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  • 1.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Dai, Junhu
    Institute Of Geographic Sciences And Natural Resources Research, Beijing, China.
    Pandey, Rajiv
    Indian Council Of Forestry Research And Education, Dehradun, India.
    Erfanian, Mohammad Bagher
    Ferdowsi University Of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Ahmed, Talaat
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Bai, Yang
    Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Mengla, China.
    Molau, Ulf
    University Of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för företagande, innovation och hållbarhet.
    Impact of ambient temperature, precipitation and seven years of experimental warming and nutrient addition on fruit production in an alpine heath and meadow community2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 836, article id 155450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alpine and polar regions are predicted to be among the most vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation, and nutrient availability. We carried out a seven-year factorial experiment with warming and nutrient addition in two alpine vegetation communities. We analyzed the relationship between fruit production and monthly mean, maximum, and min temperatures during the fall of the pre-fruiting year, the fruiting summer, and the whole fruit production period, and measured the effects of precipitation and growing and thawing degree days (GDD & TDD) on fruit production. Nutrient addition (heath: 27.88 ± 3.19 fold change at the end of the experiment; meadow: 18.02 ± 4.07) and combined nutrient addition and warming (heath: 20.63 ± 29.34 fold change at the end of the experiment; meadow: 18.21 ± 16.28) increased total fruit production and fruit production of graminoids. Fruit production of evergreen and deciduous shrubs fluctuated among the treatments and years in both the heath and meadow. Pre-maximum temperatures had a negative effect on fruit production in both communities, while current year maximum temperatures had a positive impact on fruit production in the meadow. Pre-minimum, pre-mean, current mean, total minimum, and total mean temperatures were all positively correlated with fruit production in the meadow. The current year and total precipitation had a negative effect on the fruit production of deciduous shrubs in the heath. GDD had a positive effect on fruit production in both communities, while TDD only impacted fruit production in the meadow. Increased nutrient availability increased fruit production over time in the high alpine plant communities, while experimental warming had either no effect or a negative effect. Deciduous shrubs were the most sensitive to climate parameters in both communities, and the meadow was more sensitive than the heath. The difference in importance of TDD for fruit production may be due to differences in snow cover in the two communities. © 2022 The Authors

  • 2.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Erfanian, Mohammad Bagher
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Molau, Ulf
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chen, Shengbin
    Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, China.
    Bai, Yang
    Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, China.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Centrum för innovations-, entreprenörskaps- och lärandeforskning (CIEL).
    Changes in plant composition and diversity in an alpine heath and meadow after 18 years of experimental warming2022In: Alpine Botany, ISSN 1664-2201, E-ISSN 1664-221X, Vol. 132, no 2, p. 181-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming is expected to have large impacts on high alpine and Arctic ecosystems in the future. Here we report effects of 18 years of experimental warming on two contrasting high alpine plant communities in subarctic Sweden. Using open-top chambers, we analysed effects of long-term passive experimental warming on a heath and a meadow. We determined the impact on species composition, species diversity (at the level of rare, common and dominant species), and phylogenetic and functional diversity. Long-term warming drove differentiation in species composition in both communities; warmed plots, but not control plots, had distinctly different species composition in 2013 compared with 1995. Beta diversity increased in the meadow, while it decreased in the heath. Long-term warming had significant negative effects on the three orders of phylogenetic Hill diversity in the meadow. There was a similar tendency in the heath, but only phylogenetic diversity of dominant species was significantly affected. Long-term warming caused reductions in forbs in the heath, while evergreen shrubs increased. In the meadow, deciduous and evergreen shrubs showed increased abundance from 2001 to 2013 in warmed plots. Responses in species and phylogenetic diversity to experimental warming varied over both time (medium (7 years) vs long-term (18 years)) and space (between two neighbouring plant communities). The meadow community was more negatively affected in terms of species and phylogenetic diversity than the heath community. A potential driver for the changes in the meadow may be decreased soil moisture caused by long-term warming. © 2021

  • 3.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; Environmental Science Center, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Dai, Junhu
    Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; CAS-HEC, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Mollazehi, Mohammad D.
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Abdel-Salam, Abdel-Salam G.
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Pandey, Rajiv
    Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehradun, India.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of ambient climate and three warming treatments on fruit production in an alpine, subarctic meadow community2021In: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 411-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Premise: Climate change is having major impacts on alpine and arctic regions, and inter-annual variations in temperature are likely to increase. How increased climate variability will impact plant reproduction is unclear. Methods: In a 4-year study on fruit production by an alpine plant community in northern Sweden, we applied three warming regimes: (1) a static level of warming with open-top chambers (OTC), (2) press warming, a yearly stepwise increase in warming, and (3) pulse warming, a single-year pulse event of higher warming. We analyzed the relationship between fruit production and monthly temperatures during the budding period, fruiting period, and whole fruit production period and the effect of winter and summer precipitation on fruit production. Results: Year and treatment had a significant effect on total fruit production by evergreen shrubs, Cassiope tetragona, and Dryas octopetala, with large variations between treatments and years. Year, but not treatment, had a significant effect on deciduous shrubs and graminoids, both of which increased fruit production over the 4 years, while forbs were negatively affected by the press warming, but not by year. Fruit production was influenced by ambient temperature during the previous-year budding period, current-year fruiting period, and whole fruit production period. Minimum and average temperatures were more important than maximum temperature. In general, fruit production was negatively correlated with increased precipitation. Conclusions: These results indicate that predicted increased climate variability and increased precipitation due to climate change may affect plant reproductive output and long-term community dynamics in alpine meadow communities. © 2021 The Authors. American Journal of Botany published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of Botanical Society of America

  • 4.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för företagande, innovation och hållbarhet.
    Erfanian, Mohammad Bagher
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Chen, Shengbin
    Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, China.
    Sun, Shou Qin
    Institute Of Mountain Hazards And Environment, Chengdu, China.
    Molau, Ulf
    University Of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bryophyte cover and richness decline after 18 years of experimental warming in alpine Sweden2020In: AoB Plants, E-ISSN 2041-2851, Vol. 12, no 6, article id plaa061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to affect alpine and Arctic tundra communities. Most previous long-term studies have focused on impacts on vascular plants, this study examined impacts of long-term warming on bryophyte communities. Experimental warming with open-top chambers (OTCs) was applied for 18 years to a mesic meadow and a dry heath alpine plant community. Species abundance was measured in 1995, 1999, 2001 and 2013. Species composition changed significantly from original communities in the heath, but remained similar in mesic meadow. Experimental warming increased beta diversity in the heath. Bryophyte cover and species richness both declined with long-term warming, while Simpson diversity showed no significant responses. Over the 18-year period, bryophyte cover in warmed plots decreased from 43 % to 11 % in heath and from 68 % to 35 % in meadow (75 % and 48 % decline, respectively, in original cover), while richness declined by 39 % and 26 %, respectively. Importantly, the decline in cover and richness first emerged after 7 years. Warming caused significant increase in litter in both plant communities. Deciduous shrub and litter cover had negative impact on bryophyte cover. We show that bryophyte species do not respond similarly to climate change. Total bryophyte cover declined in both heath and mesic meadow under experimental long-term warming (by 1.5-3 °C), driven by general declines in many species. Principal response curve, cover and richness results suggested that bryophytes in alpine heath are more susceptible to warming than in meadow, supporting the suggestion that bryophytes may be less resistant in drier environments than in wetter habitats. Species loss was slower than the decline in bryophyte abundance, and diversity remained similar in both communities. Increased deciduous shrub and litter cover led to decline in bryophyte cover. The non-linear response to warming over time underlines the importance of long-term experiments and monitoring. © 2020 The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  • 5.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet, Campus Gotland.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborg Universitet.
    Climate change and climatic events: Community-, functional- and species-level responses of bryophytes and lichens to constant, stepwise, and pulse experimental warming in an alpine tundra2014In: Alpine Botany, ISSN 1664-2201, E-ISSN 1664-221X, Vol. 124, no 2, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally imposed three different kinds of warming scenarios over 3 years on an alpine meadow community to identify the differential effects of climate warming and extreme climatic events on the abundance and biomass of bryophytes and lichens. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open top chambers (an average temperature increase of 1.87 °C), (b) a yearly stepwise increase of warming (average temperature increases of 1.0; 1.87 and 3.54 °C, consecutively), and (c) a pulse warming, i.e., a single first year pulse event of warming (average temperature increase of 3.54 °C only during the first year). To our knowledge, this is the first climate change study that attempts to distinguish between the effects of constant, stepwise and pulse warming on bryophyte and lichen communities. We hypothesised that pulse warming would have a significant short-term effect compared to the other warming treatments, and that stepwise warming would have a significant mid-term effect compared to the other warming treatments. Acrocarpous bryophytes as a group increased in abundance and biomass to the short-term effect of pulse warming. We found no significant effects of mid-term (third-year) stepwise warming. However, one pleurocarpous bryophyte species, Tomentypnum nitens, generally increased in abundance during the warm year 1997 but decreased in control plots and in response to the stepwise warming treatment. Three years of experimental warming (all treatments as a group) did have a significant impact at the community level, yet changes in abundance did not translate into significant changes in the dominance hierarchies at the functional level (for acrocarpous bryophytes, pleurocarpous bryophytes, Sphagnum or lichens), or in significant changes in other bryophyte or lichen species. The results suggest that bryophytes and lichens, both at the functional group and species level, to a large extent are resistant to the different climate change warming simulations that were applied.

