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  • 1.
    Abdalla, Shireen
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Strömlind, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Den ekonomiska lönsamheten att friköpa en tomträtt: En studie angående tomträtter i Gävle kommun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Site-leasehold right is a form of access to a property. This means that the owner of the property, usually a municipality or the state, let a site-leaseholder use the property against an annual ground rent. A ground rent is determined by a site-leasehold agreement between the owner of the property and the site-leaseholder. The fixed ground rents are for a period of 10 or 20 years. Long periods of rents combined with a real estate market with rising prices means that the ground rent at a new period of ground rent can be increased considerably. The site-leaseholder may well choose to redeem their long lease. To buy the freehold of a site-leasehold means that the site-leaseholder acquires the property of the property owner and form a new single-family real estate.  The purpose of the study is to provide a better understanding and knowledge of the site lessee facing the decision to retain the site-leasehold or redeem it. The goal of the project is to provide knowledge about when the economic viability of redeeming a siteleasehold may be deemed attained. Another goal is based on the site-leaseholders perspectives consider to highlighting the underlying reasons why a single-family siteleasehold redeemed.   The study is limited to detached single-family site-leaseholds in three geographical areas in the municipality of Gävle. The economic viability of redeeming single-family site-leasehold examined from the site-leasehold executiver's decision to sell or retain the site-leasehold. To examine more closely why a site lessee chooses to redeem the siteleasehold conducted qualitative telephone interviews.  From the results based on the study, it can be concluded that it is likely to be economically justified to redeem a single-family site-leasehold on the price of acquiring the plot is equal to or less than the amount that symbolizes the breaking point of economic viability. Of the respondents surveyed for the study the single biggest reason for why a site lessee chooses to redeem his site-leasehold was because of the uncertainty arising from the developments around the ground rent.

  • 2.
    Abdalmunim, Rand
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Effektivisering av bygglovsprocessen gällande ändring av kulturhistoriskt värdefull bebyggelse: En fallstudie av ett miljonprogramsområde-Nya Nordostprojektet i Gävle2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En stor del av Sveriges bebyggelse har byggts mellan 1965 och 1974 eftersom det rådde stor bostadsbrist i Sverige. Regeringen beslutade att en miljon bostäder skulle uppföras under denna tid, det s.k. miljonprogrammet. Det byggdes bostäder i varierande former och storlekar för att bygga bort bostadsbristen. Storskaligheten och en stor grad av upprepning av identiska hus är kännetecken för miljonprogrammets bebyggelser. Nu är det dags att renovera dessa byggnader. I och med att dessa byggnader är av allmänt intresse då de speglar en del av Sveriges arkitekturhistoria ställer kommunerna vissa krav vid renovering av dem. Det kommunala företaget Gavlegårdarna i Gävle tar initiativ till att utveckla bygglovsprocessen för sådana bebyggelser. Detta görs för att reducera tiden för framställande av ett godkänt bygglov samt effektivisera och underlätta kommunikationen med kommunen under hela projektet. För att kunna bevara dessa byggnader i högsta möjliga mån har Gavlegårdarna utarbetat en effektiviseringsprocess genom att hyra in en extern bevarandeexpert för att fungera som en bro mellan företaget och kommunen samt för att kunna dela med sig av sina erfarenheter gällande bevarandet av det eventuella området. Dessutom har Gavlegårdarna låtit kommunen vara med från ett tidigt skede, d.v.s. redan från den första presentationen av förslaget. Därmed har kommunen fått vara med och medverka i förslaget, redan innan bygglovsansökan.

     

    Detta examensarbete tar upp konsekvenserna av de nya tillagda rutinerna och hur de har påverkat bygglovsansökningsprocessen för Nya Nordostprojektet. Genom att intervjua de inblandade aktörerna i det undersökta projektet har slutsatsen dragits att dessa rutiner har bidragit till att processen bedrivits mer effektivt jämfört med företagets tidigare projekt. Därutöver visar denna uppsats hur hyresgästerna har engagerat sig i det eventuella arbetet. Enkätundersökning har utförts för att kunna höra hyresgästernas åsikt.

     

    Det har visat sig att de nya rutinerna har effektiviserat tiden för bygglovsansöknings-processen. Tiden har förkortats jämförts med Gavlegårdarnas övriga projekt. Fördröjning i tid kostar företaget mer pengar. Dessutom har den förbättrade kommunikationen underlättat för båda parter att ta emot klagomål lättare och acceptera det. Det bidrar till att kommande problem kan lösas smidigare. Undersökningen har även visat att i projekt som Nya Nordost tas inte stor hänsyn till hyresgästernas åsikter, då byggherren redan är styrd från kommunen, vilket försvårar att flera kan vara med och välja. Ett annat resultat av denna undersökning var att de intervjuade personerna hade olika åsikter om bevarandet gällande Nordost. De flesta tyckte att Nordost ej var värt att bevara. Undersökningen visade även att hyresgästerna inte har engagerat sig lika mycket i bevarandet av gamla byggnader jämfört med att bo i ett modernare och nyrenoverat område.

  • 3.
    Abdi, Shorash
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Stedt, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av Leicas multistations och laserskanners mätosäkerheter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Presently there is no standard for the evaluation of measurement uncertainties for terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) despite the fact that the instrument has been on the market and used for a long time. Since the manufacturer's specifications do not always correspond with reality, it is important to have knowledge about how well the instrument performs. Numerous studies over the past decade have applied different approaches to estimate the measurement uncertainties on various TLS.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the measurement uncertainties of the TLS Leica ScanStation C10 with the multi station Leica Nova MS50 under two different weather conditions. The uncertainty was calculated using ISO 17123-5:2012, which is an international standard developed for acquiring measurement uncertainties of total stations, to investigate whether this standard could also be applicable for TLS. The survey, which took place outdoor at the University of Gävle, was carried out by scanning targets that were set up in a triangle formation from three stations. Both spheres and HDS-targets were scanned with the TLS while the MS50 only scanned spheres. The targets were scanned four times from each instrument setup. Cyclone was used to find the coordinates on the center of the targets which were used to calculate the uncertainties according to the ISO-standard. The results showed that the 3D-uncertainty of C10 with HDS-target and spheres were 2.9 mm and 3.5 mm during sunny conditions and 1.1 mm and 1.4 mm during cloudy conditions, respectively. In the case of the MS50, the uncertainty was 3.0 mm during sunny and 3.7 mm during cloudy conditions. MS50 demonstrated a higher 3D-uncertainty in both weather conditions due to high uncertainty in the vertical direction. In addition, a chi-two-test carried out on the TLS showed that the calculated uncertainty in plane and height did not significantly deviate from the manufacturer's specified uncertainty when using HDS-targets during cloudy conditions. Furthermore, it was found in the F-test that there was a significant difference in plane and height between two scans with the same instrument and target type in different weather conditions. MS50 did not show any significant difference at all. The results of this study showed that there will be a significantly lower uncertainty when scanning in cloudy conditions. Our conclusion is that it is possible to apply the standard to calculate the measurement uncertainties on TLS and ISO should consider using the same standard for TLS as the total station.

