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  • 1. Aboul-Ata, E
    et al.
    Aboul-Ata, Ahmad
    El Attar, K
    Soliman, Ahmad M
    Rezk, Adel A
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Università degli studi di Molise (Unimol).
    Mazyad, Hamed M
    Harandi, Ali
    Olsson, Olof
    Gene expression and gene suppression mechanisms for human and plant virus-infection control in Egypt: HCV, HSV-2, PVX-Eg2 and TYLCV2009Ingår i: BIOSPECTRUM 2009, International symposium on, Second Green Revolution: Priorities, Programs, Social and Ethical Issues, 2009, s. 12-13Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Van Hees, P. A. W.
    Lundström, U. S.
    Finlay, R. D.
    Organic acids produced by mycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris exposed to elevated aluminium and heavy metal concentrations2000Ingår i: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 146, nr 3, s. 557-567Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A cultivation method was developed to enable exposure of ectomycorrhizal plants with intact extramatrical mycelium to solutions containing different concentrations of aluminium or heavy metals. Pinus sylvestris seedlings colonized by Suillus variegatus (two isolates), Rhizopogon roseolus or Paxillus involutus (two isolates) were used. Seedlings were transferred to Petri dishes containing glass beads and exposed to elevated concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, or Ni in two ways: immediately following transfer; and after allowing mycorrhizal seedlings to develop an extraradical mycelium that colonized the interface between the upper surface of the beads and the metal-containing solution. Production of organic acids in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal systems was measured by withdrawing samples from the solution and analyzing by HPLC. In most experiments, levels of oxalic acid were significantly higher in mycorrhizal treatments than in non-mycorrhizal controls. The measured levels of organic acids were variable, but the results obtained suggest that production of oxalic acid is stimulated by exposure to elevated Al in mycorrhizal seedlings colonized by S. variegatus and R. roseolus. Elevated Al concentrations also increased oxalic acid production by non-mycorrhizal seedlings significantly in two of four Al experiments performed, but the measured concentrations were significantly lower than in corresponding mycorrhizal treatments in both cases. Malonic acid was found in the culture solution of non-mycorrhizal had P. involutus-colonized seedlings, but only trace amounts were found in S. variegatus or R. roseolus-infected seedlings. Citric, shikimic, lactic, acetic, propionic, fumaric, formic, iso-butyric and butyric acid were found in variable concentrations. Production of oxalic acid by seedlings ColoniZed by S. variegatus BL or P. involutus was not stimulated by exposure to 0.44 μM Cd or 17 μM Ni. Exposure to 0.157 mM CU in two separate experiments using P. involutus 87.017 and two strains of S. variegatus (BL and 159) appeared to stimulate production of oxalic acid irrespective of mycorrhizal status or species.

  • 3.
    Ahrné, Karin
    et al.
    SLU.
    Bengtsson, Bengt Åke
    Björklund, Jan-Olof
    Cederberg, Björn
    Eliasson, Claes
    Hydén, Nils
    Jonasson, Jan
    Lindeborg, Mats
    Lst Kalmar Län.
    Ohlsson, Anders
    Palmqvist, Göran
    Ryrholm, Nils
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Biologi.
    Rödlista över fjärilar Lepidoptera2015Ingår i: Rödlistade arter i Sverige 2015 / [ed] Westling, Anna, Uppsala: ArtDatabanken SLU , 2015, s. 98-112Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 4.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Dai, Junhu
    Institute Of Geographic Sciences And Natural Resources Research, Beijing, China.
    Pandey, Rajiv
    Indian Council Of Forestry Research And Education, Dehradun, India.
    Erfanian, Mohammad Bagher
    Ferdowsi University Of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Ahmed, Talaat
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Bai, Yang
    Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Mengla, China.
    Molau, Ulf
    University Of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för företagande, innovation och hållbarhet.
    Impact of ambient temperature, precipitation and seven years of experimental warming and nutrient addition on fruit production in an alpine heath and meadow community2022Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 836, artikel-id 155450Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Alpine and polar regions are predicted to be among the most vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation, and nutrient availability. We carried out a seven-year factorial experiment with warming and nutrient addition in two alpine vegetation communities. We analyzed the relationship between fruit production and monthly mean, maximum, and min temperatures during the fall of the pre-fruiting year, the fruiting summer, and the whole fruit production period, and measured the effects of precipitation and growing and thawing degree days (GDD & TDD) on fruit production. Nutrient addition (heath: 27.88 ± 3.19 fold change at the end of the experiment; meadow: 18.02 ± 4.07) and combined nutrient addition and warming (heath: 20.63 ± 29.34 fold change at the end of the experiment; meadow: 18.21 ± 16.28) increased total fruit production and fruit production of graminoids. Fruit production of evergreen and deciduous shrubs fluctuated among the treatments and years in both the heath and meadow. Pre-maximum temperatures had a negative effect on fruit production in both communities, while current year maximum temperatures had a positive impact on fruit production in the meadow. Pre-minimum, pre-mean, current mean, total minimum, and total mean temperatures were all positively correlated with fruit production in the meadow. The current year and total precipitation had a negative effect on the fruit production of deciduous shrubs in the heath. GDD had a positive effect on fruit production in both communities, while TDD only impacted fruit production in the meadow. Increased nutrient availability increased fruit production over time in the high alpine plant communities, while experimental warming had either no effect or a negative effect. Deciduous shrubs were the most sensitive to climate parameters in both communities, and the meadow was more sensitive than the heath. The difference in importance of TDD for fruit production may be due to differences in snow cover in the two communities. © 2022 The Authors

  • 5.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Erfanian, Mohammad Bagher
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Molau, Ulf
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chen, Shengbin
    Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, China.
    Bai, Yang
    Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, China.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Changes in plant composition and diversity in an alpine heath and meadow after 18 years of experimental warming2022Ingår i: Alpine Botany, ISSN 1664-2201, E-ISSN 1664-221X, Vol. 132, nr 2, s. 181-193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming is expected to have large impacts on high alpine and Arctic ecosystems in the future. Here we report effects of 18 years of experimental warming on two contrasting high alpine plant communities in subarctic Sweden. Using open-top chambers, we analysed effects of long-term passive experimental warming on a heath and a meadow. We determined the impact on species composition, species diversity (at the level of rare, common and dominant species), and phylogenetic and functional diversity. Long-term warming drove differentiation in species composition in both communities; warmed plots, but not control plots, had distinctly different species composition in 2013 compared with 1995. Beta diversity increased in the meadow, while it decreased in the heath. Long-term warming had significant negative effects on the three orders of phylogenetic Hill diversity in the meadow. There was a similar tendency in the heath, but only phylogenetic diversity of dominant species was significantly affected. Long-term warming caused reductions in forbs in the heath, while evergreen shrubs increased. In the meadow, deciduous and evergreen shrubs showed increased abundance from 2001 to 2013 in warmed plots. Responses in species and phylogenetic diversity to experimental warming varied over both time (medium (7 years) vs long-term (18 years)) and space (between two neighbouring plant communities). The meadow community was more negatively affected in terms of species and phylogenetic diversity than the heath community. A potential driver for the changes in the meadow may be decreased soil moisture caused by long-term warming. © 2021

  • 6. Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Chen, Shengbin
    Molau, Ulf
    Responses of lichen communities to 18 years of natural and experimental warming2017Ingår i: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290, Vol. 120, nr 1, s. 159-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims 

    Climate change is expected to have major impacts on high alpine and arctic ecosystems in the future, but empirical data on the impact of long-term warming on lichen diversity and richness are sparse. This study report the effects of 18 years of ambient and experimental warming on lichens and vascular plant cover in two alpine plant communities, a dry heath with sparse canopy cover (54 %) and a mesic meadow with a more developed (67 %) canopy cover, in sub-arctic Sweden.