  • 6.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    VTI, Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, S-10215 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Molau, Ulf
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Testing reliability of short-term responses to predict longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens to environmental change2015In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 58, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental changes are predicted to have severe and rapid impacts on polar and alpine regions. At high latitudes/altitudes, cryptogams such as bryophytes and lichens are of great importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning. This seven-year factorial experiment examined the effects of fertilizing and experimental warming on bryophyte and lichen abundance in an alpine meadow and a heath community in subarctic Sweden. The aim was to determine whether shortterm responses (five years) are good predictors of longer-term responses (seven years). Fertilizing and warming had significant negative effects on total and relative abundance of bryophytes and lichens, with the largest and most rapid decline caused by fertilizing and combined fertilizing and warming. Bryophytes decreased most in the alpine meadow community, which was bryophyte-dominated, and lichens decreased most in the heath community, which was lichen-dominated. This was surprising, as the most diverse group in each community was expected to be most resistant to perturbation. Warming alone had a delayed negative impact. Of the 16 species included in statistical analyses, seven were significantly negatively affected. Overall, the impacts of simulated warming on bryophytes and lichens as a whole and on individual species differed in time and magnitude between treatments and plant communities (meadow and heath). This will likely cause changes in the dominance structures over time. These results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of data used in climate change models, as models based on short-term data are poor predictors of long-term responses of bryophytes and lichens.

  • 7.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Qatar University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Čuchta, Peter
    Academy of Science of the Czech Republic.
    Collembola at three alpine subarctic sites resistant to twenty years of experimental warming2015In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 18161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effects of micro-scale, site and 19 and 21 years of experimental warming on Collembola in three contrasting alpine subarctic plant communities (poor heath, rich meadow, wet meadow). Unexpectedly, experimental long-term warming had no significant effect on species richness, effective number of species, total abundance or abundance of any Collembola species. There were micro-scale effects on species richness, total abundance, and abundance of 10 of 35 species identified. Site had significant effect on effective number of species, and abundance of six species, with abundance patterns differing between sites. Site and long-term warming gave non-significant trends in species richness.

    The highest species richness was observed in poor heath, but mean species richness tended to be highest in rich meadow and lowest in wet meadow. Warming showed a tendency for a negative impact on species richness. This long-term warming experiment across three contrasting sites revealed that Collembola is capable of high resistance to climate change. We demonstrated that micro-scale and site effects are the main controlling factors for Collembola abundance in high alpine subarctic environments. Thus local heterogeneity is likely important for soil fauna composition and may play a crucial role in buffering Collembola against future climate change.

  • 8.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Little, Chelsea J.
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Molau, Ulf
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dominance hierarchies, diversity and species richness of vascular plants in an alpine meadow: contrasting short and medium term responses to simulated global change2014In: PeerJ, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 2, article id 406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the impact of simulated global change on a high alpine meadow plant community. Specifically, we examined whether short-term (5 years) responses are good predictors for medium-term (7 years) changes in the system by applying a factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to 20 plots in Latnjajaure, subarctic Sweden. Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient enhancement caused dramatic shifts in dominance hierarchies in response to the nutrient and the combined warming and nutrient enhancement treatments. Dominance hierarchies in the meadow moved from a community being dominated by cushion plants, deciduous, and evergreen shrubs to a community being dominated by grasses, sedges, and forbs. Short-termresponses were shown to be inconsistent in their ability to predict medium-term responses for most functional groups, however, grasses showed a consistent and very substantial increase in response to nutrient addition over the seven years. The non-linear responses over time point out the importance of longer-term studies with repeated measurements to be able to better predict future changes. Forecasted changes to temperature and nutrient availability have implications for trophic interactions, and may ultimately influence the access to and palatability of the forage for grazers. Depending on what anthropogenic change will be most pronounced in the future (increase in nutrient deposits, warming, or a combination of them both), different shifts in community dominance hierarchies may occur. Generally, this study supports the productivity-diversity relationship found across arctic habitats, with community diversity peaking in mid-productivity systems and degrading as nutrient availability increases further. This is likely due the increasing competition in plant-plant interactions and the shifting dominance structure with grasses taking over the experimental plots, suggesting that global change could have high costs to biodiversity in the Arctic.

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  • 9.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Little, Chelsea J.
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samhälle, miljö och transporter, SAMT, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Molau, Ulf
    Vascular plant abundance and diversity in an alpine heath under observed and simulated global change2015In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 10197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change is predicted to cause shifts in species distributions and biodiversity in arctic tundra. We applied factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to a nutrient and species poor alpine/arctic heath community for seven years. Vascular plant abundance in control plots increased by 31%. There were also notable changes in cover in the nutrient and combined nutrient and warming treatments, with deciduous and evergreen shrubs declining, grasses overgrowing these plots. Sedge abundance initially increased significantly with nutrient amendment and then declined, going below initial values in the combined nutrient and warming treatment. Nutrient addition resulted in a change in dominance hierarchy from deciduous shrubs to grasses. We found significant declines in vascular plant diversity and evenness in the warming treatment and a decline in diversity in the combined warming and nutrient addition treatment, while nutrient addition caused a decline in species richness. The results give some experimental support that species poor plant communities with low diversity may be more vulnerable to loss of species diversity than communities with higher initial diversity. The projected increase in nutrient deposition and warming may therefore have negative impacts on ecosystem processes, functioning and services due to loss of species diversity in an already impoverished environment.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Ali, Arshad
    et al.
    East China Normal University.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Bai, Yang
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Qatar University.
    Diversity-productivity dependent resistance of an alpine plant community to different climate change scenarios2016In: Ecological research, ISSN 0912-3814, E-ISSN 1440-1703, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 935-945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report from a experiment imposing different warming scenarios [control with ambient temperature, constant level of moderate warming for 3 years, stepwise increase in warming for 3 years, and one season of high level warming (pulse) simulating an extreme summer event] on an alpine ecosystem to study the impact on species diversity–biomass relationship, and community resistance in terms of biomass production.

    Multiple linear mixed models indicate that experimental years had stronger influence on biomass than warming scenarios and species diversity. Species diversity and biomass had almost humpback relationships under different warming scenarios over different experimental years. There was generally a negative diversity–biomass relationship, implying that a positive diversity–biomass relationship was not the case.

    The application of different warming scenarios did not change this tendency. The change in community resistance to all warming scenarios was generally negatively correlated with increasing species diversity, the strength of the correlation varying both between treatments and between years within treatments. The strong effect of experimental years was consistent with the notion that niche complementarity effects increase over time, and hence, higher biomass productivity over experimental years. The strongest negative relationship was found in the first year of the pulse treatment, indicating that the community had weak resistance to an extreme event of one season of abnormally warm climate.

    Biomass production started recovering during the two subsequent years. Contrasting biomass-related resistance emerged in the different treatments, indicating that micro sites within the same plant community may differ in their resistance to different warming scenarios.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Memory carriers and stewardship of metropolitan landscapes2016In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 70, p. 606-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    History matters, and can be an active and dynamic component in the present. We explore social-ecological memory as way to diagnose and engage with urban green space performance and resilience. Rapidly changing cities pose a threat and a challenge to the continuity that has helped to support biodiversity and ecological functions by upholding similar or only slowly changing adaptive cycles over time. Continuity is perpetuated through memory carriers, slowly changing variables and features that retain or make available information on how different situations have been dealt with before. Ecological memory carriers comprise memory banks, spatial connections and mobile link species. These can be supported by social memory carriers, represented by collectively created social features like habits, oral tradition, rules-in-use and artifacts, as well as media and external sources. Loss or lack of memory can be diagnoses by the absence or disconnect between memory carriers, as will be illustrated by several typical situations. Drawing on a set of example situations, we present an outline for a look-up table approach that connects ecological memory carriers to the social memory carriers that support them and use these connections to set diagnoses and indicate potential remedies. The inclusion of memory carriers in planning and management considerations may facilitate preservation of feedbacks and disturbance regimes as well as species and habitats, and the cultural values and meanings that go with them.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gren, Åsa
    The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

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  • 13.
    Andersson, Tony
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Habitatval hos yngel av öring (Salmo trutta) i en undersökning i Nedre Dalälven2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project was to examine important parameters for juvenile brown trout habitat selection in their first months after hatching. The study was carried out after approximately 30 000 fry had been released by the County Administrative Board of Gävleborg. Data on habitat selection was collected from five different localities at the river Dalälven, near Gysinge, Sweden. The method of estimating preferred habitat was to determine remaining fry after a period of seven weeks by electrofishing.

    This study confirms that the optimal local habitat choice for juvenile trout is where the substrate size 60- 200 mm is present and a hypothesis is proposed that this substrate is of importance for juvenile trout survival as it gives shelter in the presence of predators. Based on previous research the study gives some suggestions to which important habitat characteristics that were missing where no trout were recaptured.

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    Habitatval hos yngel av öring (Salmo trutta) i en undersökning i Nedre Dalälven
  • 14.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Natural Resource Management, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Natural Resource Management, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social-ecological memory in urban gardens-Retaining the capacity for management of ecosystem services2010In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 255-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many ecosystem services are in decline. Local ecological knowledge and associated practice are essential to sustain and enhance ecosystem services on the ground. Here, we focus on social or collective memory in relation to management practice that sustains ecosystem services, and investigate where and how ecological practices, knowledge and experience are retained and transmitted. We analyze such social-ecological memory of allotment gardens in the Stockholm urban area, Sweden. Allotment gardens support ecosystem services such as pollination, seed dispersal and pest regulation in the broader urban landscape. Surveys and interviews were preformed over a four-year period with several hundreds of gardeners. We found that the allotment gardens function as communities-of-practice, where participation and reification interact and social-ecological memory is a shared source of resilience of the community by being both emergent and persistent. Ecological practices and knowledge in allotment gardens are retained and transmitted by imitation of practices, oral communication and collective rituals and habits, as well as by the physical gardens, artifacts, metaphors and rules-in-use (institutions). Finally, a wider social context provides external support through various forms of media, markets, social networks, collaborative organizations, and legal structures. We exemplify the role of urban gardens in generating ecosystem services in times of crisis and change and conclude that stewards of urban green areas and the social memory that they carry may help counteract further decline of critical ecosystem services. .