  • 4.
    Abugessaisa, Imad
    et al.
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Testing-SDI: E-government Prospective, Requirements, and Challenges2011In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 2011, no 1, p. 11-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial Data Infrastructure denotes the collection of technologies, policies and institutional arrangements that facilitate the availability of and access to spatial information. During the last few years the development of spatial data infrastructure in Sweden has been influenced by two actions. The first was the European Directive in spatial data infrastructure namely Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe (INSPIRE), and the second action was the Swedish parliament's directive early in 2008 on e-Government. In a modern society, spatial data play major roles and have different applications such as information support during disaster prevention and management. These two milestones involving Geodata development have created huge demands and represent great challenges for researchers in the area of spatial data infrastructure. One of these challenges concerned the methodologies involved for testing proposed data specifications from INSPIRE. This paper addresses the above challenge and introduces a framework for testing Geodata. The testing of Geodata includes, the testing of the data specifications for different geographical themes and data structure, the performance testing of Opengeospatial Web Services (OWS) and the usability of Geoportals and services. The proposed methods were evaluated during a pilot test for a regional geoportal in Sweden, and the reported results in this paper show the feasibility and applicability of the methods used. The methods used assisted in the identification of the performance related defects and the bottleneck involved in relation to the response time, stress and load. The methods support the detection of different types of errors that occur during the testing time such as http error, timeout error, and socket error. During the pilot test of a geoportal, it was discovered that the response time was 30 seconds which is 6 times higher than the INSPIRE required time (Maximum 5 second), with 500 virtual users accessing the system and performing a specific task. A usability test was conducted which focused on the users' acceptance and the “think aloud” methods. The usability testing enabled the identification of user-interface related problems and the results were quantified to enable comparisons to be made with current results and those from the new test.

  • 5.
    Agebro, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Datormodellering av en värmelagrande betongväggs inverkan på det termiska klimatet i ett växthus2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the building of a computer model that makes it possible to simulate the thermal climate in a greenhouse. The computer model is built on the physical theory of heat exchange that occur in a greenhouse, such as radiation and convective heat exchange. The model also includes the heat storage that is active in a greenhouse.

    The computer model is used to simulate the thermal climate in a greenhouse under three periods, winter, spring and summer. It also investigates which effect a concrete wall has on the thermal climate in a greenhouse. The purpose of putting a concrete wall in the greenhouse model is to investigate the possibility to store heat during the day and then use this heat when the temperature drops during the night.

    The result from the simulations shows that a concrete wall levels the big difference in temperature that normally occurs under a day in a greenhouse. It also shows that heat is stored in the concrete wall and during the night the wall temperature is higher than both the outdoor temperature and the greenhouse temperature. This makes the wall a source of heat during this time.

  • 6.
    Ahmed, Mohamed
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Maxamed, Maxamed
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Modell för beslutsfattande avseende hållbar logistik: I både tjänsteföretag och tillverkningsföretag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In any successful business, it is important to establish a dedicated management with the ability to make critical and sustainable decisions. Policy makers are a major and perhaps the biggest factor in a company and usually it is the managers who are also decision-makers. There are a number of aspects to keep in mind in order to make as appropriate decisions as possible, which can be anything from personality traits to how market analytic decision-maker is.

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a model for decision-making on sustainable logistics, in both manufacturing companies and service companies in Sweden. Literature studies and interviews are conducted in order to answer the purpose. Through the literary study, significant factors can be found, for example crisis management and trust, prejudice and character traits.

    This work’s empirical material is based on interviews in four different organizations regarding their decision making and their approach to sustainable logistics. These organizations are both service and manufacturing companies, which gives the work a breadth and generalizability.

    The identified factors that are developed through the case studies include emotionality and rationality, trust, and transparency. Several factors in the literature are clearly consistent with the significant factors in the study result. The factors that both the service and manufacturing companies have in mind when making decisions regarding sustainable logistics are presented in the results. The conclusion of this study is a model that visualizes the factors one should keep in mind when making decisions regarding sustainable logistics. These factors are trust, supplier selection, unity, facts, transparency and empathy. Based on these factors, any company with a dedication and commitment to long-term decision-making processes can make wise and effective assessments.

  • 7.
    Aittamaa, Christina
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Inmätning av fastigheten Hållsta 2:3, Hudiksvall2007Student paper second term, 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt har genomförts på mark- och mätningsavdelningen i Hudiksvalls kommun och projektets område är beläget norr om Hudiksvall, ca 6 km från centrala Hudiksvall vid norra infarten till E4:an.

    I området ligger en friskola, en gymnasieskola som heter ”Glada Hudik-skolan”. I skolans lokaler har det tidigare bedrivits hotellverksamhet i många år, f.d. Hammering Hotell. Hösten 2006 öppnade skolan sina portar och de räknar med att öka antalet elever varje läsår. I närheten av skolan finns den kända travbanan, Hagmyren.

    Syftet med arbetet var att göra en inmätning av fastigheten Hållsta 2:3, eftersom det inte fanns några inmätningar där tidigare. Stompunkter mättes in både i plan och höjd, därefter gjordes det detaljmätningar. Koordinatsystemet i plan i Hudiksvall är RTR10 2.5 gon V 0:- 15 och i höjd RH 70. Efter stom- och detaljmätningarna konstruerades en primärkarta i Geosecma som är ett kartprogram.

    I den här rapporten kommer mätmetoder, beräkningar, dokumentation och kartframställning att redovisas.