    Methods 

    The effects of long-term passive experimental warming using open top chambers (OTCs) on lichens and total vascular plant cover, and the impact of plant cover on lichen community parameters, were analysed.

    Key Results 

    Between 1993 and 2013, mean annual temperature increased about 2 °C. Both site and experimental warming had a significant effect on cover, species richness, effective number of species evenness of lichens, and total plant canopy cover. Lichen cover increased in the heath under ambient conditions, and remained more stable under experimental warming. The negative effect on species richness and effective number of species was driven by a decrease in lichens under experimental warming in the meadow. Lichen cover, species richness, effective number of species evenness were negatively correlated with plant canopy cover. There was a significant negative impact on one species and a non-significant tendency of lower abundance of the most common species in response to experimental warming.

    Conclusions 

    The results from the long-term warming study imply that arctic and high alpine lichen communities are likely to be negatively affected by climate change and an increase in plant canopy cover. Both biotic and abiotic factors are thus important for future impacts of climate change on lichens.

  • 7.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; Environmental Science Center, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Dai, Junhu
    Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; CAS-HEC, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Mollazehi, Mohammad D.
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Abdel-Salam, Abdel-Salam G.
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Pandey, Rajiv
    Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehradun, India.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of ambient climate and three warming treatments on fruit production in an alpine, subarctic meadow community2021Ingår i: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, Vol. 108, nr 3, s. 411-422Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Premise: Climate change is having major impacts on alpine and arctic regions, and inter-annual variations in temperature are likely to increase. How increased climate variability will impact plant reproduction is unclear. Methods: In a 4-year study on fruit production by an alpine plant community in northern Sweden, we applied three warming regimes: (1) a static level of warming with open-top chambers (OTC), (2) press warming, a yearly stepwise increase in warming, and (3) pulse warming, a single-year pulse event of higher warming. We analyzed the relationship between fruit production and monthly temperatures during the budding period, fruiting period, and whole fruit production period and the effect of winter and summer precipitation on fruit production. Results: Year and treatment had a significant effect on total fruit production by evergreen shrubs, Cassiope tetragona, and Dryas octopetala, with large variations between treatments and years. Year, but not treatment, had a significant effect on deciduous shrubs and graminoids, both of which increased fruit production over the 4 years, while forbs were negatively affected by the press warming, but not by year. Fruit production was influenced by ambient temperature during the previous-year budding period, current-year fruiting period, and whole fruit production period. Minimum and average temperatures were more important than maximum temperature. In general, fruit production was negatively correlated with increased precipitation. Conclusions: These results indicate that predicted increased climate variability and increased precipitation due to climate change may affect plant reproductive output and long-term community dynamics in alpine meadow communities. © 2021 The Authors. American Journal of Botany published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of Botanical Society of America

  • 8.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för företagande, innovation och hållbarhet.
    Erfanian, Mohammad Bagher
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Chen, Shengbin
    Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, China.
    Sun, Shou Qin
    Institute Of Mountain Hazards And Environment, Chengdu, China.
    Molau, Ulf
    University Of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bryophyte cover and richness decline after 18 years of experimental warming in alpine Sweden2020Ingår i: AoB Plants, E-ISSN 2041-2851, Vol. 12, nr 6, artikel-id plaa061Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to affect alpine and Arctic tundra communities. Most previous long-term studies have focused on impacts on vascular plants, this study examined impacts of long-term warming on bryophyte communities. Experimental warming with open-top chambers (OTCs) was applied for 18 years to a mesic meadow and a dry heath alpine plant community. Species abundance was measured in 1995, 1999, 2001 and 2013. Species composition changed significantly from original communities in the heath, but remained similar in mesic meadow. Experimental warming increased beta diversity in the heath. Bryophyte cover and species richness both declined with long-term warming, while Simpson diversity showed no significant responses. Over the 18-year period, bryophyte cover in warmed plots decreased from 43 % to 11 % in heath and from 68 % to 35 % in meadow (75 % and 48 % decline, respectively, in original cover), while richness declined by 39 % and 26 %, respectively. Importantly, the decline in cover and richness first emerged after 7 years. Warming caused significant increase in litter in both plant communities. Deciduous shrub and litter cover had negative impact on bryophyte cover. We show that bryophyte species do not respond similarly to climate change. Total bryophyte cover declined in both heath and mesic meadow under experimental long-term warming (by 1.5-3 °C), driven by general declines in many species. Principal response curve, cover and richness results suggested that bryophytes in alpine heath are more susceptible to warming than in meadow, supporting the suggestion that bryophytes may be less resistant in drier environments than in wetter habitats. Species loss was slower than the decline in bryophyte abundance, and diversity remained similar in both communities. Increased deciduous shrub and litter cover led to decline in bryophyte cover. The non-linear response to warming over time underlines the importance of long-term experiments and monitoring. © 2020 The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  • 9. Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Calluna AB, Nacka, Sweden.
    Juhanson, Jaanis
    Michelsen, Anders
    Ľuptáčik, Peter
    Impacts of twenty years of experimental warming on soil carbon, nitrogen, moisture and soil mites across alpine/subarctic tundra communities2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species. Long-term warming also caused loss of nitrogen, carbon and moisture from the mineral soil layer in mesic meadow, but not in wet meadow or heath or from the organic soil layer. There was a significant site effect on the density of one mite species, Oppiella neerlandica, and all soil parameters. A significant plot-scale impact on mites suggests that small-scale heterogeneity may be important for buffering mites from global warming. The results indicated that juvenile mites may be more vulnerable to global warming than adult stages. Importantly, the results also indicated that global warming may cause carbon and nitrogen losses in alpine and tundra mineral soils and that its effects may differ at local scale.

  • 10.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet, Campus Gotland.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborg Universitet.
    Climate change and climatic events: Community-, functional- and species-level responses of bryophytes and lichens to constant, stepwise, and pulse experimental warming in an alpine tundra2014Ingår i: Alpine Botany, ISSN 1664-2201, E-ISSN 1664-221X, Vol. 124, nr 2, s. 81-91Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally imposed three different kinds of warming scenarios over 3 years on an alpine meadow community to identify the differential effects of climate warming and extreme climatic events on the abundance and biomass of bryophytes and lichens. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open top chambers (an average temperature increase of 1.87 °C), (b) a yearly stepwise increase of warming (average temperature increases of 1.0; 1.87 and 3.54 °C, consecutively), and (c) a pulse warming, i.e., a single first year pulse event of warming (average temperature increase of 3.54 °C only during the first year). To our knowledge, this is the first climate change study that attempts to distinguish between the effects of constant, stepwise and pulse warming on bryophyte and lichen communities. We hypothesised that pulse warming would have a significant short-term effect compared to the other warming treatments, and that stepwise warming would have a significant mid-term effect compared to the other warming treatments. Acrocarpous bryophytes as a group increased in abundance and biomass to the short-term effect of pulse warming. We found no significant effects of mid-term (third-year) stepwise warming. However, one pleurocarpous bryophyte species, Tomentypnum nitens, generally increased in abundance during the warm year 1997 but decreased in control plots and in response to the stepwise warming treatment. Three years of experimental warming (all treatments as a group) did have a significant impact at the community level, yet changes in abundance did not translate into significant changes in the dominance hierarchies at the functional level (for acrocarpous bryophytes, pleurocarpous bryophytes, Sphagnum or lichens), or in significant changes in other bryophyte or lichen species. The results suggest that bryophytes and lichens, both at the functional group and species level, to a large extent are resistant to the different climate change warming simulations that were applied.

