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  • 1.
    Bekele, Yared
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    GIS Based Factor Identification for the Change in Occurrence of Genista pilosa: a Case Study in Southern Sweden2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has the objective of identifying the possible environmental constraints that has role for the continuous loss of heathland plant Genista pilosa. The study has assessed different environmental settings where the plant occurs by way of overlaying analysis based on multiple spatial data sets. Thereafter empirical change detection analyses on the land use of the study area have been performed on the GIS environment by combining temporal based remotely sensed spatial data. The result was then analyzed using land use dynamicity model and the rates of change on each land use type are identified. Expansion of human activity, especially the spreading of agricultural land and urbanization, is found to be the most determinant factor for the dramatic loss of the plant. Finally serious attention for the protection of the plant is recommended by mentioning the possible problem that would occur due to a loss of biodiversity.

  • 2.
    Huttunen, Piritta
    et al.
    Finnish Forest Research Institute, Muhos Research Unit, Muhos, Finland.
    Kärkkäinen, Katri
    Finnish Forest Research Institute, Muhos Research Unit, Muhos, Finland.
    Löe, Geir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology.
    Rautio, Pasi
    Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi, Finland.
    Ågren, Jon
    Department of Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leaf trichome production and responses to defoliation and drought in Arabidopsis lyrata (Brassicaceae)2010In: Annales Botanici Fennici, ISSN 0003-3847, E-ISSN 1797-2442, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 199-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaf trichomes can protect plants against herbivory and drought, but can be costly to produce. Theory suggests that selection for reduced costs of resistance may result in the evolution of inducible defences. We quantified variation in tolerance to drought and defoliation, and tested the hypotheses that (a) tolerance is associated with cost, (b) leaf trichome production increases tolerance to drought, and (c) trichome production is increased in response to defoliation and drought stress in Arabidopsis lyrata (Brassicaceae). Eight maternal half-sib families were exposed to two watering regimes and four defoliation treatments in a factorial design. Tolerance to drought varied among families and was inversely related to leaf size, but was not related to trichome density. Family mean performance in the low-watering treatment tended to correlate negatively with that in the control treatment. Trichome production was not induced by defoliation or drought stress. The results suggest that there is genetic variation in tolerance to drought in the study population, that tolerance to drought is associated with a cost, and that trichome production does not increase tolerance to drought in A. lyrata.

  • 3.
    Ianiri, G.
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Agricoltura, Ambiente e Alimenti, Facoltà di Agraria, Università degli Studi del Molise, Campobasso, Italy, and Division of Cell Biology and Biophysics, School of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City, USA.
    Idnurm, A.
    Division of Cell Biology and Biophysics, School of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City, USA .
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology. Dipartimento di Agricoltura, Ambiente e Alimenti, Facoltà di Agraria, Università degli Studi del Molise, Campobasso, Italy.
    Durán-Patrón, R.
    Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, Spain .
    Mannina, L.
    Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Rome, Italy .
    Ferracane, R.
    Dipartimento di Scienza degli Alimenti, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy .
    Ritieni, A.
    Dipartimento di Chimica Farmaceutica e Tossicologica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy .
    Castoria, R.
    Division of Cell Biology and Biophysics, School of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City, USA .
    Searching for Genes Responsible for Patulin Degradation in a Biocontrol Yeast Provides Insights into the Basis for Resistance to This Mycotoxin2013In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 79, no 9, p. 3101-3115Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Larsson, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gröna inomhusmiljöer: växters behov, inverkan och användningsmöjligheter i utformningen av framför allt offentliga inomhusmiljöer2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en mängd faktorer som bör tillgodoses för att en inomhusplantering med växter ska vara hållbar. Tillgången på ljus, vatten, luftfuktighet och näring bör i möjligaste mån efterlikna växtens naturliga växtplats. Mikroklimatet på den aktuella platsen är en viktig faktor i valet av passande växter.

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie är att redogöra för vad som krävs för att skapa en hållbar inomhusmiljö med växter, sammanställa effekter som dessa har på inomhusmiljön och på de människor som vistas där, samt beskriva hur växter kan användas i utformningen av framför allt offentliga inomhusmiljöer.

    Växternas egenskaper bidrar med många vinster till en inomhusmiljö. De kan öka luftfuktigheten, rena luften och dämpa ljud. De har även stor fysisk och psykisk påverkan på människor som vistas där i form av exempelvis minskad oro och stress, ökat välbefinnande och produktivitet, minskade besvär av huvudvärk och torra slemhinnor i luftvägar och ögon. Växterna bidrar även till ekonomiska vinster i form av ökad produktivitet och minskad korttidssjukfrånvaro. Växtmiljöer inomhus kan bidra till att göra en plats mer tilltalande för besökare och anställda. Växterna kan användas för att styra flödet av människor och underlätta orienteringen på platsen. De kan även definiera ett utrymme och ge individualitet och identitet till platsen.