    Målet med projektet är att kommunen skall få nytta av inmätningarna i framtiden för olika projekteringar och att jag skall få mer erfarenhet av både mätning och kartframställning. Jag får även kunskaper om hur det går till på arbetsplatsen, tankegångar kring ett projekt och lärdomar av att arbeta självständigt.

  • 8.
    Akander, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Stojanovic, Bojan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Simulated Long-term Thermal Performance of a Building That Utilizes a Heat Pump System and Borehole2008In: Durability of Building Materials & Components 11: Globality and Locality in Durability / [ed] A. Nil Türkeri, Özkan Sengül, Istanbul, Turkey: Istanbul Technical University, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades, installation and use of heat pumps has grown rapidly in Sweden, to the extent that these mainly or partly heat roughly 25 % of the heated floor space in single-family houses. A majority are ground coupled where the heat exchanger is a borehole of 60-220 m depth. As the heat pump system operates, heat extraction will in time reduce borehole temperatures, rendering lowered efficiency of the heat pump system thus directly affecting its economical and environmental aspects. Within the building sector, durability and life performance dynamics of energy systems is often not reflected upon. System performance and efficiency is assumed to be static over time, changing only due to different operation scenarios. This paper serves to quantify the long-term thermal performance degradation of a component, in this case the borehole, and how the degradation of this component affects performance-over-time of an entire system, in this case the heating system of the building. A dynamic thermal simulation model is used to assess the long-term thermal performance of the borehole. The building, which the heat pump serves, is assumed to be a typical Swedish house with normal energy consumption. Simulation results show that the depth of the borehole is of great importance to limit over-time temperature drops. The efficiency of the heat pump system is directly dependent of temperatures in the borehole. How the overall system performance is affected by component performance degradation, is highlighted.

  • 9.
    Alikhani, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    A GIS-based crowdsourcing iPhone Application to Report Necessities, Civic Issues, and Public Events2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Civic issues in a society can be reported through a crowdsourcing web application. People can download the application on their smartphones and report the issues such as a pothole or broken streetlight. The report is submitted by taking a photo of the issue and additional information is entered. At first, the reports are submitted to a call center and after analyzing they will be transferred to organizations responsible for this type of events. In such a crowdsourcing project it is very vital to motivate people to participate in the project. The reports are supplied by users and without an acceptable number of users the application would be useless. In addition, having the exact location of a report is very helpful to facilitate the process of solving civic issues. Positioning with smartphones is not very accurate as they do not have strong and accurate GPSs. Therefore, there is a need to improve the accuracy of the positioning process and consequently accuracy of the spatial data. The aim of this thesis is to investigate how to employ GIS to help reporting civic issues and how to design an interesting client interface for such an application, in order to motivate user to download and use it. The goal is also to find out shortcomings and weaknesses of the positioning with smartphones and find a way to improve its accuracy.Some of successful similar applications’ structures and their interfaces were reviewed. In addition, a survey among existing users of crowdsourcing applications has been done in order to find out how to design the application to be interesting for users. Furthermore, some techniques and methods were chosen in order to improve the GPS accuracy especially in the places with a low GPS signal strength. These methods exploit WLAN and some of embedded features in a smartphone such as microphone, camera, accelerometer, gyroscope to improve the positioning accuracy. In the end, along reporting civic issues the user is able to report and get information about cheap and appropriate necessities and public events in different geographical areas through a map-based application. Furthermore, he or she is benefited by some location-based services such as online-food or taxi. The client application’s interface was designed for iPhone.This GIS-based mobile application would be an appropriate alternative for the old reporting methods like phone call or mail. Nevertheless, reporting civic issues itself, cannot be necessarily a strong motivation to attract the user to download and use the application. Therefore, desired feedbacks of the crowd need to be found out in order to encourage them to spend their time for the application. User needs to get motivated to use the application and considered additional parts can be very helpful to reach this aim.

  • 10.
    Almberg, Stina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Michel, Gabriella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Analys av energianvändningen i kvarteren Carolina och Jenny: en fallstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An energy study has been performed on two blocks in an area called Gävle Strand. The buildings are owned by a tenant-owner’s association called brf Carolina and were built by the company Skanska 2008. The builder as well as brf Carolina are pussled by the fact that electricity use is higher than expected while heating is less. Skanska is also very interested in finding out how much heat recovery from stale exhaust air through a geo-thermal heat pump is contributing to the general heating requirement and energy balance in four out of the ten buildings located on the properties.

    To find possible answers to the higher electricity use a literature survey on user behaviour was conducted. Simulations were executed in the energy simulation program BV2 testing the efficiency of a mechanical ventilation system with fans dispatching the used stale air with heat recovery through the geo-thermal heat pump in comparison to a HRV-system. As BV2 can’t simulate heat pumps its impact was instead calculated manually and added to the result from BV2.

    The result show that there are significant differences in both water and electricity use between households. The mean value in brf Carolina is also higher for both water and electricity use than the typical pattern value most commonly used in energy simulations for new buildings. The simulations and calculations show that a HRV-system is practically equal to the system chosen for these buildings. The geo-thermal heat pump make a substantial contribution to the heating requirements but also increases the electricity use in comparison to the HRV-system.

    The buildings over all have a good energy performance. The chosen heat recovery system is working well. If the source for energy is also valued a HRV-system is still preferable since it requires less electricity.In regards to user behaviour the under floor heating installed in the bathrooms and operated by the occupants is very likely to have a substantial impact on the higher than average electricity use. There are however many other factors that could have an impact on energy use due to behaviour factors. This is also a factor when varations between households are viewed.

    Key words; energy, energy simulation, user behaviour

  • 11.
    Al-Saour Rafie, Mais
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Farhad, Tafan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Tillgänglighet och användbarhet i nybyggnation: En fallstudie - Bostadslägenheter på Gävle Strand Etapp2 - Gavlegårdarna2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human beings are always considered to be the starting point for various construction projects; their needs and interests should always be the center of each successful design. At the same time, considerations should be given to activities and surrounding environment to ensure that buildings can be both accessible and usable.

    The accessibility and usability requirements for constructions were introduced in 1977 by the National Housing Board and have evolved since then. The requirements are still developing to achieve homes that are accessible and useable, especially for people with disabilities. They have also been tightened in particular concerning the design of new construction and alteration of buildings.