  • 15.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Erhagen, Björn
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    University of Gävle.
    Vesterdal, Lars
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Faituri, Mikaeel
    Omar AlMuktar University, Elbeida, Libya.
    Sanborn, Paul
    University of British Columbia, Prince George, Canada.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Manganese dynamics in decomposing needle and leaf litter: a synthesis2013In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 1127-1136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present synthesis paper was to determine whether concentration changes and net release of manganese (Mn), as related to accumulated litter mass loss, are related to initial Mn concentration, mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP), and tree genus or species. We also examined whether limit values for decomposition are related to initial litter Mn concentration, MAT, and MAP. We compiled 84 foliar litter decomposition studies, conducted mainly in boreal and temperate forest ecosystems, for which Mn dynamics had been well documented. Manganese concentration and amount were related to accumulated litter mass loss at each sampling time for each single study, as well as for (i) all studies combined (n = 748) and (ii) for species groups viz. Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) (n = 284), pine (Pinus) species (n = 330), and deciduous species (n = 214). The changes in Mn concentration with accumulated mass loss followed quadratic functions showing significantly higher Mn concentrations for Norway spruce vs. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) (p < 0.0001) and vs. deciduous species (p < 0.01), as well as significantly higher for deciduous species vs. Scots pine (p < 0.0001). Manganese release rates were different among the three species groups (p < 0.001). Still, rates were related to initial Mn concentrations (p < 0.001) for all litter types combined and for the three species groups. Norway spruce released Mn more slowly than pine and deciduous species. Rates were related to climatic factors for litter of Norway spruce and deciduous species. Limit values for all litter and for pine species separately were related to Mn (p < 0.001) and MAT (p < 0.001). For Norway spruce, limit values were related to MAT (p < 0.001) and MAP (p < 0.01). It appears that Norway spruce litter retains Mn more strongly in the litter structure, producing humus richer in Mn than does litter of pine and deciduous species.

  • 16.
    Berkes, Fikret
    et al.
    Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Colding, Johan
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment (CNM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Introduction2002In: Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change / [ed] Berkes, F., Colding, J. and Folke, C., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 1, , p. 393p. 1-29Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common perspective until recently was that our problem-solving abilities have been improving over the years. In the area of resource and environmental management, for example, there was a great deal of faith in our growing scientific understanding of ecosystems, our bag of increasingly sophisticated tools and technologies, and the application of market mechanisms to problems such as air pollution control and fishery management through individually allocated quotas. However, the experience over the last few decades does not support such optimism (e.g., Clark and Munn, 1986; Ludwig, Hilborn, and Walters, 1993; Gunderson, Holling, and Light, 1995). Many of our resource and environmental problems are proving resistant to solutions. A gap has developed between environmental problems and our lagging ability to solve them. This is coming at a time when the Earth has become an increasingly human-dominated system. Many of the changes in the biosphere, including the modification of landscapes, loss of biodiversity and, according to some, climate change, are driven by human activities. Furthermore, changes are occurring at an increasingly faster rate than previously experienced in human history.

    There is an emerging consensus regarding the need to look for broader approaches and solutions, not only with resource and environmental issues but along a wide front of societal problems. A survey of senior American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) scientists revealed an intriguing insight.

  • 17.
    Berkes, Fikret
    et al.
    Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Colding, Johan
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment (CNM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Living with disturbance: Building resilience in social-ecological systems2002In: Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change / [ed] Berkes, F., Colding, J. and Folke, C., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 1, , p. 393p. 163-186Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disturbances such as fire, cyclones, and pest outbreaks create variation in natural systems and ecosystem renewal that may be important for the maintenance of biological diversity. Many natural disturbances are inherent in the internal dynamics of ecosystems, and often set the timing of ecosystem renewal processes fundamental for maintaining resilience in ecosystems (Holling et al., 1995).

    By disturbance we mean ‘any relatively discrete event in time that disrupts ecosystem community or population structure and changes resources, substrate availability, or the physical environment’ (White and Pickett, 1985: 7). We distinguish between abiotic and biotic disturbances. Abiotic disturbances are those where the direct cause of disturbance is generated by nonbiotic agents. Examples include fires, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, flooding, and drought. Examples of biotic disturbances include insect and pest attacks, predators, invasion of exotic species, and the grazing and browsing of herbivores.

    Conventional resource management, based on economic production targets, commonly seeks to reduce natural variation in target resources, because fluctuations impose problems for the industry dependent on the resource (Holling and Meffe, 1996). Control of resource stock variability and flows can be achieved in a number of ways. For instance, by increasing financial investments in technologies for harvesting, a modern fishing industry can invest in larger fleets and more effective gear in order to maintain an even flow of production. Maintenance of high and even flows of monoculture crops in large-scale agriculture may be achieved by investing in various energy inputs, such as insecticides, pesticides, and irrigation.

  • 18.
    Berkes, Fikret
    et al.
    University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Colding, JohanBeijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.Folke, CarlBeijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change2002Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the effort towards sustainability, it has become increasingly important to develop conceptual frames to understand the dynamics of social and ecological systems. Drawing on complex systems theory, this book investigates how human societies deal with change in linked social-ecological systems, and build capacity to adapt to change. The concept of resilience is central in this context. Resilient social-ecological systems have the potential to sustain development by responding to and shaping change in a manner that does not lead to loss of future options. Resilient systems also provide capacity for renewal and innovation in the face of rapid transformation and crisis. The term navigating in the title is meant to capture this dynamic process. Case studies and examples from several geographic areas, cultures and resource types are included, merging forefront research from natural sciences, social sciences and the humanities into a common framework for new insights on sustainability.

  • 19.
    Berkes, Fikret
    et al.
    Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Canada.
    Colding, Johan
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment (CNM), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Synthesis: Building Resilience and Adaptive Capacity in Social-Ecological Systems2002In: Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change / [ed] Berkes, F., Colding, J. and Folke, C., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, 1, , p. 393p. 352-387Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A weekly magazine on business development issued an analysis of Madonna, the pop star, and raised the question ‘How come Madonna has been at the very top in pop music for more than 20 years, in a sector characterized by so much rapid change?’ A few decades ago, successful companies developed their brand around stability and security. To stay in business this is no longer sufficient, according to the magazine. You must add change, renewal, and variation as well. However, change, renewal, and variation by themselves will seldom lead to success and survival. To be effective, a context of experience, history, remembrance, and trust, to act within, is required. Changing, renewing, and diversifying within such a foundation of stability and maintaining high quality have been the recipe for success and survival of Madonna, and for rock stars such as Neil Young and U2. It requires an active adaptation to change, not only responding to change, but also creating and shaping it. In the same spirit, Sven-Göran Eriksson, coach of several soccer teams in Europe, claimed that it is the wrong strategy not to change a winning team. A winning team will always need a certain amount, but not too much, of renewal to be sustained as a winning team. Sustaining a winning team requires a context for renewal, or ‘framed creativity,’ borrowing from the language of the advertiser.

  • 20.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden .
    Pettersson, Lars B
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Halle, Germany .
    With that diet, you will go far: trait-based analysis reveals a link between rapid range expansion and a nitrogen-favoured diet2013In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 280, no 1750, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent global change has had a substantial influence on the distribution of organisms, and many species are currently expanding their ranges. To evaluate the underlying processes, long-term data with good geographic resolution are essential. One important but generally overlooked data source is offered by the taxon-specific national catalogues of first provincial records that are kept in many countries. Here, we use such data to quantify trait-based influences on range expansion in Swedish butterflies and moths between 1973 and 2010. Of 282 species meeting pre-defined quality criteria, 170 expanded their northern range margin, with a mean expansion rate of 2.7 km per year. The analyses demonstrate that habitat and diet generalists, forest species and species active during warm conditions have expanded their ranges more rapidly than other species. Notably, range expansion in diet specialists was positively related to a nitrogen-favoured larval diet, an effect not found among oligo- or polyphagous species. In contrast to the general view, this shows that specialist species can undergo rapid range expansion. We suggest that increased areas of nitrogen-rich habitat, and increased availability of a nitrogen-favoured diet, are among the most important drivers of range expansions, potentially having far-reaching consequences for a wide variety of organisms.