  • 11.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Molau, Ulf
    University of Gothenburg.
    Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient addition causes decline of bryophytes and lichens in alpine meadow and heath communitiesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Global change is predicted to have large and rapid impact on polar and alpine regions. Bryophytes and lichens increase their importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning at higher latitudes/altitudes. Here we report from a seven year factorial experiment with nutrient addition and warming on the abundance of bryophytes and lichens in an alpine meadow and heath community. Treatments had significant negative effect on relative change of total abundance bryophytes and lichens, the largest decline to the nutrient addition and the combined nutrient addition and warming treatments, bryophytes decreasing most in the meadow, lichens most in the heath. Nutrient addition, and the combined nutrient addition and warming brought rapid decrease in both bryophytes and lichens, while warming had a delayed negative impact. Of sixteen species that were included the statistical analyses, we found significant negative effects on seven species. We show that impact of simulated global change on bryophytes and lichens differ in in time and magnitude among treatments and plant communities. Our results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of climate change models, as short-term studies are poor predictors of longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens, similar to what have been shown for vascular plants. Species-specific responses may differ in time, and this will likely cause changes in the dominance structures of bryophytes and lichens over time.

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  • 12.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    VTI, Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, S-10215 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Molau, Ulf
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Testing reliability of short-term responses to predict longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens to environmental change2015Ingår i: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 58, s. 77-85Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental changes are predicted to have severe and rapid impacts on polar and alpine regions. At high latitudes/altitudes, cryptogams such as bryophytes and lichens are of great importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning. This seven-year factorial experiment examined the effects of fertilizing and experimental warming on bryophyte and lichen abundance in an alpine meadow and a heath community in subarctic Sweden. The aim was to determine whether shortterm responses (five years) are good predictors of longer-term responses (seven years). Fertilizing and warming had significant negative effects on total and relative abundance of bryophytes and lichens, with the largest and most rapid decline caused by fertilizing and combined fertilizing and warming. Bryophytes decreased most in the alpine meadow community, which was bryophyte-dominated, and lichens decreased most in the heath community, which was lichen-dominated. This was surprising, as the most diverse group in each community was expected to be most resistant to perturbation. Warming alone had a delayed negative impact. Of the 16 species included in statistical analyses, seven were significantly negatively affected. Overall, the impacts of simulated warming on bryophytes and lichens as a whole and on individual species differed in time and magnitude between treatments and plant communities (meadow and heath). This will likely cause changes in the dominance structures over time. These results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of data used in climate change models, as models based on short-term data are poor predictors of long-term responses of bryophytes and lichens.

  • 13.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Qatar University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Čuchta, Peter
    Academy of Science of the Czech Republic.
    Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming2015Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, artikel-id 18161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effects of micro-scale, site and 19 and 21 years of experimental warming on Collembola in three contrasting alpine subarctic plant communities (poor heath, rich meadow, wet meadow). Unexpectedly, experimental long-term warming had no significant effect on species richness, effective number of species, total abundance or abundance of any Collembola species. There were micro-scale effects on species richness, total abundance, and abundance of 10 of 35 species identified. Site had significant effect on effective number of species, and abundance of six species, with abundance patterns differing between sites. Site and long-term warming gave non-significant trends in species richness.

    The highest species richness was observed in poor heath, but mean species richness tended to be highest in rich meadow and lowest in wet meadow. Warming showed a tendency for a negative impact on species richness. This long-term warming experiment across three contrasting sites revealed that Collembola is capable of high resistance to climate change. We demonstrated that micro-scale and site effects are the main controlling factors for Collembola abundance in high alpine subarctic environments. Thus local heterogeneity is likely important for soil fauna composition and may play a crucial role in buffering Collembola against future climate change.

  • 14.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Little, Chelsea J.
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Molau, Ulf
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dominance hierarchies, diversity and species richness of vascular plants in an alpine meadow: contrasting short and medium term responses to simulated global change2014Ingår i: PeerJ, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 2, artikel-id 406Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the impact of simulated global change on a high alpine meadow plant community. Specifically, we examined whether short-term (5 years) responses are good predictors for medium-term (7 years) changes in the system by applying a factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to 20 plots in Latnjajaure, subarctic Sweden. Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient enhancement caused dramatic shifts in dominance hierarchies in response to the nutrient and the combined warming and nutrient enhancement treatments. Dominance hierarchies in the meadow moved from a community being dominated by cushion plants, deciduous, and evergreen shrubs to a community being dominated by grasses, sedges, and forbs. Short-termresponses were shown to be inconsistent in their ability to predict medium-term responses for most functional groups, however, grasses showed a consistent and very substantial increase in response to nutrient addition over the seven years. The non-linear responses over time point out the importance of longer-term studies with repeated measurements to be able to better predict future changes. Forecasted changes to temperature and nutrient availability have implications for trophic interactions, and may ultimately influence the access to and palatability of the forage for grazers. Depending on what anthropogenic change will be most pronounced in the future (increase in nutrient deposits, warming, or a combination of them both), different shifts in community dominance hierarchies may occur. Generally, this study supports the productivity-diversity relationship found across arctic habitats, with community diversity peaking in mid-productivity systems and degrading as nutrient availability increases further. This is likely due the increasing competition in plant-plant interactions and the shifting dominance structure with grasses taking over the experimental plots, suggesting that global change could have high costs to biodiversity in the Arctic.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 15.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Little, Chelsea J.
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Molau, Ulf
    Vascular plant abundance and diversity in an alpine heath under observed and simulated global change2015Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, artikel-id 10197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change is predicted to cause shifts in species distributions and biodiversity in arctic tundra. We applied factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to a nutrient and species poor alpine/arctic heath community for seven years. Vascular plant abundance in control plots increased by 31%. There were also notable changes in cover in the nutrient and combined nutrient and warming treatments, with deciduous and evergreen shrubs declining, grasses overgrowing these plots. Sedge abundance initially increased significantly with nutrient amendment and then declined, going below initial values in the combined nutrient and warming treatment. Nutrient addition resulted in a change in dominance hierarchy from deciduous shrubs to grasses. We found significant declines in vascular plant diversity and evenness in the warming treatment and a decline in diversity in the combined warming and nutrient addition treatment, while nutrient addition caused a decline in species richness. The results give some experimental support that species poor plant communities with low diversity may be more vulnerable to loss of species diversity than communities with higher initial diversity. The projected increase in nutrient deposition and warming may therefore have negative impacts on ecosystem processes, functioning and services due to loss of species diversity in an already impoverished environment.

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  • 16.
    Ali, Arshad
    et al.
    East China Normal University.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Bai, Yang
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Qatar University.
    Diversity-productivity dependent resistance of an alpine plant community to different climate change scenarios2016Ingår i: Ecological research, ISSN 0912-3814, E-ISSN 1440-1703, Vol. 31, nr 6, s. 935-945Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report from a experiment imposing different warming scenarios [control with ambient temperature, constant level of moderate warming for 3 years, stepwise increase in warming for 3 years, and one season of high level warming (pulse) simulating an extreme summer event] on an alpine ecosystem to study the impact on species diversity–biomass relationship, and community resistance in terms of biomass production.

    Multiple linear mixed models indicate that experimental years had stronger influence on biomass than warming scenarios and species diversity. Species diversity and biomass had almost humpback relationships under different warming scenarios over different experimental years. There was generally a negative diversity–biomass relationship, implying that a positive diversity–biomass relationship was not the case.

    The application of different warming scenarios did not change this tendency. The change in community resistance to all warming scenarios was generally negatively correlated with increasing species diversity, the strength of the correlation varying both between treatments and between years within treatments. The strong effect of experimental years was consistent with the notion that niche complementarity effects increase over time, and hence, higher biomass productivity over experimental years. The strongest negative relationship was found in the first year of the pulse treatment, indicating that the community had weak resistance to an extreme event of one season of abnormally warm climate.