    Gavlegårdarna have, in 2012, built new residential apartments with high accessibility standards. The apartments in Gävle Strand, Stage 2 are located in an area next to the sea and offer new opportunities for a modern way of living. Considering the new residential area of Gävle Strand, this case study focuses on the accessibility standards concerning three categories of disabilities: limited mobility, limited vision and limited hearing. The case study examines three selected apartments with different living area. The purpose of the case study is to assess the accessibility and usability of the apartments. This is done through an inventory using a wheelchair, taking a walking tour while blindfolded and using a cane. Before the assessment of the apartments' requirements, an inventory list of respective apartments was prepared. The list is based on regulations, laws and recommendations from Building Regulations and Swedish Standard.

    The results of the case study categorize the apartments in two levels: normal- and high level accessibility. Spaces and details that are considered to have high accessibility have externally contrast markings including the entrances and stairways. Inside, the apartments are well planned for enhanced usability and there are spacious areas where a wheelchair can move without any difficulty.

    The conclusion shows that all apartments meet the requirements at normal level which is the minimum level of accessibility and usability. Despite the general assessment of the apartments’ well-planned design, the study finds flaws in the form of a cramped bathrooms and high thresholds to the balcony doors. Finally, in order to achieve high availability the case study presents improvements and measures that need to be changed to the presented deficiencies.

  • 12.
    Altabba, Abdulrahman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Karlsson, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    A framework for implementing the VMI model in an MRO partnership2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of implementing the Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) model in an MRO (maintenance, repair, and operations) partnership, and highlight its potential economic, environmental, and organizational benefits, as well as limitations.

    Approach - First, a comprehensive literature review was conducted on fields relevant to VMI. Second, empirical data was gathered from a single exploratory case study with Momentum Industrial, and its customer Stora Enso. Semi-structured interviews were used to gather data from the case companies.

    Findings - Results suggest that VMI results in benefits for the supply chain in general, such as reduced administration and inventory costs, improved service levels, reduced information distortion, and improved relationship among partners. For the particular case of VMI in an MRO partnership, improved service levels can be obtained by a reduced risk of production downtime for the customer. Moreover, the implementation of VMI has potential environmental benefits, such as reduced paper use, and higher transportation fill rate. Limitations of implementing VMI include the difficulty in system integration, and information sharing. Trust could be a potential issue that limits information sharing amongst supply chain partners. Moreover, the difference in organizational cultures and policies of partners should be taken into consideration.

    Limitations - The study is limited to opinions from one MRO customer in the paper and packaging industry. Even though the questions asked to informants in Momentum and Stora Enso tackled benefits to MRO customers in general, a broader image could have been achieved by interviewing customers from different industries. Moreover, the case companies do not currently adopt VMI in their partnership, so the case study results are based on what they think would be the potential benefits and limitations of implementing VMI in an MRO partnership.

    Practical Implications - This paper can serve as a guideline for logistics managers who are considering VMI in an MRO partnership specifically, as it provides them with the benefits and limitations associated with VMI. More generally, any company considering VMI can also benefit from the theoretical framework presented.

  • 13.
    Amiot, Victor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Torung, Rikard
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Oliksidig krympning i betong2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete is one of the most commonly used building materials in foundation construction. Concrete is highly resistant to external stresses and hence makes it a very useful material in many different situations. However, there are problems that can arise with the use of concrete. One of the more common is cracking. There are several reasons why this might occur, for example, external impact, creep and moist-related movements. The concrete slab is one of the elements that often encounter this problem. Since concrete slabs are frequently used as foundation, it is of great interest to find solutions for this matter. In order to do that, the causes are needed to be specified more clearly. This study investigated experimentally how a concrete slab reacts when differences in humidity exposing the top and bottom after curing period, and if this may contribute to sufficient deformation to cause cracking. Six specimens were made and observed where three where exposed to a moisture content of 100% on the bottom. The remaining three samples have been placed in dry conditions in order to make a comparison possible. A relative humidity of 25% was measured in the surrounding air. The experiment showed clear differences in deformation between the two situations. The samples exposed to differential humidity exhibited sufficient stresses to cause cracking seen from the moment that occurred in the concrete. This shows that different prevailing humidity on the top and bottom of a slab can create sufficient stress to cause cracking.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Christine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Linderdahl, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Ett förslag till arbetsmiljöplan för underhållsarbete inom bygg: en förenkling av rutiner för arbetsmiljöarbetet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Swedish Work Environment Authority (Arbetsmiljöverket), accidents among construction workers occur twice as often as other workers. In 2015 the construction industry had over three thousand work accidents resulting in sick leave, which corresponded to eleven percent of Swedens total reported work accidents with sick leave. Considering what a worker in the building and construction industry expose themselves to in their daily work, it is obvious that focus must be towards safety.

    This study has been carried out on the building department for maintenance work at BillerudKorsnäs Gävle Bruk. At the company, there is a need for improving the establishment of safety and health plans within the existing working environment work. The aim and objective of the study is to create a draft template for the safety and health plan that is user friendly and includes the 13 works with special risks according to AFS 1999:3. Hopefully the template will contribute to a simplification of existing procedures in the construction working environment planning, lead to increased safety on site and fewer work accidents.

    To receive a better understanding of the viewpoint of BillerudKorsnäs Gävle Bruks construction workers regarding working environment and risks on site, semi-structured interviews were conducted and together with statistics on accidents and incidents, served as the studies results. In addition, a literature review has been conducted to provide an overview of previous studies in the field.

    The importance in carrying out risk assessments has been confirmed through interviews and becomes more evident as the conditions in the daily construction work varies in large proportion. Every work situation and risk is unique, therefore a risk assessment can not only consist of the 13 works with special risks. The interviews have confirmed the need for a simplification and improvement in the process of establishing a safety and health plan. A template for the safety and health plan should include how the work environment shall be conducted such as general information about the work and a risk assessment.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Maria, Reineck
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Betydande faktorer för effektiva specialtransporter2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To be competitive in the market, companies need to find and use available resources for improvements. Transport is a source to cost-effective and customer accessible logistics system. Both internal and externals transports are important to focus on when processes are optimized in order to obtain lower costs. The main logistics cost in many companies constitutes of transports.