  • 21.
    Biurrun, Idoia
    et al.
    Universidad del Pais Vasco, Leioa, Spain.
    Pielech, Remigiusz
    Uniwersytet Rolniczy im. Hugona Kollataja w Krakowie, Krakow, Poland; Foundation for Biodiversity Research, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Dembicz, Iwona
    Uniwersytet Warszawski, Warsaw, Poland; Zürcher Hochschule Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland.
    Gillet, François
    Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Besancon, France.
    Kozub, Łukasz
    Uniwersytet Warszawski, Warsaw, Poland.
    Marcenò, Corrado
    Universidad del Pais Vasco, Leioa, Spain; Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Reitalu, Triin
    Tallinna Tehnikaülikool, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Van Meerbeek, Koenraad
    KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.
    Guarino, Riccardo
    Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    Chytrý, Milan
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Pakeman, Robin J.
    The James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
    Preislerová, Zdenka
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Axmanová, Irena
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Burrascano, Sabina
    Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome, Italy.
    Bartha, Sándor
    Institute of Ecology and Botany, Vacratot, Hungary.
    Boch, Steffen
    Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.
    Bruun, Hans Henrik
    Københavns Universitet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Conradi, Timo
    Universität Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    De Frenne, Pieter
    Universiteit Gent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Essl, Franz
    Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria.
    Filibeck, Goffredo
    Università degli Studi della Tuscia Viterbo, Viterbo, Italy.
    Hájek, Michal
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja
    Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.
    Kuzemko, Anna
    M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Molnár, Zsolt
    Institute of Ecology and Botany, Vacratot, Hungary.
    Pärtel, Meelis
    Ökoloogia ja Maateaduste Instituut, Tartu, Estonia.
    Pätsch, Ricarda
    University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Prentice, Honor C.
    Lunds Universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Roleček, Jan
    Institute of Botany of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Pruhonice, Czech Republic.
    Sutcliffe, Laura M. E.
    Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Gottingen, Germany.
    Terzi, Massimo
    CNR Istituto di Bioscienze e Biorisorse, Bari, Bari, Italy.
    Winkler, Manuela
    Osterreichische Akademie Der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Austria; Universitat fur Bodenkultur Wien, Vienna, Austria.
    Wu, Jianshuang
    Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Aćić, Svetlana
    University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Acosta, Alicia T. R.
    Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Rome, Italy.
    Afif, Elias
    Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.
    Akasaka, Munemitsu
    Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Japan.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Aleffi, Michele
    Università degli Studi di Camerino, Camerino, Italy.
    Aleksanyan, Alla
    National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia.
    Ali, Arshad
    Hebei University, Baoding, China.
    Apostolova, Iva
    Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Ashouri, Parvaneh
    Agricultural Research, Education & Extension Organization, Iran, Tehran, Iran.
    Bátori, Zoltán
    Szegedi Tudományegyetem (SZTE), Szeged, Hungary.
    Baumann, Esther
    Universität Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Becker, Thomas
    Universitat Trier, Trier, Germany.
    Belonovskaya, Elena
    Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Benito Alonso, José Luis
    JOLUBE Consultor Botánico, Jaca, Spain.
    Berastegi, Asun
    Environmental Management of Navarre, Pamplona, Spain.
    Bergamini, Ariel
    Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.
    Bhatta, Kuber Prasad
    Universitetet i Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Bonini, Ilaria
    Università degli Studi di Siena, Siena, Italy.
    Büchler, Marc-Olivier
    Zürcher Hochschule Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland.
    Budzhak, Vasyl
    Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine.
    Bueno, Álvaro
    Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.
    Buldrini, Fabrizio
    Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Campos, Juan Antonio
    Universidad del Pais Vasco, Leioa, Spain.
    Cancellieri, Laura
    Università degli Studi della Tuscia Viterbo, Viterbo, Italy.
    Carboni, Marta
    Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Rome, Italy.
    Ceulemans, Tobias
    KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.
    Chiarucci, Alessandro
    Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Chocarro, Cristina
    Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Conti, Luisa
    Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Rome, Italy; Institute of Botany of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Pruhonice, Czech Republic; Universitat de Lleida, Lleida, Spain.
    Csergő, Anna Mária
    Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Godollo, Hungary.
    Cykowska-Marzencka, Beata
    Zürcher Hochschule Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland; Wladyslaw Szafer Institute of Botany of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland.
    Czarniecka-Wiera, Marta
    Instytut Technologiczno-Przyrodniczy, Warsaw, Poland; University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Czarnocka-Cieciura, Marta
    National Information Processing Institute, Warsaw, Poland.
    Czortek, Patryk
    Uniwersytet Warszawski, Warsaw, Poland.
    Danihelka, Jiří
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic; Institute of Botany of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Pruhonice, Czech Republic.
    de Bello, Francesco
    Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain.
    Deák, Balázs
    Institute of Ecology and Botany, Vacratot, Hungary.
    Demeter, László
    National Agency for Protected Areas, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania.
    Deng, Lei
    Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.
    Diekmann, Martin
    Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Dolezal, Jiri
    Institute of Botany of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Pruhonice, Czech Republic; Jihočeská Univerzita v Českých Budějovicích, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.
    Dolnik, Christian
    Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Dřevojan, Pavel
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Dupré, Cecilia
    Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Ecker, Klaus
    Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.
    Ejtehadi, Hamid
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Erschbamer, Brigitta
    Universität Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Etayo, Javier
    I.E.S. Zizur Institute, Pamplona, Spain.
    Etzold, Jonathan
    ESTOK UG, Bernau (bei Berlin), Germany.
    Farkas, Tünde
    Nemzeti Park Igazgatóságok, Hungary, Kecskemet, Hungary.
    Farzam, Mohammad
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Fayvush, George
    National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia.
    Fernández Calzado, María Rosa
    Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Farmacia, Granada, Spain.
    Finckh, Manfred
    Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Fjellstad, Wendy
    The Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, As, Norway.
    Fotiadis, Georgios
    Geoponiko Panepistimion Athinon, Athens, Greece.
    García-Magro, Daniel
    Universidad del Pais Vasco, Leioa, Spain.
    García-Mijangos, Itziar
    Universidad del Pais Vasco, Leioa, Spain.
    Gavilán, Rosario G.
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Germany, Markus
    Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Ghafari, Sahar
    University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
    Giusso del Galdo, Gian Pietro
    Università degli Studi di Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Grytnes, John-Arvid
    Universitetet i Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Güler, Behlül
    Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, Izmir, Turkey.
    Gutiérrez-Girón, Alba
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Helm, Aveliina
    Ökoloogia ja Maateaduste Instituut, Tartu, Estonia.
    Herrera, Mercedes
    Universidad del Pais Vasco, Leioa, Spain.
    Hüllbusch, Elisabeth M.
    Universität Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Ingerpuu, Nele
    Ökoloogia ja Maateaduste Instituut, Tartu, Estonia.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Jandt, Ute
    Martin-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany; German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Janišová, Monika
    Institute of Botany Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Jeanneret, Philippe
    Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Tanikon, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Jeltsch, Florian
    Universität Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
    Jensen, Kai
    Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Jentsch, Anke
    Universität Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Kącki, Zygmunt
    University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Kakinuma, Kaoru
    Shanghai University, Shanghai, China.
    Kapfer, Jutta
    The Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, As, Norway.
    Kargar, Mansoureh
    Natural Resources and Watershed Management Administration of Alborz Province, Karaj, Iran.
    Kelemen, András
    Institute of Ecology and Botany, Vacratot, Hungary.
    Kiehl, Kathrin
    Fachhochschule Osnabrück, Osnabruck, Germany.
    Kirschner, Philipp
    Universität Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Koyama, Asuka
    Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Langer, Nancy
    Stiftung Naturschutzfonds Brandenburg, Potsdam, Germany.
    Lazzaro, Lorenzo
    Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy.
    Lepš, Jan
    Jihočeská Univerzita v Českých Budějovicích, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.
    Li, Ching-Feng
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Li, Frank Yonghong
    Inner Mongolia University China, Hohhot, China.
    Liendo, Diego
    Universidad del Pais Vasco, Leioa, Spain.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löbel, Swantje
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Lomba, Angela
    Universidade do Porto, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Fornelo e Vairao, Portugal.
    Lososová, Zdeňka
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Lustyk, Pavel
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Luzuriaga, Arantzazu L.
    Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain.
    Ma, Wenhong
    Inner Mongolia University China, Hohhot, China.
    Maccherini, Simona
    Università degli Studi di Siena, Siena, Italy.
    Magnes, Martin
    Universitat Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Malicki, Marek
    University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland; Wroclaw Medical University, 50-367 Wrocław, Poland.
    Manthey, Michael
    Universität Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
    Mardari, Constantin
    Universitatea Alexandru Ioan Cuza, Iasi, Romania.
    May, Felix
    Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Mayrhofer, Helmut
    Universitat Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Meier, Eliane Seraina
    Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Tanikon, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Memariani, Farshid
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Merunková, Kristina
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Michelsen, Ottar
    Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet, Trondheim, Norway.
    Molero Mesa, Joaquín
    Universidad de Granada, Facultad de Farmacia, Granada, Spain.
    Moradi, Halime
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Moysiyenko, Ivan
    Kherson State University, Kherson, Ukraine.
    Mugnai, Michele
    Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy.
    Naqinezhad, Alireza
    University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
    Natcheva, Rayna
    Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Ninot, Josep M.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Nobis, Marcin
    Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Krakow, Poland.
    Noroozi, Jalil
    Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria.
    Nowak, Arkadiusz
    Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland; Uniwersytet Opolski, Opole, Poland.
    Onipchenko, Vladimir
    Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Palpurina, Salza
    Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria; National Museum of Natural History Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Pauli, Harald
    Osterreichische Akademie Der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Austria; Universitat fur Bodenkultur Wien, Vienna, Austria.
    Pedashenko, Hristo
    Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Pedersen, Christian
    The Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, As, Norway.
    Peet, Robert K.
    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, United States.
    Pérez-Haase, Aaron
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Universitat de Vic - Universitat Central de Catalunya (UVic-UCC), Vic, Spain.
    Peters, Jan
    Michael Succow Foundation, Greifswald, Germany.
    Pipenbaher, Nataša
    Univerza v Mariboru, Maribor, Slovenia.
    Pirini, Chrisoula
    School of Biology, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Pladevall-Izard, Eulàlia
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Plesková, Zuzana
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Potenza, Giovanna
    Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza, Italy.
    Rahmanian, Soroor
    Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Rodríguez-Rojo, Maria Pilar
    Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain.
    Ronkin, Vladimir
    V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv, Ukraine.
    Rosati, Leonardo
    Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza, Italy.
    Ruprecht, Eszter
    Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai, Cluj Napoca, Romania.
    Rusina, Solvita
    Latvijas Universitāte, Riga, Latvia.
    Sabovljević, Marko
    University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Sanaei, Anvar
    Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Sánchez, Ana M.
    Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain.
    Santi, Francesco
    Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Savchenko, Galina
    V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv, Ukraine.
    Sebastià, Maria Teresa
    Universitat de Lleida, Lleida, Spain.
    Shyriaieva, Dariia
    M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Silva, Vasco
    Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Škornik, Sonja
    Univerza v Mariboru, Maribor, Slovenia.
    Šmerdová, Eva
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Sonkoly, Judit
    Debreceni Egyetem, Debrecen, Hungary; MTA-DE Lendület Functional and Restoration Ecology Research Group, Debrecen, Hungary.
    Sperandii, Marta Gaia
    Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Rome, Italy; CSIC-GV-UV - Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificación, Moncada, Spain.
    Staniaszek-Kik, Monika
    University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.
    Stevens, Carly
    Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Stifter, Simon
    EURAC Research, Bolzano, Italy.
    Suchrow, Sigrid
    Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Swacha, Grzegorz
    University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Świerszcz, Sebastian
    Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland; Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland.
    Talebi, Amir
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Teleki, Balázs
    Debreceni Egyetem, Debrecen, Hungary.
    Tichý, Lubomír
    Masarykova Univerzita, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Tölgyesi, Csaba
    Szegedi Tudományegyetem (SZTE), Szeged, Hungary.
    Torca, Marta
    Universidad del Pais Vasco, Leioa, Spain.
    Török, Péter
    Debreceni Egyetem, Debrecen, Hungary; MTA-DE Lendület Functional and Restoration Ecology Research Group, Debrecen, Hungary.
    Tsarevskaya, Nadezda
    Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Tsiripidis, Ioannis
    School of Biology, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Turisová, Ingrid
    Matej Bel University, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia.
    Ushimaru, Atushi
    Kobe University, Kobe, Japan.
    Valkó, Orsolya
    Institute of Ecology and Botany, Vacratot, Hungary.
    Van Mechelen, Carmen
    PXL University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Diepenbeek, Belgium.
    Vanneste, Thomas
    Universiteit Gent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Vasheniak, Iuliia
    Vasyl' Stus Donetsk National University, Vinnytsia, Ukraine.
    Vassilev, Kiril
    Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Viciani, Daniele
    Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy.
    Villar, Luis
    Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Virtanen, Risto
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Vitasović-Kosić, Ivana
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Vojtkó, András
    Eszterhazy Karoly University, Heves County, Hungary.
    Vynokurov, Denys
    M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Waldén, Emelie
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Yun
    Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz, Görlitz, Germany.
    Weiser, Frank
    Universität Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Wen, Lu
    Inner Mongolia University China, Hohhot, China.
    Wesche, Karsten
    German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz, Görlitz, Germany; Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    White, Hannah
    Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Widmer, Stefan
    Zürcher Hochschule Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland.
    Wolfrum, Sebastian
    Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für Ernährung, Landnutzung und Umwelt, Freising, Germany; Institute for Organic Farming, Freising, Germany.
    Wróbel, Anna
    Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Krakow, Poland.
    Yuan, Zuoqiang
    Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Zelený, David
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Zhao, Liqing
    Inner Mongolia University China, Hohhot, China.
    Dengler, Jürgen
    Zürcher Hochschule Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland; Universität Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany; German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Benchmarking plant diversity of Palaearctic grasslands and other open habitats2021In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 32, no 4, article id e13050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Journal of Vegetation Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association for Vegetation Science.Aims: Understanding fine-grain diversity patterns across large spatial extents is fundamental for macroecological research and biodiversity conservation. Using the GrassPlot database, we provide benchmarks of fine-grain richness values of Palaearctic open habitats for vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens and complete vegetation (i.e., the sum of the former three groups). Location: Palaearctic biogeographic realm. Methods: We used 126,524 plots of eight standard grain sizes from the GrassPlot database: 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 m2 and calculated the mean richness and standard deviations, as well as maximum, minimum, median, and first and third quartiles for each combination of grain size, taxonomic group, biome, region, vegetation type and phytosociological class. Results: Patterns of plant diversity in vegetation types and biomes differ across grain sizes and taxonomic groups. Overall, secondary (mostly semi-natural) grasslands and natural grasslands are the richest vegetation type. The open-access file ”GrassPlot Diversity Benchmarks” and the web tool “GrassPlot Diversity Explorer” are now available online (https://edgg.org/databases/GrasslandDiversityExplorer) and provide more insights into species richness patterns in the Palaearctic open habitats. Conclusions: The GrassPlot Diversity Benchmarks provide high-quality data on species richness in open habitat types across the Palaearctic. These benchmark data can be used in vegetation ecology, macroecology, biodiversity conservation and data quality checking. While the amount of data in the underlying GrassPlot database and their spatial coverage are smaller than in other extensive vegetation-plot databases, species recordings in GrassPlot are on average more complete, making it a valuable complementary data source in macroecology. © 2021 The Authors.