    Biomass production started recovering during the two subsequent years. Contrasting biomass-related resistance emerged in the different treatments, indicating that micro sites within the same plant community may differ in their resistance to different warming scenarios.

  • 17. Aloisio, I
    et al.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Università degli studi di Molise (Unimol), Italy.
    De Felice, D. V. A
    Tremonte, P
    Castoria, R
    A biochemical approach to elucidate the pathway of patulin degradation by a biocontrol yeast2008Ingår i: Journal of plant pathology, ISSN 1125-4653, E-ISSN 2239-7264, Vol. 90, nr S2, s. 317-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Alsanius, Beatrix
    et al.
    VKM; SLU.
    Magnusson, Christer
    VKM; NIBIO.
    Nicolaisen, Mogens
    VKM; Aarhus University.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektroteknik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Biologi. VKM.
    Wendell, Micael
    VKM.
    Krokene, Paal
    VKM; NINBIO.
    Stenberg, Johan
    VKM; SLU.
    Thomsen, Iben M
    VKM; University of Copenhagen.
    Rafoss, Trond
    VKM; University of Agder.
    Assessment of treatment methods and validation criteria for composting and biogas facilities in relation to plant health risks and the risk of spreading alien organisms: Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Plant Health of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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    fulltext
  • 19.
    Amselem, Yohanna
    Högskolan i Gävle. Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap.
    Hemträdgårdens Skafferi: inventering av ätbara, skötselextensiva växter för hemträdgården2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur vi lever och vad vi konsumerar får konsekvenser på miljön. Idag orsakar en stor del av livsmedelsproduktionen allvarliga miljöproblem. Att odla delar av sin mat i den egna trädgården bidrar till en ekologiskt hållbar livsstil, minskar den individuella miljöpåverkan och därmed det egna ekologiska fotavtrycket.  En allmän trend råder gentemot skötselextensiva trädgårdar, ofta anses det oförenligt med en nyttoträdgård. En utgångspunkt för detta arbete är att skötselextensiva odlingsmetoder kan vara av intresse för en växande målgrupp av miljömedvetna människor. Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka hur det går att förena skötselextensivitet med produktivitet i hemträdgården med tanke på växtval och komposition. Frågeställningar som besvaras är; vilka växter kan vara av intresse för den som vill odla skötselextensiva ätbara växter i sin hemträdgård? Hur kan dessa växter planteras så att trädgården blir skötselextensiv? Metoden som används är informationssökning i litteratur och internet.  I resultatets första del tas olika skötselextensiva kategorier av växter upp. Träd och buskar lyfts fram som dem mest skötselextensiva växtkategorierna. Även örtartade perenner innebär ett flertal fördelar när det gäller skötselextensivitet. Andra växtgrupper är perenna vattenväxter samt annueller och bienner som självsår sig. Odling av örtartade och vedartade ätliga perenner i form av polykulturer och skogsträdgårdar kan efter etableringsfasen innebära lite skötsel i förhållande till produktivitet. Därmed   anges polykulturer och skogsträdgårdar (en särskild form av polykultur) som exempel på skötselextensiv växtkomposition. Resultatets slutliga del består av en växtlista redovisad i tabeller och listar 233 ätbara växter som kan användas i skötselextensiva planteringar, inklusive träd, buskar, bambu, perenner, lökväxter,  vattenväxter samt annueller och bienner som självsår sig. Samtliga växter är härdiga i zon 3 och kallare. Dessa växter kan förslagsvis kombineras i polykulturer och skogsträdgårdar. Systemet som innebär att odla i skogsträdgårdar, det vill säga i flerskiktade planteringar av ätbara och användbara träd, buskar, perenner och marktäckare av skiftande höjd är ännu relativt obeprövad i zon 3  och kallare men har potential såväl för intresserade trädgårdsägare som för skolor och i annan pedagogisk och rekreativ verksamhet. Min förhoppning att  växtlistorna  underlättar för den som vill påbörja ett planteringsförsök, så väl i liten som i större skala.

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  • 20.
    Andersson, Emelie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö.
    Undersökningav oosporförekomst från kransalger i sediment från olika provtagningspunkter i en gloflad i Gårdskärsområdet2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Längs den svenska kusten verkar landhöjningen, en process där landet höjs efter den senaste istiden. Mest påtaglig är landhöjningen i Östersjön. Till följd av landhöjningen avsnörs grunda havsvikar från havet och bildar nya sjöar, så kallade flader, gloflader och glon. Målet med denna studie var att undersöka sediment från olika provtagningspunkter i en gloflad i Gårdskärsområdet i Lövstabukten (norra Uppland), för att se hur fördelningen av olika arter av kransalger varierat i glofladen under åren när miljön successivt förändrats. För att undersöka detta har oosporförekomst från kransalger i sediment studerats. I det undersökta området får landhöjningen verka ganska ostört, vilket gör det intressant att undersöka just detta område. Denna undersökning visar att Chara aspera, Chara globularis och Chara tomentosa tidigare funnits i den undersökta glofladen. C. aspera förekom vid samtliga fem provtagningspunkter och under längst tid, medan C. globularis noterades vid två provtagningspunkter och C. tomentosa fanns vid endast en provtagningspunkt och är den art som växt i glofladen under de senaste åren. Inga stora skillnader fanns i sedimentet mellan de fem olika provtagningspunkterna. Färgen varierade från mossigt grön och vattenrik i ytsediment till fast lera i de djupare delarna av sedimentet.  

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  • 21.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Barthel, Stephan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Memory carriers and stewardship of metropolitan landscapes2016Ingår i: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 70, s. 606-614Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    History matters, and can be an active and dynamic component in the present. We explore social-ecological memory as way to diagnose and engage with urban green space performance and resilience. Rapidly changing cities pose a threat and a challenge to the continuity that has helped to support biodiversity and ecological functions by upholding similar or only slowly changing adaptive cycles over time. Continuity is perpetuated through memory carriers, slowly changing variables and features that retain or make available information on how different situations have been dealt with before. Ecological memory carriers comprise memory banks, spatial connections and mobile link species. These can be supported by social memory carriers, represented by collectively created social features like habits, oral tradition, rules-in-use and artifacts, as well as media and external sources. Loss or lack of memory can be diagnoses by the absence or disconnect between memory carriers, as will be illustrated by several typical situations. Drawing on a set of example situations, we present an outline for a look-up table approach that connects ecological memory carriers to the social memory carriers that support them and use these connections to set diagnoses and indicate potential remedies. The inclusion of memory carriers in planning and management considerations may facilitate preservation of feedbacks and disturbance regimes as well as species and habitats, and the cultural values and meanings that go with them.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gren, Åsa
    The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, nr 4, s. 445-453Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

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  • 23.
    Andersson, Karin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap.
    Årsta Odlingar: Möjligheter och omöjligheter för en kommersiell grönsaksodling i stadsrummet2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 24.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Bergviksäpplet och dess fruktsättning2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Trees of Bergvik apple (Bergviksäpple) planted between 2001 and 2007 have shown varying harvest. This study investigates why some trees gets low or no harvest while others get significantly higher harvest. The aim is to identify some reasons why fruiting differs between the trees and if possible suggest and/or enlighten the tree owners what can be done to improve fruiting. The study includes 25 trees, mostly located in Hälsingland, Sweden. The tree owners have answered two questionnaires, first in the spring with questions regarding flowering and the second in the autumn, regarding harvest. The answers to these questionnaires form the foundation for this work.

    The result of the study reveals differences in harvest. Older trees and/or trees with good vegetative growth have larger harvest while trees with poor growth in some cases didn’t even get flowers. Younger trees with good growth gave good harvest. This concludes that the single most important factor to get good harvest is good vegetative growth.