     

    This case study has been conducted in an industrial company. This study intends to make the transports more effective, through better customer service and reduced costs. The transports that have been studied are not directly linked to the production. When a transport is needed an order is made by telephone.

     

    The purpose of the study is to identify significant factors for effective special transports. The factors form a foundation for recommendations to the case company in the future work to have more effective special transports. To answer the purpose literature studies, observations, data analysis, interviews and benchmarking have been carried out. Some significant factors for effective special transports are information, effective logistics and standardization. Some identified waste in the case company is lack of communication and information and the utilization of resources. The significant factors have a correspondence with the identified waste.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Jacob
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Norbäck, Markus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Lokalisering av nya bostadsområden i översiktlig planering: En rumslig multikriterieanalys över Gävle2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization combined with toxic emissions from motor traffic calls forhigher demands when house planning in cities. The purpose of this study is toincrease understanding about how to apply multi criteria analyses whenmaster planning to contribute to a more sustainable society. A more effectivehouse planning connected to existing societal functions might add to the usageof more sustainable transportation alternatives rather than that of cars.

    Using the input from interviews with representatives from both the privateand the public sector, a number of criterias have been developed for theanalysis. Considering existing societal functions, this study was intended toidentify new areas for housing development using a multi criterial analysis.This might contribute to more sustainable transportation because of thedistance to the societal functions. In addition to this, the intention extended tothe investigation of how political interests differs from one another, using aranking system based on the developed criterias.

    The results show that representatives from the two largest political parties in asmall town in Sweden rank the criterias different when it comes to whatsocietal functions a new housing area should have in close proximity. On theother hand, the end results show that the areas chosen for housingdevelopment have similar qualities, in spite of varying housing politics amongthe politicians. This study might contribute to a more effective politicalhandling of business, since political differences does not ultimately showdifferences in where activities or objects should be placed.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Hedlund, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Undersökning om handhållna laserskannrar vid detaljmätning: En jämförelse mellan multistationen Leica Nova MS50 och den handhållna laserskannern FARO Freestyle X2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) have been common in geodetic measurements for over 10 years. The technology is developing rapidly and specialized instruments are launched constantly. One type of these specialized TLS instruments are hand-held laser scanners. They are designed primarily to generate point clouds of spaces and small objects where the traditional tripod mounted laser scanner has difficulties to scan. When the hand-held laser scanners are relatively new, the research on the instruments is limited, and the lack of standardized control methods. With that in mind it is important to study the instruments. In this thesis the hand-held laser scanner FARO Freestyle X was investigated on how well the handheld laser scanning technology really is and what limitations the instruments have. This was done by comparing point clouds from FARO Freestyle X with reference point cloud generated by Leica's multi-station MS50. To study the instrument a number of parameters was investigated such as scanning distance, ease of use, time and performance. These parameters were considered to be sufficient basis for conclusions about the instrument's advantages/disadvantages and limitations.

    The result of the point cloud comparison from the short distance showed deviations around 10 mm and then increase to few centimeters at longer distances. Volume limitation control showed no differences compared to the scanning from short distance. This means that moving the instrument does not affect the results significantly. The instrument's Achilles' heel is the noise that occurs when scanning from longer distances, about 30 mm deviations. Even the type of object affects the noise. The noise on the wall showed the greatest deviation while the noise on the table indicated the lowest results. The repeatability showed good results visually and had similar deviations. The instrument has a good ability to recreate objects when the resolution test demonstrates good performance. Main advantage of the instrument is its effective documentation of smaller objects, but also some larger areas where the uncertainty of centimeter-level is required. The ease of use can be described as good and the colored point clouds takes visualization to a new level. The results of the study show that the hand-held laser scanners can, potentially, challenge the traditional laser scanner.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Hedlund, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Trivsam boendemiljö för studenter: En gestaltningsstudie utifrån studenters åsikter för ett trivsamt boende2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The physical environment is a very important component for human health.  A well-functioning site enables people to recreation and social life. People who spend a lot of time outdoor are also experiencing less stress. If people doesn’t give opportunity to influence the spatial planning process there is a risk of negative attitudes and discomfort. This can create a mental illness. This study deals with how students feel about their physical environment and how they want it to be designed. The study is aimed at students who live in one of the three different student areas in Gävle: Kungsbäck, Campus Sätra and Midgård. The study is based on three methods. These were: a questionnaire, an observation study, and a physical design study in 3D.

     

    The observations showed significant problems with the site design as only movement, who take into necessary but significant activity account. The observations showed a clear lack of both elective and social activities, both of which are important for a well-functioning place. The survey showed dissatisfaction about the site design among the students. Through this study, students were given an opportunity to share their wishes about the site's future design. The proposals were designed in 3D. Three different proposals were developed: a zero option, an economical option, and an expensive option. The zero option indicates a probable development of the area if no action takes place. The economical option indicates a solution that focus on economical sustainability. The expensive option has the highest costs both in construction and maintenance. The evaluation showed that the students liked the economical proposal option most.

     

    The result showed the importance of student participation in the planning process. Student comments through the survey and evaluation, indicated that: trees, venues, water, grass and lighting should be included in future planning frameworks for student housing.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Stenberg, Catarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Effektivisering av interna transportsystem: Utformning av IT-stöd för fallföretag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att hantera den interna logistiken när marknaden är volatil och rörlig kan vara svårt. När avdelningar på företag inte kommunicerar eller delar information med varandra gör det att bistående företagsfunktioner, som interna transporter, får svårt att planera sina processer gentemot produktionsfabriker och marknaden, vilket kan leda till resursslöseri. För att underlätta arbetet och planeringen för den interna logistiken krävs att rätt teknik och förhållningssätt finns.

    Detta arbete tar fram en metodik som undersöker vilka faktorer som finns för att effektivisera den interna logistiken, samt hur ett IT-stöd för effektivisering kan utformas. Fallstudien avgränsas till interna transportsystem för de produktionsfabriker där sidlastare och grensletruckar utför transporter.

    Genom fallstudien på företaget visade det sig att de bristfälliga områdena var integrering och samarbete, kommunikation samt standardiserat arbetssätt. Detta försvårar arbetet med den interna logistiken och gör att företagsfunktionerna inte är synkroniserade i arbetet. Den bristfälliga informationsdelningen om framtida beläggningar och prognoser gör att planeringen av interna transporter mot produktionsenheterna inte fungerar önskvärt.