  • 22.
    Björk, Robert G.
    et al.
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Majdi, Hooshang
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lewis-Johnsson, Lotta
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Molau, Ulf
    Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Long-term warming effects on root morphology, root mass distribution, and microbial activity in two dry tundra plant communities in northern Sweden2007In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 176, no 4, p. 862-873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    • Effects of warming on root morphology, root mass distribution and microbialactivity were studied in organic and mineral soil layers in two alpine ecosystems over > 10 yr, using open-top chambers, in Swedish Lapland.

    • Root mass was estimated using soil cores. Washed roots were scanned and sortedinto four diameter classes, for which variables including root mass (g dry matter(g DM) m –2 ), root length density (RLD; cm cm –3 soil), specific root length (SRL; m gDM –1 ), specific root area (SRA; m 2 kg DM –1 ), and number of root tips m –2 weredetermined. Nitrification (NEA) and denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) in the top10 cm of soil were measured.

    • Soil warming shifted the rooting zone towards the upper soil organic layer in bothplant communities. In the dry heath, warming increased SRL and SRA of the finestroots in both soil layers, whereas the dry meadow was unaffected. Neither NEA norDEA exhibited differences attributable to warming.

    • Tundra plants may respond to climate change by altering their root morphologyand mass while microbial activity may be unaffected. This suggests that carbon maybe incorporated in tundra soils partly as a result of increases in the mass of the finerroots if temperatures rise.

  • 23.
    Bringmark, Ewa
    et al.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bringmark, Lage
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sonesten, Lars
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Mjöfors, Kristina
    Department of Soil and Environment, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    University of Gävle.
    Long-term monitoring of scots pine litter decomposition rates throughout sweden indicates formation of a more recalcitrant litter in the south2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 878-890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decomposition studies were carried out at sites throughout Sweden, including the four Integrated Monitoring sites. Scots pine needle litterbag weight loss measurements over 3 or 5 years were determined at 26 sites and repeated up to 27 times, depending on the site. Humus layer respiration rates were determined for 20 sites in 1987-1989 and repeated in 2007-2008. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression was used to elucidate the relative importance of climatic and soil factors. Annual needle weight losses decreased only slowly (20-10%) over 3-5 years for all northern (> 60A degrees N) sites but decreased sharply from 30 to 10% in the third year in southern (< 60A degrees N) sites. Respiration rates of southern sites were less (40% on average) than those of northern sites. Humus layer N was positively correlated to needle weight loss during the first and the second years, but negatively correlated in the third year and to respiration rates. The results indicated that litter formed in southern Sweden became more recalcitrant in later stages of decomposition compared to litter produced in northern Sweden.

  • 24.
    Cassel-Lundhagen, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tammaru, Toomas
    Institute of Ecology, and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Windig, Jack
    Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Animal Sciences Group, Wageningen UR, Lelystad, Netherlands.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Nylin, Sören
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Are peripheral populations special? Congruent patterns in two butterfly species2009In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 591-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Populations at range margins may be genetically different from more central ones for a number of mutually non-exclusive reasons. Specific selection pressures may operate in environments that are more marginal for the species. Genetic drift may also have a strong effect in these populations if they are small, isolated and/or have experienced significant bottlenecks during the colonisation phase. The question if peripheral populations are special, and if yes then how and why, is of obvious relevance for speciation theory, as well as for conservation biology. To evaluate the uniqueness of populations at range margins and the influence of gene flow and selection, we performed a morphometric study of two grassland butterfly species: from Swedish populations that are peripheral and isolated from the main area of the species distributions and from populations in the Baltic states that are peripheral but connected to the main area of the species distributions. These samples were compared to those from central parts of the species distributions. The isolated populations in both species differed consistently from both peripheral and central populations in their wing size and shape. We interpret this as a result of selection caused by differences in population structure in these isolated locations, presumably favoring different dispersal propensity of these butterflies. Alternative explanations based on colonisation history, latitudinal effects, inbreeding or phenotypic plasticity appear less plausible. As a contrast, the much weaker and seemingly random amongregion differences in wing patterns are more likely to be ascribed to weaker selection pressures allowing genetic drift to be influential. In conclusion, both morphological data and results from neutral genetic markers in earlier studies of the same system provide congruent evidence of both adaptation and genetic drift in the isolated Swedish populations of both species.

     

  • 25.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The potential of ‘Urban Green Commons’ in the resilience building of cities2013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, p. 156-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While cultural diversity is increasing in cities at a global level as a result of urbanization, biodiversity is decreasing with a subsequent loss of ecosystem services. It is clear that diversity plays a pivotal role in the resilience building of ecosystems; however, it is less clear what role cultural diversity plays in the resil- ience building of urban systems. In this paper we provide innovative insights on how common property sys- tems could contribute to urban resilience building. Through a review of recent findings on urban common property systems and the relevant literature, we deal with urban green commons (UGCs) and discuss their potential to manage cultural and biological diversity in cities. We describe three examples of UGCs, i.e. col- lectively managed parks, community gardens, and allotment areas, with a focus on their institutional characteristics, their role in promoting diverse learning streams, environmental stewardship, and social– ecological memory. We discuss how UGCs can facilitate cultural integration through civic participation in urban land-management, conditions for the emergence of UGCs, the importance of cognitive resilience building, and what role property-rights diversity plays in urban settings. We conclude by elucidating some key insights on how UGCs can promote urban resilience building.

