservation biology, although rationales behind such ethics differ. RHTs have effects that may contribute to the conservation of habitats, local subsistence resources, and ‘threatened’, ‘endemic’ and ‘keystone’ species, although some may run contrary to conservation and notions of sustainability. It is asserted that under certain circumstances, RHTs, and possibly other types of informal institutions may offer advantages relative to formal measures of conservation. These benefits include non-costly, voluntary compliance features. Results of papers IV and V revealed that there exists a diversity of traditional practices for ecosystem management. These include multiple species management, resource rotation, ecological monitoring, succession management, landscape patchiness management, and practices of responding to and managing pulses and ecological surprises. Social mechanisms behind these practices included a number of adaptations for the generation, accumulation, and transmission of knowledge; dynamics of institutions; mechanisms for cultural internalization of traditional practices; and the development of appropriate world views and cultural values. These traditional systems had certain similarities to adaptive management with its emphasis on feedback learning, and its treatment of uncertainty and unpredictability to ecosystems. Furthermore, there existed practices that seem to reduce social-ecological crises in the events of large-scale natural disturbance. These included practices that create small-scale ecosystem renewal cycles, practices that spread risks, and practices for nurturing sources of ecosystem renewal. These practices are linked to social mechanisms such as flexible user rights and land tenure. It is concluded that ecological monitoring appears to be a key element in the development of many of the practices. Management practices in local communities are framed by a social context, with informal institutions and other social mechanisms, and supported by a worldview that does not de-couple people from their dependence on natural systems. Since management of ecosystems is associated with uncertainty about their spatial and temporal dynamics and due to incomplete knowledge about such dynamics, these practices may provide useful ‘rules of thumb’ for resource management with an ability to confer resilience and tighten environmental feedbacks of resource exploitation to local levels. To link local institutions in cross-scale polycentric co-management arrangements may be a viable option for improving current resource management systems.

  • 42.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The potential of ‘Urban Green Commons’ in the resilience building of cities2013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, p. 156-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While cultural diversity is increasing in cities at a global level as a result of urbanization, biodiversity is decreasing with a subsequent loss of ecosystem services. It is clear that diversity plays a pivotal role in the resilience building of ecosystems; however, it is less clear what role cultural diversity plays in the resil- ience building of urban systems. In this paper we provide innovative insights on how common property sys- tems could contribute to urban resilience building. Through a review of recent findings on urban common property systems and the relevant literature, we deal with urban green commons (UGCs) and discuss their potential to manage cultural and biological diversity in cities. We describe three examples of UGCs, i.e. col- lectively managed parks, community gardens, and allotment areas, with a focus on their institutional characteristics, their role in promoting diverse learning streams, environmental stewardship, and social– ecological memory. We discuss how UGCs can facilitate cultural integration through civic participation in urban land-management, conditions for the emergence of UGCs, the importance of cognitive resilience building, and what role property-rights diversity plays in urban settings. We conclude by elucidating some key insights on how UGCs can promote urban resilience building.

  • 43.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Sub-Global Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Sweden; Resilience Alliance, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Jakob
    Centre for Transdisciplinary Environmental Research, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Resilience Alliance, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Transdisciplinary Environmental Research, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Incorporating Green-Area User Groups in Urban Ecosystem Management2006In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 237-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the role of urban green areas managed by local user groups in their potential for supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services in growing city-regions, with focus on allotment areas, domestic gardens, and golf courses. Using Stockholm, Sweden, as an example city-region, we compile GIS data of its spatial characteristics and relate these data to GIS data for protected areas and "green wedges" prioritized in biodiversity conservation. Results reveal that the three land uses cover 18% of the studied land area of metropolitan Stockholm, which corresponds to more than twice the land set aside as protected areas. We review the literature to identify ecosystem functions and services provided by the three green areas and discuss their potential in urban ecosystem management. We conclude that the incorporation of locally managed lands, and their stewards and institutions, into comanagement designs holds potential for improving conditions for urban biodiversity, reducing transaction costs in ecosystem management, and realizing local Agenda 21.