    I den teoretiska referensramen framgår att faktorer som påverkar effektiviteten av internlogistik är IT-stöd, arbetssätt och rutiner, planering och kommunikation samt resursutnyttjande. IT-stöd är något som kan hjälpa företag inom de bristfälliga områdena och vara en start till att integrera ett företags processer för att förbättra kommunikationen och informationsdelningen, som i sin tur ger bättre förutsättningar för att planera bistående företagsfunktioner till ett bättre resursutnyttjande.

    Genom metodiken för att effektivisera den interna logistiken påbörjas ett första steg av ett IT-stöd genom att en EXCEL-modell skapas som ett underlag för planeringsprocessen av interna transporter på fallföretaget. EXCEL-modellen skapas genom sammanförandet av historiska data från transportavdelningen och produktionsfabrikerna. Metodiken kan vidare användas för framtida undersökningar för effektivisering av den interna logistiken på företag.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Energieffektivisering av byggnad med enkla medel: en fallstudie på Hofors mödravårdscentral2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the central parts of Hofors a healthcenter is located which is included in Hoforshus AB's building stock, the building itself is divided into a main building and a smaller one in which the child health center and maternity care is located. The buildings are connected by a corridor substantially glazed. Now they are interested in maping the building's energyusage as this is relatively high, in addition, the users of the building had been dissatisfied with the indoor climate in both summer and winter. Because of the healtcare activities the owners were most interested in finding solutions that would not interfere with it.

    The study conducted has had a primary focus on the building envelope and above all on the glazed corridor’s impact on the rest of the building. One can assume that the high proportion of glass in this part of the building affects the indoor climate negatively keeping in mind the low U-value of the glass and the solar heat load, this gives during the summer when heat gain is not desired. A literature study to investigate how people perceive the climate as well as how to make a reliable simulation model of a building has been completed. The study resulted in an understanding of how the indoor climate is perceived and quantified, and also in an understanding of what is important in the collection of data for the simulation model.

    Keeping in mind how data should be collected according to the literature reviwe- have as much data as possible measured through surveys and own observations, blueprints have been studied and their validity has been investigated by measuring the building, blower door has been performed and temperature- and relative humidityloggning. Instantaneous values of the FTX system was made to calculate its efficiency. Linear thermal bridges have been investigated by finite element method in the program COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5. For validation of the simulated model the results of it were compared with the acutal measured energyconsumption of the building. The simulations were performed in BV2.

    The results of the study show, as expected, the glazed corridor’s negative impact on the building's indoor climate. Temperature was logged between 160412-160509 highest temperature was 30 ° C and minimum 15 ° C, which is more widespread than in other areas where the temperature was logged. The simulations that were performed on the glazed corridor shows that it consumes between 5000-5500 kWh on the area of 13.5 m2. Finally the study resulted in recommendations for the building that includes additional insulation of the attic, replacement of a smaller wall section, lowering the temperature by 1 ° C, as well as some maintenance measures to improve the indoor climate. The measures are believed to be possible to implement without significant interference with the health care acitivities. In addition the proposed measures seem profitable according to the pay of method.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energibalansberäkning för flerbostadshus: projekterad energianvändning jämfört med beräknad energianvändning med uppmätta värden för Gävle Strand Etapp 12011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The estimated amount of energy that a building consumes during one year indicates whether it contributes to a sustainable society or not. The communal company, AB Gavlegårdarna , that rents out apartments, works not only with designing proposals for solutions for the future housing , they also work with improving their stock when it comes to energy consumption. The multi-family buildings of Gävle Strand Phase 1 were completed in 2008 with a population of twelve buildings that are shaped in four ways.

     

    During the planning phase a consultant was hired to calculate the how much energy these buildings would have to purchase and came up with an energy use of 92 kWh/m2,year. Gavlegårdarna’s own calculations are based on the actual values obtained for each apartment and in September 2009 and they showed a mean value for the whole stock, which was 114 kWh/m2,year.

     

    AB Gavlegårdarna want to find a solution to the problem and reduce the extra cost that Gävle Strand Phase 1 has given rise through increased use of energy. They want to perform precise calculations on each building's energy use. The problem can be formulated as follows:

    How much influence does the malfunction of a heat exchanger in a balanced ventilation system have on the total energy consumption in apartment buildings? Can a house among the various geometrically designed houses of a stock be considered to be representative when calculating the energy use of the stock as a whole?

    The report deals with a number of U-value and area calculations, ventilation and air leakage assessments, domestic hot water use and energy user behavior of the residents, to work out how much a simulated building uses in terms of specific energy, with unit kWh/m2,year. An building simulation program called BV2 2010was utilized.

    The results show that the majority of the buildings located in Gävle Strand Phase 1 have higher energy consumption than the consultant's basic case. This is due to several factors but the main causes of the high residential energy use is the low temperature efficiency in the FTX-system heat exchanger, the residents’ behavior and in some cases relatively high usage of hot water.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Towe
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Lindgren, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Fastighetsbestämning och särskild gränsutmärkning i Sverige2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to describe property definition and special boundary demarcation and to analyze the differences between the two cadastral procedures. Property boundaries, especially unlawfully determined boundaries created through unofficial parcelling, can create conflicts between landowners and make it diffi-cult to know which land that a property contains of. It is possible to clarify the boundary conditions through a property definition or through a special boundary demarcation re-establish boundary marks.

    The methods used are: (1) A literature review to collect background information, (2) A case study to summarize court cases and (3) A questionnaire study to collect opinions from cadastral surveyors.

    The result is summarized in two comparisons. Firstly between restoration of landmark and special boundary demarcation (which replaced restoration of landmark in a legislative change in 2010), which demonstrated that the change in the law is considered positive because special boundary demarcation gives a legal effect on the boundaries. Secondly between property definition and special boundary demarcation which demonstrated that the two procedures are similar to each other. One difference between the procedures is that special boundary demarcation only can be used when there are no uncertainties concerning the boundary. It also demonstrated that the cadastral procedure costs only can be distributed during property definition.

    The legal effect on the boundaries contributes with a certainty for the property owners and is also considered positive for the community development. No exact definition of what a legal uncertainty is, was found using the three methods. A definition should make it easier to know which cadastral procedure that should be used. A question to examine in future studies is the possibilities to distribute cadastral procedure costs even during special boundary demarcation. 

