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  • 1.
    Bui, Tuyet T. A.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Fruit Breeding and Biotechnology, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Falk, Anders B.
    Valthornsvagen, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vanwalleghem, Tanja
    Department of Mycology, Proefcentrum Fruitteelt vzw, Sint-Truiden, Belgium.
    Van Hemelrijck, Wendy
    Department of Mycology, Proefcentrum Fruitteelt vzw, Sint-Truiden, Belgium.
    Hertog, Maarten L.A.T.M.
    Division of MeBioS, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineer-ing, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Keulemans, Johan
    Laboratory of Fruit Breeding and Biotechnology, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Davey, Mark W.
    Laboratory of Fruit Breeding and Biotechnology, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Botrytis cinerea differentially induces postharvest antioxidant responses in 'Braeburn' and 'Golden Delicious' apple fruit2019In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 99, no 13, p. 5662-5670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The fruit of two apple cultivars - 'Braeburn', which is susceptible to inoculation with Botrytis cinerea, and the less susceptible cv. 'Golden Delicious' - were investigated with respect to their response to inoculation with B. cinerea. Successful infection by B. cinerea leads to an oxidative burst and perturbation of plant redox homeostasis. To investigate the interaction between apple fruit and B. cinerea, antioxidant metabolism in fruit samples from sun-exposed and shaded sides of different tissue types was measured over time.

    RESULTS: The sun-exposed tissue of 'Braeburn' had higher initial levels of total vitamin C in the peel and phenolic compounds in the flesh than 'Golden Delicious', despite its greater susceptibility to gray mold. A substantial antioxidant response was recorded in diseased 'Braeburn' fruit 14 days after inoculation, which involved an elevated superoxide dismutase activity and ascorbate peroxidase activity, a progressive oxidation of total vitamin C, and a decrease in peroxidase activity and phenolic content. Disease development was slower on the sun-exposed sides than on the shaded sides.

    CONCLUSION: The two cultivars appeared to utilize different strategies to defend themselves against B. cinerea. 'Golden Delicious' almost entirely escaped infection. Preharvest exposure of apple fruit to high light / temperature stress appears to prepare them to better resist subsequent postharvest attack and disease. 

  • 2.
    González Gaarslev, Natalia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Growth and biodegradation by Sporidiobolales yeasts in vanillin-supplemented medium2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of biodegradation in lignins by basidiomycetes yeasts show the conversion of lignin in various degradation products among which vanillin, a valuable substance, suggested to be a strong inhibitor of both fermentation and growth of yeasts, stands. Sporidiobolales yeasts used in these experiments were aimed to be identified by their highly conserved ITS region as well as studied in vanillinsupplemented medium through, vanillin-supplemented plates, TLC and Neubauer’s chamber to find out which, among the several isolates tested, were the most resistant ones, understand how they take up vanillin and how their growth is affected by the presence of the phenolic compound. Two strains were identified as Rhodotorula babjevae. One of them, L4, together with LS22, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae, could withstand and biodegrade high concentrations of vanillin, producing biodegradation products with Rf values similar to the ones know for vanillic acid and vanillyl alcohol. Better growth in medium supplemented with small doses of vanillin was found, as well as disparity among the same species and their metabolic features, therefore, herbicides resistance was suggested as a reason for strains divergence. Further morphological-species comparison could also describe if there exist a relation between them.

  • 3.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Cornell University.
    The genetics of antibiotic production and the role of antibiotics in biological control of Erwinia amylovora by Erwinia herbicola1997Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Erwinia herbicola is an epiphyte of apple and pear with potential as a biocontrol agent of Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight. This research aimed to assess the relative role of antibiotics produced by E. herbicola, Eh318 as a mechanistic basis for biocontrol. A genomic library of Eh318 DNA was constructed in Escherichia coli and two distinct cosmids, pCPP702 and pCPP704, were identified that conferred upon E. coli the ability to produce two antibiotics inhibitory to E. amylovora. The antibiotics were distinct based on their spectra of activity, differential susceptibility to the presence of histidine and arginine and antibiotic production by marker-exchange mutants of Eh318. Transposon mutagenesis and subcloning were used to delineate the Eh318 DNA that enabled E. coli to produce the two antibiotics. The smallest clone that conferred antibacterial activity was pCPP717. Its antibiotic was named pantocin A. The Eh318 insert DNA of pCPP717 revealed three predicted genes, paaA, paaB and paaC, in a 2.7 kb region. The predicted paaA gene product is similar in sequence to a group of biosynthetic enzymes that possess a dinucleotide binding motif. PaaC was judged to encode a membrane protein. The second antibiotic was named pantocin B. Its synthesis is conferred on E. coli by DNA harbored in clone pCPP719. Between 19 kb and 20 kb of Eh318 DNA is needed for the production of pantocin B. Direct Tn5- and marker-exchange mutants of Eh318, deficient in pantocin A and/or pantocin B, were created. The mutant strains were tested for biocontrol ability in immature pear fruit in the laboratory and in apple blossoms in a controlled environment chamber. Results from both assays revealed that the marker-exchange mutant deficient in both antibiotics (Eh440) protected against fire blight less well than Eh318. The single marker-exchange mutants, Eh421 (deficient in pantocin A) and Eh439 (deficient in pantocin B), were not significantly impaired in biocontrol ability, whereas three directly induced Tn5-mutants, Eh454, Eh464 and Eh468, were less effective than Eh318. Thus, pantocins contribute to but are not solely responsible for the biological control of fire blight by E. herbicola Eh318.

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