  • 26.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; he Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; .
    Lundberg, Jakob
    he Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    The Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Erik
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Golf courses and wetland fauna2009In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1481-1491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Golf courses are often considered to be chemical‐intensive ecosystems with negative impacts on fauna. Here we provide evidence that golf courses can contribute to the support and conservation of wetland fauna, i.e., amphibians and macroinvertebrates. Comparisons of amphibian occurrence, diversity of macroinvetebrates, and occurrence of species of conservation concern were made between permanent freshwater ponds surveyed on golf courses around Sweden's capital city, Stockholm, and off‐course ponds in nature‐protected areas and residential parklands. A total of 71 macroinvertebrate species were recorded in the field study, with no significant difference between golf course ponds and off‐course ponds at the species, genus, or family levels. A within‐group similarities test showed that golf course ponds have a more homogenous species composition than ponds in nature‐protected areas and ponds in residential parkland. Within the macroinvertebrate group, a total of 11 species of odonates were identified, with no difference detected between the categories of ponds, nor any spatial autocorrelation. Significant differences were found between pond categories in the occurrence of five species of amphibians, although anuran occurrence did not differ between ponds. The great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) was significantly associated with golf course ponds, but the smooth newt (Triturus vulgaris) was not. We found no evidence of any correlation between pond size and occurrence of amphibians. Among the taxa of conservation concern included in the sample, all amphibians are nationally protected in Sweden, with the internationally threatened T. cristatus more frequently found in golf course ponds. Among macroinveterbrates of conservation status, the large white‐faced darter dragonfly (Leucorrhinia pectoralis) was only detected in golf course ponds, and Tricholeiochiton fagesi (Trichoptera) was only found in one off‐course pond. GIS results revealed that golf courses provide over a quarter of all available permanent, freshwater ponds in central greater Stockholm. We assert that golf courses have the potential to contribute to wetland fauna support, particularly in urban settings where they may significantly contribute to wetland creation. We propose a greater involvement of ecologists in the design of golf courses to further bolster this potential.

  • 27.
    Djerdali, Sofia
    et al.
    Département de Biologie, Université Farhat Abbes, Sétif, Algeria.
    Sanchez Tortosa, Francisco
    Univ Cordoba, Dept Zool, Cordoba, Spain.
    Hillström, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Doumandji, Salaheddine
    Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Agronomie, El Harrach, Algeria.
    Food supply and external cues limit the clutch size and hatchability in the White Stork Ciconia ciconia2008In: Acta Ornithologica, ISSN 0001-6454, E-ISSN 1734-8471, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 145-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clutch size is an important life history trait and factors such as nest predation and food availability can both be of crucial importance for its variation in nature. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of extra food on clutch size, laying date and hatching success in the White stork Ciconia ciconia. Three different colonies of White stork were studied over a three-year period where there was difference in both food availability and precipitation. This study demonstrated that an extra food supply during the pre-laying period had a positive effect on clutch size - nests with extra food had a larger clutch size. There was also an advance in laying date and a higher hatching success in nests with access to extra food. In addition to food supply, clutch size was independently affected by rainfall, which suggests that parents additionally also were sensitive to other external cues than to the extra food. Furthermore, this study also suggests that an extra food during the incubation period could probably help the parents to solve the conflict between incubation behaviour and minimizing the time off the nest, i.e. increasing nest attentiveness in nests with extra food.

  • 28.
    During, Heinjo J
    et al.
    Utrecht University.
    Verduyn, Betty
    Utrecht University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Biomechanical properties of the terrestrial mosses Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Pogonatum japonicum Sull. & Lesq. along altitudinal gradients in northern Japan2015In: Arctoa: A Journal of Briology, ISSN 0131-1379, Vol. 24, p. 375-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Altitudinal gradients along mountain slopes provide valuable opportunities to study variation in plant traits in response to changes in environmental conditions along such  gradients. This study focused on biomechanical traits of two moss species, the more or less horizontally growing Pleurozium schreberi and the erect-growing Pogonatum japonicum, along altitudinal gradients on two mountains in Hokkaido, northern Japan.

    We measured stem diameter in two directions to determine the second moment of area I, used three-point bending tests with free stem ends to determine the slope of the force-deflection curve dF/dx, and used these data to calculate Young’s modulus and flexural rigidity of the stems. Both species showed much variation in all traits among replicates in the samples at each altitude. Environmental variation associated with altitude had more effect on the biomechanical traits of P. japonicum than on those of P. schreberi. Stems of P. japonicum were thicker (larger I) than those of P. schreberi and had a larger Young’s modulus and flexural rigidity. Stems tended to become thinner (lower second moment of area) and less rigid (lower flexural rigidity) at increasing altitude in both species.

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  • 29.
    Eckersten, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Marstorp, Håkan
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Collentine, Dennis
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Economics. Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Holger
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kätterer, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ecosystem C and N dynamics affected by a modified spring barley trait with increased nitrogen use - a simulation case study2018In: Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica - Section B, ISSN 0906-4710, E-ISSN 1651-1913, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 230-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent might a crop with increased plant N uptake efficiency and/or N demand increase plant biomass and soil carbon storage, decrease N leaching, and reduce the need for N fertilisation? This was assessed for a fertilised sandy loam site in central Sweden cultivated with spring barley for a four year period using a process based crop and soil simulation model (SOILN) calibrated to fit observations of field experiments with non-modified crops. Crop properties were changed in accordance with previous model applications to other crops with higher N uptake and utilisation efficiencies, to resemble potential effects of breeding. For the modified crops a doubling of daily uptake efficiency of soil mineral N and/or increase of radiation use efficiency by 30%, increased plant biomass by 3%-30%, decreased N leaching by 1%-30% and increased soil organic carbon (SOC) content by 1-12 g C m-2 year-1. The larger changes were mainly due to increased uptake efficiency. Fertilisation of the modified spring barley crop could be reduced while still producing the same plant biomass as the non-modified crop. The plant biomass to N leaching ratio of the modified crops increased. The simulated changes in plant biomass and SOC were sensitive to weather conditions suggesting that in situ experiments would need to cover a large range of weather conditions to evaluate the performance of new crop traits under climatic variability. The study suggests a strong need that field experiments are accompanied with model applications, when exploring the potential of the modified crops under variable conditions.

  • 30.
    Elmqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alfsen, C.
    UNESCO, New York, NY, USA.
    Colding, Johan
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Urban Systems2008In: Encyclopedia of Ecology / [ed] Sven Erik Jørgensen and Brian D. Fath, Oxford: Academic Press, 2008, p. 3665-3672Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization is a global multidimensional process which manifests itself through rapidly changing human population densities and changing land cover. Urbanization is viewed today as endangering more species and as more geographically ubiquitous than any other human activity and also the major driving force for increased homogenization of fauna and flora. The concept of ecosystem services has proven useful in describing human benefits from urban ecosystems. For example, urban vegetation may significantly reduce air pollution, mitigate the urban heat island effect, reduce noise, and enhance recreational and cultural values, of importance for urban citizen’s wellbeing. New opportunities lie in that urban landscapes are the very places where knowledge, innovation, and human and financial resources for getting solutions to global environmental problems are likely to be found.

  • 31.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Andersson, Erik
    Borgström, Sara
    Ecological scales and social network structure: management and governance of urban ecosystem services in Stockholm, SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Erik
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Borgström, Sara
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Scale-Crossing Brokers and Network Governance of Urban Ecosystem Services: The Case of Stockholm2010In: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 4, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban ecosystem services are crucial for human well-being and the livability of cities. A central challenge for sustaining ecosystem services lies in addressing scale mismatches between ecological processes on one hand, and social processes of governance on the other. This article synthesizes a set of case studies from urban green areas in Stockholm, Sweden—allotment gardens, urban parks, cemeteries and protected areas—and discusses how governmental agencies and civil society groups engaged in urban green area management can be linked through social networks so as to better match spatial scales of ecosystem processes. The article develops a framework that combines ecological scales with social network structure, with the latter being taken as the patterns of interaction between actor groups. Based on this framework, the article (1) assesses current ecosystem governance, and (2) develops a theoretical understanding of how social network structure influences ecosystem governance and how certain actors can work as agents to promote beneficial network structures. The main results show that the mesoscale of what is conceptualized as city scale green networks (i.e., functionally interconnected local green areas) is not addressed by any actor in Stockholm, and that the management practices of civil society groups engaged in local ecosystem management play a crucial but neglected role in upholding ecosystem services. The article proposes an alternative network structure and discusses the role of midscale managers (for improving ecological functioning) and scale-crossing brokers (engaged in practices to connect actors across ecological scales). Dilemmas, strategies, and practices for establishing this governance system are discussed.

  • 33.
    Finér, L.
    et al.
    Joensuu Research Unit, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland.
    Helmisaari, H.-S.
    Vantaa Research Unit, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland.
    Lohmus, K.
    Institute of Geography, Tartu University, Estonia.
    Majdi, Hooshang
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Brunner, I.
    Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Switzerland.
    Borja, I.
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Eldhuset, T.
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Godbold, D.
    School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Wales, UK.
    Grebenc, T.
    Slovenian Forestry Institute, Slovenia.
    Konopka, B.
    National Forest Centre, Forest Research Institute Zvolen T. G. Masaryka 22, Slovak Republic.
    Kraigher, H.
    Slovenian Forestry Institute, Slovenia.
    Möttönen, M.-R.
    Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, Finland.
    Ohashi, M.
    School of Human Science and Environment, University of Hyogo, Japan.
    Oleksyn, J.
    Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Ostonen, I.
    Institute of Geography, Tartu University, Estonia.
    Uri, V.
    Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Vanguelova, E.
    Environmental and Human Science Division, Forest Research, UK.
    Variation in fine root biomass of three European tree species: Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)2007In: Plant Biosystems, ISSN 1126-3504, E-ISSN 1724-5575, Vol. 141, no 3, p. 394-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fine roots (< 2 mm) are very dynamic and play a key role in forest ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycling and accumulation. We reviewed root biomass data of three main European tree species European beech, (Fagus sylvatica L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), in order to identify the differences between species, and within and between vegetation zones, and to show the relationships between root biomass and the climatic, site and stand factors. The collected literature consisted of data from 36 beech, 71 spruce and 43 pine stands. The mean fine root biomass of beech was 389 g m(-2), and that of spruce and pine 297 g m(-2) and 277 g m(-2), respectively. Data from pine stands supported the hypothesis that: root biomass is higher in the temperate than in the boreal zone. The results indicated that the root biomass of deciduous trees is higher than that of conifers. The correlations between root biomass and site fertility characteristics seemed to be species specific. There was no correlation between soil acidity and root biomass. Beech fine root. biomass decreased with stand age whereas pine root biomass increased with stand age. Fine root biomass at tree level. correlated better than stand level root biomass with stand characteristics. The results showed that there exists a strong relationship between the fine root biomass and the above-ground biomass.