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  • 25.
    Andersson, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap.
    Ett gestaltningsförslag på en trädgård anpassad till äldre vårdtagare och personer med demenssjukdom i särskilt boende2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 26.
    Andersson, Sandra
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Fysisk aktivitets betydelse för hälsan: Hur arbetar pedagoger inom årskurs 1-3 med detta?2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet fokuserar på fysisk aktivitet och hälsa inom årskurs 1–3. Syftet är att belysa på vilka sätt pedagoger arbetar för att öka elevers förståelse kring fysisk aktivitets betydelse för hälsan och vilken påverkan detta har på eleverna. Urvalsgruppen är verksamma pedagoger. Undersökningen är en kvalitativ forskningsansats med semistrukturerade intervjuer som har kompletterats med ”critical incidents” observationer. Resultatet visar att pedagogerna ofta upprepar fysisk aktivitets betydelse för hälsan för att öka elevernas förståelse kring detta, genom samtal och fysiska aktivitets upplevelser. Kunskap om människokroppen anses även behövas. Slutsatser är att kroppsuppfattning - kunskap om människokroppen, förmåga att använda sin kropp och fysiska aktiviteter - är viktigt för barns förståelse om dess betydelse för hälsan. Studiens resultat ger idéer till pedagoger inom skolan om olika arbetssätt kring fysisk aktivitet för att skapa förståelse, främja hälsosamma vanor och bättre förutsättningar för lärande. Resultatet antyder att elevers totala skolprestationer förbättras av fysisk aktivitet.

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  • 27.
    Andersson, Tony
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Habitatval hos yngel av öring (Salmo trutta) i en undersökning i Nedre Dalälven2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta examensarbete görs en praktisk undersökning av några utvalda faktorer i habitatet som antas påverka yngel av öring under deras första månader. Studien har genomförts i anslutning till en utsättning av ca 30 000 yngel i Gysingeforsarna vid Nedre Dalälven som Länsstyrelsen i Gävleborg utförde under sommaren 2014 och som sedan under hösten följdes upp med hjälp av elfiske. Fältdata har samlats in från fem lokaler under perioden 29 oktober 2014 till 9 januari 2015.

    Resultatet från denna kartering och litteraturstudier i ämnet visar på goda förutsättningar i habitatet vid två av lokalerna, vilka även är de två platser där flest yngel återfångades. Vid två andra lokaler återfångades inga yngel. Detta kan för det ena fallet (Sevedskvarn, södra) förklaras med för litet djup under sommarens lågvattenflöde och alltför höga vattenhastigheter vid normalflöde. Den andra platsen där yngel saknades (Granön, ovan bron) erbjuder bättre förutsättningar för predatorer (både fisk och fågel) samt har en bottenstruktur som vid en jämförelse erbjuder färre skyddade platser.

    En föreslagen hypotes utifrån studiens resultat är att bottensubstrat i storleksintervallet 60-200 mm har stor betydelse i öringynglens habitat vid närvaro av predatorer då där skapas skydd (hålor/springor) i lämplig storlek för öringyngel.

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    Habitatval hos yngel av öring (Salmo trutta) i en undersökning i Nedre Dalälven
  • 28.
    Appel, Madeleine
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Kulturarvets mosaiklandskap i ny tappning för trädgårdar och balkonger: En litteraturstudie med designförslag som bidrag för bevarandet av mångfalden för solitära bins överlevnad2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt.Syftet med denna studie är att ta reda på vad som kan göras i trädgårds- och balkongmiljöer för solitära bins överlevnad, då arter redan gått förlorade eller är rödlistade på grund av dåliga förutsättningar i fråga om habitat. Hur kan utformningen av designförslag se ut för trädgård och balkong? Vad innehåller lämpliga habitat samt hur ser hotbilden ut för solitära bin? Målet med denna litteraturstudie var att finna svar på mina frågeställningar. Utifrån de fakta som framkommit från resultaten har sedan designförslag utformats för trädgårds- och balkongmiljöer. Ökad biotopyta från forna tiders mosaiklandskap kan i ny tappning utformas som trädgårds- och balkongmiljöer i form av giftfria och blomrika små ängar, blommande kantzoner, diken och rabatter, krukväxter, blommande träd och buskar. Solitära bin behöver husrum, vatten att dricka och mat att äta i form av nektar- och pollenrika växter. De behöver blommande växter från tidig vår till sen höst för att överleva. Viktigt att sprida kunskap och förståelse för hur solitära bin lever sina liv så att människor kan samarbeta för att nå långsiktiga hållbara habitatlösningar. Solitära bin behöver många blommande växtytor som kan fungera som spridningskorridorer in i de urbana miljöerna där varenda liten kvadratmeter blommande yta har betydelse. Solitära bin ökar i antal med ökad biotopyta är fakta som designförslagen baserats på. Förödande hot för solitära bin är bland annat blombrist i urbana miljöer, besprutning med olika gifter, tambin som sprider sjukdomar, människans rädsla för små kryp samt förändrade livsmiljöer.

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  • 29.
    Askvärn, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Kan växter lindra klimakteriebesvär?: Behandling av vasomotoriska symptom med hjälp av örtmedicin2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete var att undersöka användningen av örtmedicin vid vasomotoriska symptom i klimakteriet. Frågorna som ställdes var vilka växter som användes, vilka delar av växterna som användes, och hur växtdelarna bereddes och användes. Den sista frågeställningen tog upp hur mycket växterna lindrade de vasomotoriska symptomen.

    En litteraturstudie genomfördes över vetenskapliga artiklar. I artiklarna användes 20 växter, men endast fem av dessa sas lindra de vasomotoriska symptomen. De fem växterna var Actaea racemosa, Angelica sinensis, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine sp. och Pimpinella anisum.  De växtdelar som oftast användes var rötterna och dessa bereddes ofta genom extrakt som bearbetades för att öka koncentrationen och omvandlas till pulver. Pulvret formades för det mesta till tabletter och kapslar. Ibland saknades information, som vetenskapliga namn på växterna, vilka växtdelar som användes eller hur växterna bereddes.

    I snitt lindrade växterna de vasomotoriska symptomen med 60 %. De flesta växterna visade sig lindra milda symptom mer än starka symptom. Ett undantag var P. anisum som minskade både antal och styrkan på vallningarna med 74 %.

    Denna litteraturstudie visar att det finns växter som påverkar de vasomotoriska symptomen i positiv riktning. Samtidigt visar den att informationen i artiklarna ibland är bristfällig och att man inte alltid studerar om växterna kan ge biverkningar.

    Örtmedicin skulle kunna vara ett alternativ för kvinnor som av olika anledningar inte kan eller vill använda syntetiska hormoner eller andra farmakologiska mediciner, men för att kunna ta in örtmedicin som en del av sjukvården krävs det longitudinella studier som även studerar eventuella biverkningar eller risker för att bättre säkerställa växternas effekt på människokroppen.

