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  • 1.
    Hillström, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology.
    Pape Møller, Anders
    Laboratorie dÉcologie, Systématique et Evolution, CNRS UMR 8079, Université Paris-Sud, Batiment 362, F-91405 Orsay Cedex, France.
    The evolution of reversed sexual dimorphism in birds: a comparative study in charadriiformes2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reversed size dimorphism is common in birds of prey, owls and in waders. Not much attention has been paid to the evolution of morphological characters such as wing morphology and variables related to flight agility. The aim of this study was to investigate if the morphological variables in shorebirds, related to flight performance, such as wing length, wing area, wing loading, and factors such as aspect ratio, are related to the display-flights performed by these different species of shorebirds. Data on morphological variables, e.g. body mass, wing length, wing area etc. was collected at the British Museum of Natural History, London, UK.

    Data on behavioral variables, e.g. duration of a display flight or height of display flight was extracted from the published literature. There was a significant difference in wing length dimorphism (t = 2.51, p= 0.0402), when comparing between species within the same genus that had higher versus lower level of flight performance. There was also a significant difference in wing area dimorphism (t = 2.84, p= 0.025), for higher versus lower level of flight performance. However, there was no such difference for weight dimorphism, nor for tarsus dimorphism, or for wing loading or aspect ratio, when comparing between species for higher versus lower level of flight performance. Further analyses will be presented and a suggestive explanation for the evolution of reversed sexual dimorphism will be discussed at the congress. The hypotheses for increased food- or incubation efficiency is with several arguments irrelevant to shorebirds (which will be discussed).

  • 2.
    Prentice, Honor C
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Lund University.
    Li, Yuan
    Department of Biology, Lund University.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Miljövetenskap.
    Tunlid, Anders
    Department of Biology, Lund University.
    Ghatnekar, Lena
    Department of Biology, Lund University.
    A horizontally transferred nuclear gene is associated with microhabitat variationin a natural plant population2015In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, no 1821, article id 20152453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Horizontal gene transfer involves the non-sexual interspecific transmission of genetic material. Even if they are initially functional, horizontally transferred genes are expected to deteriorate into non-expressed pseudogenes, unless they become adaptively relevant in the recipient organism. However, little is known about the distributions of natural transgenes within wild species or the adaptive significance of natural transgenes within wild populations. Here, we examine the distribution of a natural plant-to-plant nuclear transgene in relation to environmental variation within a wild population. Festuca ovina is polymorphic for an extra (second) expressed copy of the nuclear gene (PgiC) encoding cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase, with the extra PgiC locus having been acquired horizontally from the distantly related grass genus Poa. We investigated variation at PgiC in samples of F. ovina from a fine-scale, repeating patchwork of grassland microhabitats, replicated within spatially separated sites. Even after accounting for spatial effects, the distributions of F. ovina individuals carrying the additional PgiC locus, and one of the enzyme products encoded by the locus, are significantly associated with fine-scale habitat variation. Our results suggest that the PgiC transgene contributes, together with the unlinked 'native' PgiC locus, to local adaptation to a fine-scale mosaic of edaphic and biotic grassland microhabitats.

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