  • 34.
    Folke, Carl
    et al.
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berkes, Fikret
    Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ecological practices and social mechanisms for building resilience and sustainability1998In: Linking social and ecological systems: Institutional learning for resilience / [ed] Berkes, F. and Folke, C., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998, 1, p. 414-437Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Folke, Carl
    et al.
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pritchard Jr., L.
    Evangelical Environmental Network, United States.
    Berkes, F.
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
    Colding, Johan
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedin, U.
    Swedish Research Council for the Environment, Sweden.
    The problem of fit between ecosystems and institutions: ten years later2007In: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of fit is about the interplay between the human and ecosystem dimensions in social-ecological systems that are not just linked but truly integrated. This interplay takes place across temporal and spatial scales and institutional and organizational levels in systems that are increasingly being interpreted as complex adaptive systems. In 1997, we were invited to produce one of three background papers related to a, at that time, new initiative called Institutional Dimensions of Global Environmental Change (IDEG), a research activity of the International Human Dimensions Program of Global Environmental Change (IHDP). The paper, which exists as a discussion paper of the IHDP, has generated considerable interest. Here we publish the original paper 10 years later with an extended introduction and with reflections on some of the issues raised in the original paper concerning problems of fit.

  • 36.
    Frank, Jens
    et al.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Johansson, Maria
    Environmental Psychology, Dept of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University.
    Flykt, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Public attitude towards the implementation of management actions aimed at reducing human fear of brown bears and wolves2015In: Wildlife Biology, ISSN 0909-6396, E-ISSN 1903-220X, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on human fear of large carnivores has mainly been based on self-reports in which individual survey items and the objects of fear are measured, so whether a person fears attacks on humans or livestock and pets has not been identified. The objectives of this study were to differentiate between the objects of fear as well as capturing attitudes towards implementation of management actions and the potential for conflict index (PCI). These concern the implementation of a limited number of management actions currently used or discussed in Sweden that are aimed at reducing human fear of brown bears/wolves. 391 persons living in areas with either brown bear (n = 198) or wolf (n = 193) in Sweden responded to a questionnaire. The degree of self-reported fear varied between residents in brown bear areas and residents in wolf areas. The fear of attacks on livestock and pets was stronger than fear of attacks on humans in both brown bear and wolf areas. In brown bear areas, fear was strongest for livestock, while in wolf areas fear was strongest for pets. The fear of attacks on livestock and pets was significantly stronger in wolf areas, while the fear of attacks on humans was strongest in brown bear areas. In both brown bear and wolf areas, there was little acceptance of implementation of management actions that would allow people to carry pepper spray or a gun outdoors. Management actions aimed at setting a population cap for bear/wolf populations, information on how to act when encountering a bear/wolf, and providing information on local presence of bear/wolf had relatively high acceptability. This was especially true for respondents expressing high fear of attacks on humans. 

  • 37.
    Gren, Ing Marie
    et al.
    Swedish University Of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Brutemark, Andreas
    Calluna AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för företagande, innovation och hållbarhet.
    Effects of shipping on non-indigenous species in the Baltic Sea2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 821, article id 153465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shipping is regarded as an important vector for aquatic non-indigenous species (ANIS) worldwide. Less attention has been paid to its role in relation to environmental and economic causes of introduction and establishment, the knowledge of which is necessary to assess effects of changes in regulations on shipping. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact of shipping on the incidence of ANIS in the Baltic Sea compared with environmental and economic factors. To this end, a production function was estimated with count data on ANIS (response variable) and shipping, environmental and economic factors as explanatory variables. Regression results from different regression models showed that shipping has a significant impact on ANIS incidence and can account for up to 38% of the number of ANIS in the sea. Predictions of the impact of measures implementing the Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediment indicated a reduction by 17% in the number of ANIS, which was counteracted by an expected increase in shipping traffic. © 2022

  • 38.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schaefer, Martin
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Thorsson, Pontus
    Division of Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Stockholm University Brain Imaging Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sounds of Nature in the City: No Evidence of Bird Song Improving Stress Recovery2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 8, article id 1390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise from city traffic is one of the most significant environmental stressors. Natural soundscapes, such as bird songs, have been suggested to potentially mitigate or mask noise. All previous studies on masking noise use self-evaluation data rather than physiological data. In this study, while respondents (n = 117) watched a 360 degrees virtual reality (VR) photograph of a park, they were exposed to different soundscapes and mild electrical shocks. The soundscapesbird song, bird song and traffic noise, and traffic noisewere played during a 10 min recovery period while their skin conductance levels were assessed as a measure of arousal/stress. No significant difference in stress recovery was found between the soundscapes although a tendency for less stress in bird song and more stress in traffic noise was noted. All three soundscapes, however, significantly reduced stress. This result could be attributed to the stress-reducing effect of the visual VR environment, to the noise levels being higher than 47 dBA (a level known to make masking ineffective), or to the respondents finding bird songs stressful. Reduction of stress in cities using masking with natural sounds requires further studies with not only larger samples but also sufficient methods to detect potential sex differences.

  • 39. Hill, Cathy
    et al.
    Wallström, Kerstin
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    The Stockholm archipelago2008In: Ecology of Baltic coastal waters, Berlin: Springer , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stockholm archipelago is the largest connected archipelago in Swedish waters, and extends 200 km along the east coast. It is about 100 km wide off the city of Stockholm. The topography includes valleys, cliffs and rifts. The many biotopes, including open waters, rocky coasts, narrow fjord-like bays and sheltered inlets, house a rich flora and fauna. We describe the pelagic and benthic communities and the environmental status of Stockholm archipelago. The inner archipelago has suffered from severe eutrophication for most of the 20th Century. Nutrient levels are still high but declining, and environmental conditions have gradually improved in the pelagic zone during the last 10-20 years. The sediments have been heavily contaminated by metals and organic pollutants since the early 1900s, especially in the inner archipelago. Concentrations of these pollutants peaked around 1960-1980, but have declined since then.

  • 40.
    Hillström, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Gieg, Jennifer
    Lyon, Robert
    Siblicidal behavior in relation to food supply in the Cattle egret Bubulcus ibis: an experimental test of the food amount hypothesis2006In: Symposium number: 06, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Hillström, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Kilpi, Mikael
    Department of Ecology and Systematics, Zoological Laboratory, Helsinki University, 00014 Helsinki, Finland, FI.
    Lindström, Kai
    Department of Ecology and Systematics, Zoological Laboratory, Helsinki University, 00014 Helsinki, Finland, FI.
    Is asynchronous hatching adaptive in herring gulls ( Larus argentatus )?2000In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 304-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hatching asynchrony commonly induces a size hierarchy among siblings and the resultant competition for food between siblings can often lead to starvation of the smallest chicks within a brood. We created herring gull (Larus argentatus) broods with varying degrees of hatching synchrony by manipulating the timing of incubation while maintaining the originally laid eggs. The degree of hatching asynchrony affected sibling size hierarchy at the time of hatching of the last-hatched ”c-chick.” In unmanipulated broods, there was no disadvantage of being a c-chick. However, when asynchrony was experimentally increased, we found reduced survival of the c-chick only in the exaggerated asynchronous experimental group. The effects were observable only during the first 10 days of chick life. We recorded no cases of the chicks dying of starvation. Furthermore, behavioral observations indicated that there was no sibling competition, and no selective feeding of larger sibs in the study colony. We propose that the observed lower survival rates of c-chicks in exaggerated asynchronous broods resulted from their lesser motor abilities, affecting their chances of escaping predators. Fledging success for the whole colony was generally high and almost half of all pairs fledged all three chicks, which is indicative of a good feeding environment. We argue that normal hatching asynchrony is a favorable solution in a good feeding environment, but that increased asynchrony reduces breeding success. We do not view asynchrony in the herring gull as an adaptation for brood reduction and propose instead that it may come about because there has been selection for incubation to start before clutch completion.

  • 42.
    Hillström, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology.
    Österdal, Henrik
    Norränge Skog & Natur AB, Norrängevägen 57, 820 10 ARBRÅ.
    Evolution of antlers in the moose Alces alces: a comparison of two different populations in Sweden2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish moose population has during the last 60 years been going through rather drastic changes in numbers. Recently there also seemed to have been a shift towards males with less and less developed antlers, which is an important problem for the moose population breeding. The aim with the present study was to study how antler size in the moose is related to age, body mass and population density. Information on the antler and body mass characters was obtained from 425 males that were shot during the annual moose hunting in October between the years 1999-2006. Age and body mass were the variables that explained most of the variation in antler size in this study. A residual of antler points over age, demonstrated a positive correlation between residuals and carcass, such that males with larger antlers for their age, was on average heavier than other males. There was also a significant negative correlation between population density and carcass. The high mortality rate of older males have lead to that few males reach an age where the horns are fully developed and the age distribution has moved to younger ages. As a consequence of this fact the males start to reproduce at younger ages. As the rutting behaviour is a very energy demanding activity, the younger male’s body growth will be constrained and there will be a large cost to come in rutting stage early. As the percentage of males and male age is having an impact on the reproduction of the population, this is an important problem which should be considered in order to give the right prerequisites for a more productive population of moose with big males that have well developed horns.