  • 44.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; he Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; .
    Lundberg, Jakob
    he Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    The Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Erik
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Golf courses and wetland fauna2009In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1481-1491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Golf courses are often considered to be chemical‐intensive ecosystems with negative impacts on fauna. Here we provide evidence that golf courses can contribute to the support and conservation of wetland fauna, i.e., amphibians and macroinvertebrates. Comparisons of amphibian occurrence, diversity of macroinvetebrates, and occurrence of species of conservation concern were made between permanent freshwater ponds surveyed on golf courses around Sweden's capital city, Stockholm, and off‐course ponds in nature‐protected areas and residential parklands. A total of 71 macroinvertebrate species were recorded in the field study, with no significant difference between golf course ponds and off‐course ponds at the species, genus, or family levels. A within‐group similarities test showed that golf course ponds have a more homogenous species composition than ponds in nature‐protected areas and ponds in residential parkland. Within the macroinvertebrate group, a total of 11 species of odonates were identified, with no difference detected between the categories of ponds, nor any spatial autocorrelation. Significant differences were found between pond categories in the occurrence of five species of amphibians, although anuran occurrence did not differ between ponds. The great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) was significantly associated with golf course ponds, but the smooth newt (Triturus vulgaris) was not. We found no evidence of any correlation between pond size and occurrence of amphibians. Among the taxa of conservation concern included in the sample, all amphibians are nationally protected in Sweden, with the internationally threatened T. cristatus more frequently found in golf course ponds. Among macroinveterbrates of conservation status, the large white‐faced darter dragonfly (Leucorrhinia pectoralis) was only detected in golf course ponds, and Tricholeiochiton fagesi (Trichoptera) was only found in one off‐course pond. GIS results revealed that golf courses provide over a quarter of all available permanent, freshwater ponds in central greater Stockholm. We assert that golf courses have the potential to contribute to wetland fauna support, particularly in urban settings where they may significantly contribute to wetland creation. We propose a greater involvement of ecologists in the design of golf courses to further bolster this potential.

  • 45.
    Dahlberg, Göran
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Den victorianska köksträdgården - tillbaka till framtiden2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Varken förr eller senare har köksträdgårdsodlingen stått på en sådan hög nivå som under den victorianska tiden – vare sig i Sverige eller i Storbritannien! Examensarbetet syftar till att plocka fram numera kanske bortglömda arbetsmetoder för köksväxt- och fruktodling från tiden kring förra sekelskiftet samt vissa växter som fortfarande kan vara av intresse idag. En viktig fråga är om dessa metoder och växter kan tillföra något när vi nu försöker skapa ett ekologiskt hållbart samhälle.

       På det lilla Årups slott i nordöstra Skåne fanns en gång en numera försvunnen köksträdgård. Författaren till detta examensarbete försökte först utan framgång hitta historien bak denna specifika trädgård. Istället har fältstudier, samtal och litteraturjämförelser mellan svenska och engelska trädgårdshandböcker fått ge en allmän bild av dåtida arbetsmetoder i köksträdgården. Den viktigaste boken har varit ”The Victorian Kitchen garden” som baserades på ett TV-program med samma namn från 1990-talet. Litteraturstudierna visar att även om det är mycket som skiljer svenskt och engelskt sätt att arbeta i trädgården, finns ändå en överskuggande gemensam tanke: att bruka och inte förbruka jorden! En tanke som är i högsta grad aktuell ännu idag.                     

       När så småningom en ”victoriansk” köksträdgård hittades på Trolle-Ljungby slott i Skåne, gavs det en fantastisk möjlighet till jämförelser mellan litteraturens arbetssätt med verkligheten. I examensarbetet ingår bl a en beskrivning av Trolle-Ljungbys odlingar av blommor, grönsaker liksom mer eller mindre exotiska frukter både på friland och i växthus – allt odlat enligt gamla traditionella metoder. Som ett komplement till denna beskrivning, följer författarens kommentarer och jämförelser utifrån de iakttagelser som gjorts under litteraturstudierna. Rekommendation ställs mot funktion.

       Detta examensarbete visar att det finns både specifika metoder liksom rena förhållningssätt till natur och miljö från den victorianska tiden som fortfarande är i allra högsta grad användbara och viktiga. Låt oss därför vara lite lata och inte uppfinna hjulet igen. Det räcker med att ta ett kliv tillbaka till framtiden – till den victorianska köksträdgården.