  • 5.
    Van Tri, Mai
    et al.
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Van Hoa, Nguyen
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Minh Chau, Nguyen
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Pane, Antonella
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Faedda, Roberto
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    De Patrizio, Alessandro
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Schena, Leonardo
    Department of Agraria, University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Località Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Olsson, Christer H. B.
    Department of Biological & Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Ramstedt, Mauritz
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cacciola, Santa Olga
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Decline of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) incited by Phytophthora palmivora in Vietnam2015In: Phytopathologia Mediterranea, ISSN ISSN 0031-9465, EISSN 1593-2095, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 275-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new disease of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) was observed in the south- eastern region of South Vietnam. Symptoms included root rot, cankers and gummosis of trunks, chlorosis, wilt, blight of leaves, defoliation, fruit brown rot, and tree death. The disease was found in 10% of surveyed farms with an incidence varying from 2% to nearly 60% of the trees. A Phytophthora species, identified as P. palmivora (Butler) Butler, using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA as a barcode gene and morphological and cultural features, was consistently isolated from symptomatic roots, fruits, trunk cankers and leaves. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled using pathogenicity tests on seedlings, leaves and detached fruits of jackfruit. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. palmivora on jackfruit in Vietnam.

  • 6.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Cornell University.
    The genetics of antibiotic production and the role of antibiotics in biological control of Erwinia amylovora by Erwinia herbicola1997Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Erwinia herbicola is an epiphyte of apple and pear with potential as a biocontrol agent of Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight. This research aimed to assess the relative role of antibiotics produced by E. herbicola, Eh318 as a mechanistic basis for biocontrol. A genomic library of Eh318 DNA was constructed in Escherichia coli and two distinct cosmids, pCPP702 and pCPP704, were identified that conferred upon E. coli the ability to produce two antibiotics inhibitory to E. amylovora. The antibiotics were distinct based on their spectra of activity, differential susceptibility to the presence of histidine and arginine and antibiotic production by marker-exchange mutants of Eh318. Transposon mutagenesis and subcloning were used to delineate the Eh318 DNA that enabled E. coli to produce the two antibiotics. The smallest clone that conferred antibacterial activity was pCPP717. Its antibiotic was named pantocin A. The Eh318 insert DNA of pCPP717 revealed three predicted genes, paaA, paaB and paaC, in a 2.7 kb region. The predicted paaA gene product is similar in sequence to a group of biosynthetic enzymes that possess a dinucleotide binding motif. PaaC was judged to encode a membrane protein. The second antibiotic was named pantocin B. Its synthesis is conferred on E. coli by DNA harbored in clone pCPP719. Between 19 kb and 20 kb of Eh318 DNA is needed for the production of pantocin B. Direct Tn5- and marker-exchange mutants of Eh318, deficient in pantocin A and/or pantocin B, were created. The mutant strains were tested for biocontrol ability in immature pear fruit in the laboratory and in apple blossoms in a controlled environment chamber. Results from both assays revealed that the marker-exchange mutant deficient in both antibiotics (Eh440) protected against fire blight less well than Eh318. The single marker-exchange mutants, Eh421 (deficient in pantocin A) and Eh439 (deficient in pantocin B), were not significantly impaired in biocontrol ability, whereas three directly induced Tn5-mutants, Eh454, Eh464 and Eh468, were less effective than Eh318. Thus, pantocins contribute to but are not solely responsible for the biological control of fire blight by E. herbicola Eh318.

  • 7.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    et al.
    Università degli Studi del Molise, Campobasso, Italy, and University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Azarang, M.
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Falk, A.B.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Barley lesion mimics, supersusceptible or highly resistant to leaf rust and net blotch2013In: Plant Pathology, ISSN 0032-0862, E-ISSN 1365-3059, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 982-992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lesion mimic mutants of plants have the feature of spontaneously displaying necrotic spots or bands on their leaves. Lesion mimics have often displayed enhanced resistance to biotrophic pathogens whilst showing increased susceptibility to necrotrophs. This paper identifies three novel, non-allelic mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare), which spontaneously form necrotic leaf lesions: Necrotic leaf spot 9.3091 (nec9.3091), Mottled leaf 8.1661 (mtt8.1661) and Mottled leaf 9.2721 (mtt9.2721). The Necrotic leaf spot 8.3550 mutant (nec8.3550), formerly known as bst1, was included in the study because it is a lesion mimic mutant belonging to the same original pool. The reactions of the mutants to the biotroph Puccinia hordei and the necrotroph Pyrenophora teres f. sp. teres were investigated. Mutants nec8.3550 and mtt8.1661 were more resistant than the parental Bowman near-isogenic line with the Rph3.c gene (Bowman Rph3.c, NGB 22452) to leaf rust, caused by P. hordei. Mutants nec8.3550, mtt8.1661 and mtt9.2721 were more susceptible than Bowman Rph3.c to net blotch, caused by P. teres f. sp. teres. Autofluorescence was detected in leaf tissues of all mutants. Based on the high expression of the PR1 and Hv-HIR genes, combined with the low susceptibility to P. hordei, nec8.3550 appears to have entered a state of systemic acquired resistance, which is quite distinct from the resistance expressed in mtt8.1661. The latter mutant has low or no expression of PR1 and Hv-HIR genes, yet it is highly resistant to rust. It is also extremely susceptible to net blotch. These mutants can serve as genetic sources of novel disease resistance for barley improvement. © 2012 British Society for Plant Pathology.

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