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  • 30.
    Attorps, Iiris
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektroteknik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Matematik.
    Kellner, Eva
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektroteknik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Biologi.
    Ett helhetsgrepp för likvärdig skola2021Ingår i: Nämnaren : tidskrift för matematikundervisning, ISSN 0348-2723, nr 3, s. 35-39Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 31.
    Audusseau, Hélène
    et al.
    Dept of Zoology, Stockholm University; UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, UK..
    Ryrholm, Nils
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektroteknik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Biologi.
    Stefanescu, Constanti
    Museu de Ciències Naturals de Granollers, Granollers, Barcelona, Spain.
    Tharel, Suzanne
    Dept of Zoology, Stockholm University.
    Jansson, Camilla
    Dept of Zoology, Stockholm University.
    Champeaux, Lucile
    Dept of Zoology, Stockholm University.
    Shaw, Mark R.
    National Museums of Scotland.
    Raper, Chris
    Angela Marmont Centre for UK Biodiversity, Natural History Museum, London, UK..
    Lewis, Owen T.
    Dept of Zoology, Univ. of Oxford, Oxford, UK. .
    Janz, Niklas
    Dept of Zoology, Stockholm University.
    Schmucki, Reto
    UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, UK..
    Rewiring of interactions in a changing environment: nettle-feeding butterflies and their parasitoids2021Ingår i: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 130, nr 4, s. 624-636Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate and land use change can alter the incidence and strength of biotic interactions, with important effects on the distribution, abundance and function of species. To assess the importance of these effects and their dynamics, studies quantifying how biotic interactions change in space and time are needed. We studied interactions between nettle-feeding butterflies and their shared natural enemies (parasitoids) locally and across 500 km latitudinal gradient in Sweden. We also examined the potential impact of the range-expansion of the butterfly Araschnia levana on resident butterflies via shared parasitoids, by studying how parasitism in resident butterflies covaries with the presence or absence of the newly-established species. We collected 6777 larvae of four nettle-feeding butterfly species (Aglais urticae, Aglais io, Ar. levana and Vanessa atalanta), over two years, at 19 sites distributed along the gradient. We documented the parasitoid complex for each butterfly species and measured their overlap, and analysed how parasitism rates were affected by butterfly species assemblage, variations in abundance, time, and the arrival of Ar. levana. Parasitoids caused high mortality, with substantial overlap in the complex of parasitoids associated with the four host butterflies. Levels of parasitism differed significantly among butterflies and were influenced by the local butterfly species assemblage. Our results also suggest that parasitism in resident butterflies is elevated at sites where Ar. levana has been established for a longer period. In our study system, variations in butterfly species assemblages were associated in a predictable way with substantial variations in rates of parasitism. This relationship is likely to affect the dynamics of the butterfly host species, and potentially cascade to the larger number of species with which they interact. These results highlight the importance of indirect interactions and their potential to reorganise ecological communities, especially in the context of shifts in species distributions in a warmer world.

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  • 32. Azarang, M
    et al.
    Collinge, D. B
    Gerhardson, B
    Johnsson, L
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    An integrated approach to simultaneously control insect pests, powdery mildew and seed borne fungal diseases in barley by bacterial seed treatment2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 33.
    Backlund, Elin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Betongångest de Luxe: En Trädgårdsmästares examensarbete om barns kontakt med naturen.2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 34.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Recalling Urban Nature: Linking City People to Ecosystem Services2008Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal development is dependent on the generation of ecosystem services (ES) to sustain it; however, many ES are degrading. This thesis investigates how social-ecological features behind practices of actor groups shape the generation of ES. The empirical basis is case studies in the urban landscape of Stockholm, Sweden, and the methodological approach is interdisciplinary. Paper I shows that the urban landscape owes it current flow of ES to co-evolutionary processes and that governance with the aim of sustaining ES must take into account historical property rights and the involvement of a diversity of actor groups, as well as ecological processes of the larger landscape. Paper II studies allotment gardens, cemeteries and city parks in relation to the generation of pollination, seed dispersal and pest regulation. Differences in social features behind practice are reflected primary as higher abundance of pollinators in the informally managed allotment gardens and as differences in the compositions of seed dispersers and insectivores’ birds. Thus, voluntary and often ignored actor groups, motivated by sense-of-place, support the generation of some ES here. Paper III shows how practice, linked to ES generation, is retained and stored among allotment gardeners, and modified and transmitted through time, by means of social-ecological memory (SE-memory). SE-memory is an emergent property of a dual process of participation and reification and it facilitates monitoring of local change and links practice, often in habits, to place specific processes that underlie provisioning ES. Paper IV explores how spatial scale mismatches between ecological process and processes of management can be bridged by a spatially explicit and flexible social network structure of governance. Urban ES are a product of human driven co-evolution, consequently sustaining ES in urban landscapes is not about conservation without people, but shaped by and dependent on management practice by people. Practice that links to generation of ES are facilitated by SE-memory of local actors that holds long term management rights. Consequently, local communities of ecosystem practice, which contribute to the production of ES should explicitly be taken into account in urban green governance.

  • 35.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Natural Resource Management, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Natural Resource Management, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social-ecological memory in urban gardens-Retaining the capacity for management of ecosystem services2010Ingår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 255-265Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many ecosystem services are in decline. Local ecological knowledge and associated practice are essential to sustain and enhance ecosystem services on the ground. Here, we focus on social or collective memory in relation to management practice that sustains ecosystem services, and investigate where and how ecological practices, knowledge and experience are retained and transmitted. We analyze such social-ecological memory of allotment gardens in the Stockholm urban area, Sweden. Allotment gardens support ecosystem services such as pollination, seed dispersal and pest regulation in the broader urban landscape. Surveys and interviews were preformed over a four-year period with several hundreds of gardeners. We found that the allotment gardens function as communities-of-practice, where participation and reification interact and social-ecological memory is a shared source of resilience of the community by being both emergent and persistent. Ecological practices and knowledge in allotment gardens are retained and transmitted by imitation of practices, oral communication and collective rituals and habits, as well as by the physical gardens, artifacts, metaphors and rules-in-use (institutions). Finally, a wider social context provides external support through various forms of media, markets, social networks, collaborative organizations, and legal structures. We exemplify the role of urban gardens in generating ecosystem services in times of crisis and change and conclude that stewards of urban green areas and the social memory that they carry may help counteract further decline of critical ecosystem services. .

  • 36. Baruah, Gaurav
    et al.
    Molau, Ulf
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Calluna AB, Nacka, Sweden.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Impacts of seven years of experimental warming and nutrient addition on neighbourhood species interactions and community structure in two contrasting alpine plant communities2018Ingår i: Ecological Complexity: An International Journal on Biocomplexity in the Environment and Theoretical Ecology, ISSN 1476-945X, E-ISSN 1476-9840, Vol. 33, nr Supplement C, s. 31-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change is predicted to have major impacts on alpine and arctic ecosystems. Plant fitness and growth will be determined by how plants interact with each other at smaller scales. Local-scale neighbourhood interactions may be altered by environmental pertubations, which could fundamentally affect community structure. This study examined the effects of seven years of experimental warming and nutrient addition on overall changes in the community structure and patterns of interspecific interaction between neighbouring plant species in two contrasting alpine plant communities, mesic meadow and poor heath, in subarctic Sweden. We used a network approach to quantify the dissimilarity of plant interaction networks and the average number of interspecific neighbourhood interactions over time in response to different environmental perturbations. The results revealed that combined warming and nutrient addition had significant negative effects on how dissimilar plant interaction networks were over time compared with the control. Moreover, plant–plant neighbourhood interaction networks were more dissimilar over time in nutrient-poor heath than in nutrient-rich mesic meadow. In addition, nutrient addition alone and combined nutrient addition and warming significantly affected neighbourhood species interactions in both plant communities. Surprisingly, changes in interspecific neighbourhood interactions over time in both communities were very similar, suggesting that the nutrient-poor heath is as robust to experimental environmental perturbation as the mesic meadow. Comparisons of changes in neighbouring species interactions with changes in evenness and richness at the same scale, in order to determine whether diversity drove such changes in local-scale interaction patterns, provided moderate evidence that diversity was behind the changes in local-scale interspecific neighbourhood interactions. This implied that species might interact at smaller scales than those at which community measures were made. Overall, these results demonstrated that global change involving increased nutrient deposition and warming is likely to affect species interactions and alter community structure in plant communities, whether rich or poor in nutrients and species.