  • 43.
    Hougner, Cajsa
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Economic valuation of a seed dispersal service in the Stockholm National Urban Park, Sweden2006In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 364-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most economic valuation studies of species derive from stated preferences methods. These methods fail to take into account biodiversity values that the general public is not (made) informed about or has no experience with. Hence, production function (PF) and replacement cost (RC) approaches to valuation may be preferable in situations where species perform key life support functions in ecosystems, such as seed dispersal, pollination, or pest regulation. We conduct an RC analysis of the seed dispersal service performed by the Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius) in the Stockholm National Urban Park, Sweden. The park holds one of the largest populations of giant oaks in Europe, and the oak (Quercus robur and Quercus petrea) represents a keystone species in the hemiboreal forests. The primary objective was to estimate the number of seed-dispersed oak trees that resulted from jays and to determine the costs of replacing this service though human means. Results show that depending upon seeding or planting technique chosen, the RC per pair of jays in the park is SEK 35,000 (USD 4900) and SEK 160,000 (USD 22,500), respectively. Based on the park's aggregated oak forest-area, average RC for natural oak forest regeneration by jays is SEK 15,000 (USD 2100) to SEK 67,000 (USD 9400) per hectare, respectively. These estimates help motivating investments in management strategies that secure critical breeding and foraging habitats of jays, including coniferous forests and jay movement corridors. The analysis also illustrates the need for detailed ecological-economic knowledge in a PF or RC analysis. The continuous temporal and spatial oak dispersal service provided by jays holds several benefits compared to a man-made replacement of this service. PF and RC approaches are particularly motivated in cases of known functional ecological relationships, and critically important in estimating management measures where mobile link organisms and keystone species form key mutual relationships that generate high biodiversity benefits. In relation to obtained results, we discuss insights for conducting valuation studies on particular species.

  • 44.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut; Hokkaido University, Japan; Göteborgs universitet.
    Dead or alive?: Testing the use of C:N ratios and chlorophyll fluorescence in vertical shoot profiles to determine depth of vitality and point of senescence in populations of bryophytes2015In: Lindbergia, ISSN 0105-0761, E-ISSN 2001-5909, Vol. 38, p. 4-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bryophytes with indeterminate growth rarely exhibit clearly identifiable modules or age segments, but can be vertically divided into different physiologically active zones, since physiological activity normally declines vertically along the shoot profile depth. The aim of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to use C:N ratios (C/N)and/or parameters from chlorophyll fluorescence measurements (e.g. Fv/Fm, Fm or qN)to determine if bryophyte tissue is alive, senescent or dead, and at what distance along the shoot segment profile the moss tissue cease to live. Variation in C:N ratios and chlorophyll fluorescence between sites was also examined. This study shows that it is possible to separate alive, senescing and dead parts of the moss shoots in Pleurozium schreberi, and that chlorophyll fluorescence is a good method to use, whereas C/N varies between sites and species (for Hylcomium splendens and Racomitrium lanuginosum)and does not seem to reflect physiological activity to the same degree.

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  • 45.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Jönköping University, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap.
    Effects of LED lighting on animals and in the natural environment and recommendations to minimize the impact2019In: Proceedings of the 8th Professional Lighting Design Convention, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, 23-26 October 2019, 2019, p. 98-99Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Jönköping University, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap.
    LED-belysningens effekter på djur och natur med rekommendationer: Fokus på nordiska förhållanden och känsliga arter och grupper2018Report (Other academic)
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  • 47.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Jönköping University, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap.
    Level of knowledge of sustainable development (SD) in the master’s program Sustainable Building Information Management (BIM)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development (SD) is essential to reduce and mitigate climate change impacts, environmental deterioration and to increase social sustainability. SD is therefore highly relevant for the engineering profession and is today found integrated with the higher education of specific engineering programs. This paper investigated the knowledge of SD for students entering the master’s program in Sustainable Building Information Management (BIM) by comparing levels of knowledge at the start and end of the first course Sustainability, Analyses and Simulations. The level of knowledge of SD was analyzed by classifying students’ conceptions of sustainability using SOLO taxonomy and the spectrum of liminality and the threshold concept. Students written responses to the question “What do you know about sustainability?” and written group project reports were used for analyzing levels of knowledge of SD. Levels of knowledge of SD was classified as pre (pre-liminal or pre-structural); uni-structural, multi-structural, relational and post-stages (extended abstract or post-liminal). In total, 68% of the students entering the master’s program in 2017 and 88% in 2018 showed a pre-structural, uni-structural and multi-structural SD knowledge. In general, few students entering the program showed relational and post-stages of SD knowledge, 32% and 12% of the students in 2017 and 2018, respectively. The students at the post-stage were able to express themselves more individually and creatively compared to previous levels in that they could connect the dimensions of SD to the context of SD of buildings, but also argue why SD of buildings was important and they could also suggest actions or tools for improved SD that engineers should use. Only one group of five (in 2017) showed a post-stage level of knowledge in the group project report. It is likely that the student’s general approach to the work with the reports was to mainly cope with the course requirements which is a sign of surface approach to learning. It, therefore, seems reasonable that future developments of the course should ensure that the students use the scientific literature in their group project reports to make it easier for them to understand the relationship between software use and the connection to green buildings certificate systems and SD of buildings. By making it mandatory to include scientific literature in the reports the students will be encouraged to read and think critically, and deeper, and to put the practical implementation of the software analysis results into a scientific context of SD and BIM.

  • 48.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Campus Gotland, Uppsala Universitet.
    Native roadside vegetation that enhances soil erosion control in boreal Scandinavia2014In: Environments, E-ISSN 2076-3298, Vol. 1, p. 31-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on identifying vegetation characteristics associated with erosion control at nine roadside sites in mid-West Sweden. A number of vegetation characteristics such as cover, diversity, plant functional type, biomass and plant community structure were included. Significant difference in cover between eroded and non-eroded sub-sites was found in evergreen shrubs, total cover, and total above ground biomass. Thus, our results support the use of shrubs in order to stabilize vegetation and minimize erosion along roadsides. However, shrubs are disfavored by several natural and human imposed factors. This could have several impacts on the long-term management of roadsides in boreal regions. By both choosing and applying active management that supports native evergreen shrubs in boreal regions, several positive effects could be achieved along roadsides, such as lower erosion rate and secured long-term vegetation cover. This could also lead to lower costs for roadside maintenance as lower erosion rates would require less frequent stabilizing treatments and mowing could be kept to a minimum in order not to disfavor shrubs.                                                                                                             

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  • 49.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Hokkaido, Japan; Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute Linköping, Sweden.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Uppsala universitet, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Kudo, Gaku
    Variation in responses to temperature treatments ex situ of the moss Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt. originating from eight altitude sites in Hokkaido, Japan2014In: Journal of Bryology, ISSN 0373-6687, E-ISSN 1743-2820, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 209-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal acclimatisations are important for the survival and growth of individuals and populations but seldom studied for different populations of bryophytes. The aims of this study were to (I) investigate if responses to temperature treatments were independent of the site sampled or if the intra- and inter-population variation in responses were larger than the responses to the temperature treatments (control, press, and pulse), and to (II) examine if experimental responses varied, depending on the sampled sites. We collected samples of the circumpolar bryophyte species, Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt., originating from eight altitude sites on Mt. Oakan in Hokkaido, Japan, and exposed them to three different temperature treatments ex situ for four weeks. Thermal acclimatisation was estimated by measuring responses in growth length increase, biomass increase, number of branches, and the maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv/Fm). We found that responses to temperature treatments were dependent on the site sampled, and that differences were most pronounced in the length increase. Results also shows that the responses to experimental treatments may differ between sites. Our results therefore raise important concerns regarding the general validity of both ex situ and in situ experiments when performed on a single or a limited number of sites.

  • 50.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Rydberglaboratoriet för tillämpad naturvetenskap (RLAS).
    Bouroussis, Constantinos A.
    National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Ecological impact of artificial light at night: Effective strategies and measures to deal with protected species and habitats2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 11, article id 5991Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When conserving or protecting rare or endangered species, current general guidelines for reducing light pollution might not suffice to ensure long-term threatened species’ survival. Many protected areas are exposed to artificial light at levels with the potential to induce ecological impacts with unknown implications for the ecosystems they are designated to protect. Consequently, it is recommended that precautionary methods for the avoidance and mitigation of light pollution in protected areas be integrated into their management plans. This paper’s aims are to present an overview of best practices in precautionary methods to avoid and mitigate light pollution in protected areas and to identify and discuss what ecosystems should be considered light-sensitive and how to prioritise species and habitats that need protection from artificial light, including examples of legislation covering ecological light pollution in the European Union and in Sweden. The important aspects to include when considering light pollution at a landscape level are listed, and a proposal for prioritisation among species and habitats is suggested. Sensitive and conservation areas and important habitats for particularly vulnerable species could be prioritised for measures to minimise artificial lighting’s negative effects on biodiversity. This may be done by classifying protected natural environments into different zones and applying more constrained principles to limit lighting. The light pollution sensitivity of various environments and ecosystems suggests that different mitigation strategies and adaptations should be used depending on landscape characteristics, species sensitivity and other factors that may determine whether artificial light may be detrimental. Issues of the currently used measurement methods for artificial light at night are reviewed. We also propose and discuss the principles and benefits of using standardized measurement methods and appropriate instrumentation for field measurements of artificial light concerning the environmental impact of light pollution. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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