  • 46.
    Dahlgren, Magdalena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Byta lind mot lind: En studie om trädbyten vid historiska anläggningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to examine how a tree replacement is carried out in a place that is protected as a cultural heritage. The places described are the Baroque garden in Uppsala Botanical Gardens and the baroque garden in the palace garden at Drottningholm. Both gardens are owned by the state and managed by the National Property Board. The National Heritage Board has overall responsibility that the facilities are not distorted. The Botanical Garden in Uppsala belongs to Uppsala University and is managed by the University. The gardens have a high historical value that make them worthy of protection. Because of this there are restrictions and regulations that dictate how the locations should be maintained and administered. The thesis is based on interviews with the project manager for both of the tree-replacements and the garden Director and 1st gardener at the Botanical Garden in Uppsala. The old lime trees at Drottningholm were planted in the late 1600s and early 1700s and was largely dutch lime, Tilia x europaea 'Pallida', imported from Holland. The old lime trees in the botanical garden was planted in the 1970s, when the garden was restored under the direction of Walter Bauer. The tree replacement at Drottningholm was conducted between 1997–2011 in five stages and the restoration in the Botanical Garden is carried out in autumn 2016 and is expected to be completed in June 2017. Both the construction work and a five-year warranty maintenance is performed under contract. The paper describes what influences the choice of the trees at the facilities. There have been studies to determine the species and varieties of the original lime trees in the avenues at Drottningholm. The new lime trees planted there and those that will be planted in the spring of 2017 in the Botanical Garden, are of the same type as the original lime trees at Drottningholm. A large number of measures have been carried out at the installation and maintenance of the trees to ensure that they establish themselves properly and develop well.

  • 47.
    Davey, Ed
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Spaced Learning applied to teaching biology2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Spaced learning is a novel teaching strategy which has used results from neuroscience research as the basis for its design. Neuroscience research supports the need for a temporal pattern of repeated stimulation of neural pathways in order to produce long-term memory. More specifically, a neural pathway needs repeated stimulation with a separation of at least ten minutes between stimulatory inputs in order for optimal memory retention to be attained. The ten minute gaps between stimulation represent the time needed to allow molecular processes within the neurons to take place, in order to strengthen the synaptic connections involved in creating a long-term memory.

    Spaced learning is a teaching method developed on the bases of these neuroscience observations. It is designed to enhance long-term memory of the subject matter taught. The technique uses short (usually eight to twenty minutes) periods of intensive learning separated by ten minute periods of “distractor activities”. These may take the form of physical activities such as ball sports or clay modelling and are aimed to take the mind off the lesson for a short time. The technique was first developed in a school in North-East England and is gaining popularity in secondary schools throughout England.

    The development of the technique, results of testing and its application are discussed together with the underlying neuroscience principles. The application of the technique to the specific task of teaching sixth form biology is examined and suggestions are made for ways in which spaced learning may be used to complement existing teaching techniques.

    A field study was performed at a Swedish high school in order to assess the impact of spaced learning on education at this level. The study consisted of three spaced learning lessons delivered by the author and diagnostic testing. A survey was made to evaluate the student’s opinion of spaced learning. The results were consistent with spaced learning working well for revision and the survey showed that the students were generally positive towards spaced learning and enjoyed the lessons.

    This exam work is set out to make an objective appraisal of spaced learning and raises a major question over whether neuroscience discoveries can be used in the development of education or if the gap between molecules and cells, and the classroom is too great.

  • 48.
    De Marco, Anna
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, Napoli, Italy.
    Esposito, Fabrizio
    Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, Napoli, Italy.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Zarrelli, Armando
    Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, Napoli, Italy.
    Virzo De Santo, Amalia
    Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, Napoli, Italy.
    Litter inhibitory effects on soil microbial biomass, activity, and catabolic diversity in two paired stands of Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Pinus nigra Arn2018In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research Highlights: Plant cover drives the activity of the microbial decomposer community and affects carbon (C) sequestration in the soil. Despite the relationship between microbial activity and C sequestration in the soil, potential inhibition of soil microbial activity by plant cover has received little attention to date.