  • 37. Beer, S. V
    et al.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Wodzinski, R. S
    Zumoff, C. H
    Antibiotic production by Erwinia herbicola strain Eh318 and biological control of fire blight1993Ingår i: Phytopathology, ISSN 0031-949X, E-ISSN 1943-7684, Vol. 83, s. 1342-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38. Beers, S. V
    et al.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Ophir, Y
    Zumoff, C. H
    Towards biological control of plant disease with antibiotic-producing strains of bacteria isolated from symptom-less plants1994Ingår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 3, nr 6, s. 616-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 39.
    Bekele, Yared
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    GIS Based Factor Identification for the Change in Occurrence of Genista pilosa: a Case Study in Southern Sweden2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has the objective of identifying the possible environmental constraints that has role for the continuous loss of heathland plant Genista pilosa. The study has assessed different environmental settings where the plant occurs by way of overlaying analysis based on multiple spatial data sets. Thereafter empirical change detection analyses on the land use of the study area have been performed on the GIS environment by combining temporal based remotely sensed spatial data. The result was then analyzed using land use dynamicity model and the rates of change on each land use type are identified. Expansion of human activity, especially the spreading of agricultural land and urbanization, is found to be the most determinant factor for the dramatic loss of the plant. Finally serious attention for the protection of the plant is recommended by mentioning the possible problem that would occur due to a loss of biodiversity.

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    GIS-Based Factor Identification for the Change in Occurrence of Genista pilosa a Case Study in Southern Sweden
  • 40.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Erhagen, Björn
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Vesterdal, Lars
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Faituri, Mikaeel
    Omar AlMuktar University, Elbeida, Libya.
    Sanborn, Paul
    University of British Columbia, Prince George, Canada.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Manganese dynamics in decomposing needle and leaf litter: a synthesis2013Ingår i: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 43, nr 12, s. 1127-1136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present synthesis paper was to determine whether concentration changes and net release of manganese (Mn), as related to accumulated litter mass loss, are related to initial Mn concentration, mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP), and tree genus or species. We also examined whether limit values for decomposition are related to initial litter Mn concentration, MAT, and MAP. We compiled 84 foliar litter decomposition studies, conducted mainly in boreal and temperate forest ecosystems, for which Mn dynamics had been well documented. Manganese concentration and amount were related to accumulated litter mass loss at each sampling time for each single study, as well as for (i) all studies combined (n = 748) and (ii) for species groups viz. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) (n = 284), pine (Pinus) species (n = 330), and deciduous species (n = 214). The changes in Mn concentration with accumulated mass loss followed quadratic functions showing significantly higher Mn concentrations for Norway spruce vs. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) (p < 0.0001) and vs. deciduous species (p < 0.01), as well as significantly higher for deciduous species vs. Scots pine (p < 0.0001). Manganese release rates were different among the three species groups (p < 0.001). Still, rates were related to initial Mn concentrations (p < 0.001) for all litter types combined and for the three species groups. Norway spruce released Mn more slowly than pine and deciduous species. Rates were related to climatic factors for litter of Norway spruce and deciduous species. Limit values for all litter and for pine species separately were related to Mn (p < 0.001) and MAT (p < 0.001). For Norway spruce, limit values were related to MAT (p < 0.001) and MAP (p < 0.01). It appears that Norway spruce litter retains Mn more strongly in the litter structure, producing humus richer in Mn than does litter of pine and deciduous species.

  • 41.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektroteknik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Biologi.
    Long-term effects of climate and litter chemistry on rates and stable fractions of decomposing Scots pine and Norway spruce needle litter - A synthesis2022Ingår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikel-id 125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have reviewed information on early-, late- and limit-value decomposition stages for litter of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus silvestris). This synthesis covers c 16 studies/papers made along a climatic gradient; range in mean annual temperature (MAT) from −1 to +7 °C and mean annual precipitation (MAP) from 425 to 1070 mm. Scots pine has an early stage dominated by carbohydrate decomposition and a late stage dominated by decomposition of lignin; Norway spruce has just one stage dominated by lignin decomposition. We used data for annual mass loss to identify rate-regulating factors in both stages; climate data, namely, MAT and MAP, as well as substrate properties, namely, nitrogen (N), acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR), manganese (Mn). Early-stage decomposition for Scots pine litter was dominated positively by MAT; the late stage was dominated negatively by MAT, N, and AUR, changing with decomposition stage; there was no effect of Mn. Norway spruce litter had no early stage; decomposition in the lignin-dominated stage was mainly negative to MAP, a negative relationship to AUR and non-significant relationships to N and MAT. Mn had a positive relationship. Limit values for decomposition, namely, the accumulated mass loss at which decomposition is calculated to be zero, were related positively to Mn and AUR for Scots pine litter and negatively to AUR for Norway spruce litter. With different sets of rate-regulating factors as well as different compounds/elements related to the limit values, the decomposition patterns or pathways are different.

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  • 42.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektroteknik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Biologi.
    Ni, Xiangyin
    Fujian Normal University, China.
    Sun, Tao
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Dong, Lili
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Gaitnieks, Talis
    Latvian State Forest Research Institute SILAVA.
    Virzo De Santo, Amalia
    Università di Napoli Federico II, Italy.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    SLU.
    Decomposition rates in late stages of Scots pine and Norway spruce needle litter: Influence of nutrients and substrate properties over a climate gradient2022Ingår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 522, artikel-id 120452Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to show different patterns for decomposition of the main mass of needle litter from two boreal and temperate coniferous tree species, both leading to a stabilized fraction of litter. To this purpose we have reviewed information on decomposition patterns in the lignin-dominated (late) stages of two local foliar litter types, namely those of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) from two climatic gradients of equal extension. We have also reviewed factors determining the limit values for both species.

    Long-term decomposition studies were used to calculate annual mass loss in the lignin-dominated decomposition stage and relate these to mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP) and concentrations of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn) and acid unhydrolyzable residue (gravimetric lignin, AUR).

    There was no effect of MAT on decomposition of either needle litter type. MAP had a rate-dampening effect on decomposition of Norway spruce litter. There was a rate-stimulating effect of Mn for Norway spruce litter but not for that of Scots pine. In spite of the strong negative effect of AUR and N on decomposition of Scots pine litter there was none at all for that of Norway spruce.

    Limit values for decomposition were related to the litters’ initial concentrations of N, Mn and AUR and differed between litter types for locally collected, natural litter and for that from experimental litter, the latter having higher N and lower Mn concentrations than the natural litter.

    We conclude that the two litter types have clear differences as regards rate- regulating factors for decomposition in the late lignin-dominated stage as well as for the stable fraction and suggest two different pathways for their decomposition. This is the first time that different pathways have been suggested for decomposing litter.

  • 43.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektroteknik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Biologi. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Sun, Tao
    Chinese Academy of Sciences Shenyang, China.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sanborn, Paul
    University of Northern British Columbia, Canada.
    Ni, Xiangying
    Sichuan Agricultural University, China.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektroteknik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Biologi.
    Magnesium dynamics in decomposing foliar litter - a synthesis2021Ingår i: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 382, artikel-id 114756Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We synthesized available data for magnesium (Mg) dynamics in newly shed and decomposing foliar litter of mainly pine (Pinus) species, Norway spruce (Picea abies), and birch (Betula) species. Using original, measured data from 40 stands organized in climatic gradients we intended to determine patterns of Mg concentration and net release vs accumulated mass loss of the litter. This synthesis is likely the first synthesis of Mg dynamics in decomposing litter.

    In paired stands, litter of both Norway spruce and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) had higher Mg concentrations than Scots pine (Pinus silvestris), with concentrations in Norway spruce litter even twice as high.