  • 23.
    Andrée, Martin
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Larsson, Karolina
    KLM; Stockholms stad.
    Nordqvist Darell, Fanny
    Stockholms stad.
    Malm, Linus
    Tyréns.
    Tullberg, Odd
    WSP.
    Wallberg, Ann
    JM.
    Norsell, Johan
    NAI Svefa.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Slutrapport för projektet Smart planering för byggande: Delprojekt 3 - BIM som informationsstöd för 3D fastighetsbildning2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällsbyggnadsprocessen behöver utvecklas och bli smartare, öppnare och mer effektiv för ett ökat bostadsbyggande. En digitalisering av samhällsbyggnadsprocessen kan ge ett effektivare samarbete mellan kommun, fastighetsägare, byggherrar, medborgare, näringsliv och myndigheter.Vid bildande av tredimensionellt avgränsade fastigheter eller fastighetsutrymmen (3D-fastigheter) behöver gränsernas läge redovisas både verbalt och i kartor och ritningar, detsamma gäller berörda rättigheter. Det är idag ofta svårt att korrekt redovisa en 3D-volym med enbart dagens pappersritningar och även svårt att läsa en registerkarta i 2D med fastigheter och rättigheter beslutade i 3D. Beslutsunderlagen i fastighetsbildnings-processen behöver bli mer enhetliga och entydiga samt fastighetsinformationen behöver bli återanvändningsbar i hela samhällsbyggnadsprocessen.I detta projekt har vi studerat informationsbehovet i de olika tidpunkterna under fastighetsbildningsprocessen för 3D-fastigheter med fokus på vem som är ansvarig för att tillhandahålla informationsunderlag för att identifiera krav på utformning av 3D-modeller (t.ex BIM) och 3D-stöd för fastighetsbildning.Internationellt finns det ett stort intresse och många frågeställningar gällande samspelet mellan BIM och Fastighetsinformation; det är däremot ganska få fall som har identifierats där man har arbetat praktiskt med BIM i relation till redovisning av 3D-fastigheter.Projektethar även tittat på behov av visualisering och tillhandahållande av fastighetsinformation i 3D, hur informationen bör utformas för att kunna tolkas korrekt samt nyttjas vidare av andra aktörer i samhällsbyggnadsprocessen.Slutsatsen i projektetär att en framtida arbetsmodell där man i samband med myndighetsutövningen för fastighetsbildning samverkar med stöd av BIM och geografisk information i ärendehandläggningen kan ge stora effekter på både myndighetens effektivitet och i ärendeutövningen och för förståelsen av fastighetbildningsbeslutet hos samtliga intressenter i processen. För att det arbete som genomförts i denna utredning skall få genomslag i den dagliga verksamheten rekommenderar vibland annatatt de statliga och kommunala lantmäterimyndigheterna arbetar vidare med att utveckla arbetsprocessen och rekommendationerna för 3D-fastighetsbildning baserat på resultatet från detta projekt och redan i dagens modell efterfrågar att man i handläggningsprocessen kan arbeta BIM-baserat även om kommande beslutshandlingar under en övergångsperiod fortfarande kommer att vara baserade på ritningsbilagor i 2D.

  • 24.
    Ansin, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Rödin, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Exploateringsavtal: Samverkan mellan kommun, lantmäterimyndighet och exploatör2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On January 1st 2015 an amendment passed in the Planning and Building Act in order to simplify and rationalize the detailed development plan process. The amendment includes a new part for cadastral authority in the plan process and new rules for development agreement. The municipalities should adopt guidelines for these agreements. The aim of this study was to describe how the collaboration between municipality, cadastral authority and developer works when it comes to development agreement and how the amendment in the Planning and Building Act concerning the development agreement has affected these participants.

    To answer the thesis a web survey was sent to all municipalities in Sweden to get an overview of how the amendment has influenced the country. Semi-structured telephone interviews were also performed in five municipalities that have adopted guidelines for the development agreements. The interviews were performed with land development engineers, cadastral supervisors and developers to receive their perspective of the collaboration and how the amendment has affected them.

    The results of the study have shown that negotiations have started earlier between municipalities and developers after the amendment in the Planning and Building Act passed. The municipalities also need to pay compensation when they take land for public places after the amendment. The cadastral authority’s more active part has contributed to assure that ambiguities and shortcomings might be solved in the development agreement. However, it is still too early to tell what the cadastral authorities part has contributed in the development agreements. The developer has got a major opportunity to influence the development agreements. The collaboration between municipalities, cadastral authorities and developers has become clearer and improved but overall it is unchanged. There are opportunities for improvement in the long term.

  • 25.
    Arghand, Taha
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Human subjective response to combined radiant and convective cooling by chilled ceiling combined with localized chilled beam2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present research is to identify human subjective response (health and comfort) to the micro-thermal environment established by integration of individually controlled localized chilled beam and chilled ceiling (LCBCC) system and to compare its performance with the performance of mixing ventilation combined with chilled ceiling (CCMV).Experiments were carried out in mock-up of an office (4.1 m × 4.0 m × 3.1 m, L× W× H) with one person under two summer temperature conditions (26 °C and 28 °C). To mimic direct solar radiation in the room, five radiative panels on the wall together with electrical sheets on the half of the floor were used. The test room was set-up with two desks, as two workstations, and one laptop on each table. The main workstation (WS1) was located close to the simulated window. The second work station (WS2) was placed in the opposite side of the room. The room was equipped with two types of ventilating and cooling systems.  The first system consisted of a localized active chilled beam (LCB) unit together with chilled ceiling (CC) panels. The LCB was installed above the WS1 to create micro-environment around the occupant sitting at the desk. The supply flow rate from the LCB could be adjusted by the occupant within the range of 10 L/s to 13 L/s by means of a desk-mounted knob. The integration of mixing ventilation (MV) system and chilled ceiling panels was the second ventilating and cooling strategy. Twenty- four subjects (12 female and 12 male) were exposed to different indoor environment established by two cooling systems. Each experiment session lasted 120 min and consisted of 30 min acclimatization period and 90 min exposure period. The performance of the systems was identified and compared by physical measurements of the generated environment and the response of the human subjects.