    Background and Objectives: Differences in soil microbial activity between two paired stands on soil at a very early stage of formation and a common story until afforestation, can be traced back to the plant cover. We hypothesized that in a black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stand the high-quality leaf litter of the tree, and that of the blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L.) understory had an inhibitory effect on soil microbial community resulting in lower mineralization of soil organic matter compared to the paired black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stand.

    Materials and Methods: We estimated potential mineralization rates (MR), microbial (MB), and active fungal biomass (AFB) of newly-shed litter, forest floor, and mineral soil. We tested the effects of litters' water extracts on soil MR, MB, AFB and its catabolic response profile (CRP).

    Results: Newly-shed litter of black locust had higher MR than that of blackberry and black pine; MR, MB, and AFB were higher in forest floor and in mineral soil under black pine than under black locust. Water extracts of black locust and blackberry litter had a negative effect on the amount, activity of microorganisms, and CRP.

    Conclusions: The results demonstrate the potential for black locust and blackberry litter to have a marked inhibitory effect on decomposer microorganisms that, in turn, reduce organic matter mineralization with possible consequences at the ecosystem level, by increasing C sequestration in mineral soil.

  • 49.
    Degermark, Malin
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Betesdjur i stadsnära natur2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska hagmarken och dess biologiska mångfald är hotade, men det

    finns en vilja från samhället att bevara det biologiskt och pedagogiskt

    viktiga utrymme som hagmarkerna utgör. Det finns dessutom behov av mer

    ekologiska och ekonomiska metoder att förvalta stadsnära natur.

    Betande djur i stadsnära grönområden används i flera kommuner som en

    del av lösningen på dessa problem, och detta examensarbete undersöker hur

    betande djur påverkar ett områdes biologi, och hur betande djur fungerar

    som en del av skötseln av stadsnära natur.

    Den metod som använts är litteraturstudier. Som ett komplement har fyra

    intervjuer gjorts med ansvariga personer på förvaltningar som arbetar med

    betande djur.

    Resultatet visar att en grönyta påverkas på många sätt av bete: Floran och

    faunan förändras och blir artrikare, beroende på störningar i form av bland

    annat det tramp som marken utsätts för vid bete.

    Förvaltningarna använder betande djur framför allt för att bevara den

    biologiska mångfalden och det öppna kulturlandskapet, men även som ett

    pedagogiskt, miljömässigt försvarbart och attraktivt inslag i de stadsnära

    grönområdena.

    De tillfrågade förvaltningarna upplever att skötsel av stadsnära natur med

    hjälp av betande djur i huvudsak har fungerat bra, och att det bidragit till att

    de betade områdena har erhållit ökade biologiska och kulturella värden. Det

    behövs dock ytterligare inventeringar för att säkert kunna visa hur en

    restaurerad betesmarks flora och fauna förändras vid ett återinfört bete.

    Betande djur bedöms kunna användas i större utsträckning som en

    realistisk och ekologisk del av förvaltning av stadsnära natur, förutsatt att

    djurens säkerhet kan upprätthållas.

  • 50.
    Degermark, Malin
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Den hållbara parken: En processbeskrivning om matrix planting2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna processbeskrivning undersöker hur en plantering i parkmiljö i Gävle skulle kunna planeras baserat på systemet matrix planting. Begreppet matrix planting beskrivs, samt grunderna för hur ett växtsamhälle byggs upp med passande växter. Fortsättningsvis redovisas inventeringen av den aktuella platsen, med beskrivning av de ekologiska förutsättningarna och förvaltarens önskemål. Ett förslag presenteras, där tankarna bakom formgivningen förklaras. En förteckning på lämpliga växter och deras egenskaper ingår. Därefter anges övergripande skötselanvisningar för matrix-planteringar. I processbeskrivningen konstateras slutligen att det är oerhört svårt att förutse hur ett växtsamhälle kommer att utvecklas, och att det inte går att lämna någon garanti för att en matrix-plantering kommer att uppnå stabilitet. Likväl kan skötselbehovet minskas genom att använda matrix planting som metod och genom noggranna växtval. En illustrationsplan i tre delar bifogas till processbeskrivningen.

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