    In decomposing litter, Mg concentrations followed a quadratic (X2-X) function vs accumulated mass loss and consequently had minima, different for Norway spruce and Scots pine litter. Out of 68 decomposition studies 53 gave minimum concentration. The Mg minimum concentration during decomposition was positively related to initial Mg concentration for Scots pine and Scots pine plus lodgepole pine but not for Norway spruce. The increase in concentration suggests that after the minimum Mg was temporarily limiting.

    For Norway spruce litter there was a relationship between minimum concentration of Mg and the limit value. There was no such relationship for Scots pine and not for the combined pine data.

    Magnesium net release started directly after the incubation and was linear to accumulated mass loss of litter, giving a slope coefficient (release rate) for each study. The net release rate was linear to initial Mg concentration and all studies combined gave a negative linear relationship.

  • 44. Berggren Kleja, Dan
    et al.
    Svensson, M
    Majdi, Hooshang
    Langvall, O
    Jansson, P-E
    Lindroth, A
    Weslien, P
    Bergkvist, B
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Pools and fluxes of carbon in three Norway spruce ecosystems along a climatic gradient in Sweden2008Ingår i: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 89, nr 1, s. 7-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 45.
    Bergman, Annie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap.
    Värdet i en tomat: om hur trädgårdar kan användas i arbetet med ungdomar2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att ta reda på varför och hur trädgårdsmästare och/eller trädgårdsterapeuter använder gröna miljöer i arbetet med ungdomar som befinner sig i problematiska livssituationer.

    Studien baseras på fyra e-postintervjuer med tre trädgårdsmästare och en socionom som i sitt arbete möter ungdomar med problem kring; familjeförhållanden, kriminalitet, missbruk, psykisk ohälsa och arbetslöshet.

    Resultatet visar att gröna miljöer är ett verktyg som hjälper informanterna att stödja ungdomarnas utveckling, dels genom att miljön i sig är hälsofrämjande och dels för att trädgårdsarbetet/aktiviteterna går bra att anpassa efter ungdomarnas förmåga. Detta kräver en professionell handledare som kan se deras förutsättningar och verka både som medmänniska, pedagog och terapeut. Trädgården ger ungdomarna bland annat stärkt självtillit och glädje.

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    Värdet i en tomat
  • 46.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Burman, Joseph
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; anterbury Christ Church UniversityCanterburyUK.
    Jonason, Dennis
    Linköping University.
    Larsson, Mattias C.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektroteknik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Biologi.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University.
    Clear-cuts are temporary habitats, not matrix, for endangered grassland burnet moths (Zygaena spp.)2020Ingår i: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 269-277Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Burnet moths (Zygaena spp.) are day-flying Lepidoptera considered indicative of species-rich grasslands. In the present study, our aim was to clarify whether clear-cuts are habitat, supporting habitat or matrix for three species of Zygaena. We did so by sampling these species with sex pheromones on 48 clear-cuts, varying in amount of host and nectar plants, in southern Sweden. To compare the efficiency of such sampling, we also conducted transect walks on these clearcuts. Overall, host-plants on clear-cuts best explained the abundance of Zygaena spp. recorded, better than nectar-plants or connectivity with nearby grasslands. These results indicate that clear-cuts with an abundance of host plants are used as a fully functional habitat, and not a supporting habitat in the sense of only providing nectar. There is no support in these results for considering clear-cuts as an inert matrix. With about half the work-effort, pheromone traps recorded 100 times more Zygaena spp. as transect walks. The poor correspondence between observations during transects walks and pheromone trap catches suggest Zygaena spp. being difficult to monitor by transect walks. In contrast to grasslands, clear-cuts are short-term in nature requiring repeated recolonization, indicating the importance of permanent grasslands. However, clear-cuts are important temporary insect habitats due to their great acreage, and suitable management can increase the time they remain a habitat.

  • 47.
    Bergroth, Sylvia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap.
    Öppna dörren och gå ut!: Om utemiljöns betydelse för lärande2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
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    FULLTEXT01
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT03
  • 48.
    Bergström, Joel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö.
    Belysning i trädgården: inspiration tips och idéer2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med att mörkret tränger sig på blir utevistelsen och dagarna allt kortare. Det bidrar till att trädgårdarna finns där ute men de syns inte. För att råda bot på dagens mörka trädgårdar har jag i och med detta arbete gjort en inspirationsstudie. Syftet med studien är att visa hur man kan använda sig av belysning i en trädgård och att inspirera läsaren genom att ge förslag på belysning i två olika trädgårdsmiljöer, en skogstomt samt en modern stadstomt. Jag har studerat litteratur och tagit fram fakta om hur olika delar i en trädgård kan belysas. Därtill har jag gjort två exempelträdgårdar som visar metoder på belysning i olika trädgårdsmiljöer med hjälp av skisser och foton som förhoppningsvis väcker en nyfikenhet hos läsaren.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 49.
    Berkes, Fikret
    et al.
    Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Colding, Johan
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment (CNM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Introduction2002Ingår i: Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change / [ed] Berkes, F., Colding, J. and Folke, C., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 1, , s. 393s. 1-29Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A common perspective until recently was that our problem-solving abilities have been improving over the years. In the area of resource and environmental management, for example, there was a great deal of faith in our growing scientific understanding of ecosystems, our bag of increasingly sophisticated tools and technologies, and the application of market mechanisms to problems such as air pollution control and fishery management through individually allocated quotas. However, the experience over the last few decades does not support such optimism (e.g., Clark and Munn, 1986; Ludwig, Hilborn, and Walters, 1993; Gunderson, Holling, and Light, 1995). Many of our resource and environmental problems are proving resistant to solutions. A gap has developed between environmental problems and our lagging ability to solve them. This is coming at a time when the Earth has become an increasingly human-dominated system. Many of the changes in the biosphere, including the modification of landscapes, loss of biodiversity and, according to some, climate change, are driven by human activities. Furthermore, changes are occurring at an increasingly faster rate than previously experienced in human history.

    There is an emerging consensus regarding the need to look for broader approaches and solutions, not only with resource and environmental issues but along a wide front of societal problems. A survey of senior American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) scientists revealed an intriguing insight.

  • 50.
    Berkes, Fikret
    et al.
    Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Colding, Johan
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment (CNM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Living with disturbance: Building resilience in social-ecological systems2002Ingår i: Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change / [ed] Berkes, F., Colding, J. and Folke, C., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 1, , s. 393s. 163-186Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Disturbances such as fire, cyclones, and pest outbreaks create variation in natural systems and ecosystem renewal that may be important for the maintenance of biological diversity. Many natural disturbances are inherent in the internal dynamics of ecosystems, and often set the timing of ecosystem renewal processes fundamental for maintaining resilience in ecosystems (Holling et al., 1995).

    By disturbance we mean ‘any relatively discrete event in time that disrupts ecosystem community or population structure and changes resources, substrate availability, or the physical environment’ (White and Pickett, 1985: 7). We distinguish between abiotic and biotic disturbances. Abiotic disturbances are those where the direct cause of disturbance is generated by nonbiotic agents. Examples include fires, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, flooding, and drought. Examples of biotic disturbances include insect and pest attacks, predators, invasion of exotic species, and the grazing and browsing of herbivores.

    Conventional resource management, based on economic production targets, commonly seeks to reduce natural variation in target resources, because fluctuations impose problems for the industry dependent on the resource (Holling and Meffe, 1996). Control of resource stock variability and flows can be achieved in a number of ways. For instance, by increasing financial investments in technologies for harvesting, a modern fishing industry can invest in larger fleets and more effective gear in order to maintain an even flow of production. Maintenance of high and even flows of monoculture crops in large-scale agriculture may be achieved by investing in various energy inputs, such as insecticides, pesticides, and irrigation.

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