    The study showed that perceived air quality (PAQ), overall thermal sensation (OTS) acceptability and local thermal sensation (LTS) acceptability clearly improved inside the micro-environment by using LCBCC system. Moreover, at the main workstation, OTS and LTS votes were close to “neutral” thermal sensation (ASHRAE seven point scale) when LCBCC system was used. However, OTS and LTS votes increased to the “slightly warm” side of the scale by applying CCMV system which implied the better cooling performance of the LCBCC system. Acceptability of work environment apparently increased under the room condition generated by LCBCC system.

    In agreement with human subjective study, the results from physical measurements and thermal manikin study showed that uniform thermal condition was generated all over the room. Air and operative temperature distribution was almost uniform with no difference higher than 1 °C between the measured locations in the room. Thus, both LCBCC and CCMV systems performed equally well outside of the micro-environment region. The use of the chilled ceiling had impact on the airflow interaction in the room and changed the airflow pattern. It can be concluded that the combination of convective and radiative systems can be considered as an efficient strategy to generate acceptable thermal condition in rooms.

  • 26.
    Arghand, Taha
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Awbi, Hazim
    School of Construction Management and Engineering, University of Reading, United Kingdom.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Larsson, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Linden, Elisabet
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, BMG laboratory. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, BMG laboratory.
    An experimental investigation of the flow and comfort parameters for under-floor, confluent jets and mixing ventilation systems in an open-plan office2015In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 92, p. 48-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a new trend to convert the workplaces from individual office rooms to open offices for motivating money saving and better communication. With such a shift the ability of existing ventilation systems in meeting the new requirements is a challenging question for researchers. The available options could have an impact on workers' health in terms of providing acceptable levels of thermalcomfort and indoor air quality. Thus, this experimental investigation focuses on the performances of three different air distribution systems in an open-plan office space. The investigated systems were: mixing ventilation with ceiling-mounted inlets, confluent jets ventilation and underfloor air distribution with straight and curved vanes. Although this represents a small part of our more extensiveexperimental investigation, the results show that all the purposed stratified ventilation systems (CJV and UFAD) were more or less behaving as mixing systems with some tendency for displacement effects. Nevertheless, it is known that the mixing systems have a stable flow pattern but has the disadvantage of mixing contaminated air with the fresh supplied air which may produce lower performance and in worst cases occupants' illness. For the open-plan office we studied here, it will be shown that the new systems are capable of performing better than the conventional mixing systems. As expected, the higher air exchange efficiency in combination with lower local mean age of air for corner-mounted CJV and floor-mounted UFAD grills systems indicates that these systems are suitable for open-plan offices and are to be favored over conventional mixing systems.

  • 27.
    Arvids, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Samfälligheter: Föreningsförvaltning och Samfällighetsföreningsregistrets aktualitetsgrad2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Samfälligheter har en mycket viktig roll i Sverige för samverkan mellanfastigheter i förvaltningen av gemensamma resurser. Dessa kan förvaltas på två vis; genom föreningsförvaltning och delägarförvaltning. Föreningsförvaltninglämpar sig bäst för större samfälligheter som kräver många förvaltningsåtgärder och har många medlemmar. En sådan förening sköts genom en styrelse som är vald av medlemmarna. Styrelsens uppdrag går ut på att enligt lagstiftningen följa föreningens stadgar och stämmobeslut samt att se till att befintliga anläggningar förvaltas enligt anläggningsbeslutet och att nya anläggningar blir utförda. Detta uppdrag innebär dock vissa svårigheter; engagemanget sker på ideell grund och lagen innehåller inga närmare krav på styrelsens kompetens, vilket öppnar upp för olika former av problematik. Uppgifter om samfällighetsföreningarna står att finna i Samfällighetsföreningsregistret och Fastighetsregistret. Det förstnämnda har en bristande kvalité på sina uppgifter vilket utgör ett problem för såväl föreningarna som för utomstående.

    Med dessa förhållanden som bakgrund görs en studie på rådande lag och regelverk i området kombinerat med kvalitativa intervjuer av ordföranden vid samfällighetsföreningar. Syftet är att undersöka hur styrelsens uppdrag ser ut vid föreningsförvaltning, hur denna förvaltning fungerar i praktiken och vilka eventuella problem som står i vägen för optimalt fungerande samfällighetsföreningar, samt vilka åtgärder som kan tänkas ge Samfällighetsföreningsregistreten förbättrad registerkvalité.

    Resultatet av studien visar att det största problem området utgörs av medlemmarnas i många fall bristande engagemang samt styrelsernas avsaknad på specialkompetens. Det framkommer att de bäst lämpade åtgärderna för att avhjälpa bristen på kompetens utgörs av att upprätta dokument med lättöverskådlig information till styrelserna, men även till medlemmarna som på så vis skulle kunna ställa högre krav på styrelsens arbete och själva upptäcka fel och brister i förvaltningen. Även en del förtydligande av bestämmelserna i lagen anses vara lämpligt. För att öka medlemmarnas engagemang uppkommer inga konkreta förslag från det resonemanget som förs.

    Genom att erbjuda samfällighetsföreningarna möjligheten att registrera ändrade uppgifter på Internet samt ge dem en belöning för detta i slag av en medlemsförteckning bör styrelserna bli mer noggranna i detta avseende, vilket framkommer i studien. Den främsta orsaken till att samfällighetsföreningarna inte anmäler ändringar i tillfredsställande grad beror på bristande kunskap, vilket bör kunna avhjälpas genom att någon form av broschyr ges ut till styrelsemedlemmarna innehållande relevant information.

  • 28.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Ecology, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Stockholm.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Stockholm.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Quality versus impact: Comparing the environmental efficiency of building properties using the EcoEffect tool2010In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1095-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are tools that are developed for the assessment of the environmental impact of buildings (e.g. ATHENA). Other tools dealing with the indoor and outdoor environmental quality of building properties (referred to as real estates in other literature) are also available (e.g. GBTool). A platform where both the aspects of quality and impact are presented in an integrated fashion are few. The aim of this contribution is to present how the performance of different building properties can be assessed and compared using the concept of environmental efficiency in a Swedish assessment tool called EcoEffect. It presents the quality dimension in the form of users' satisfaction covering indoor and outdoor performance features against the weighted environmental impact covering global and local impacts. The indoor and outdoor values are collected using questionnaires combined with inspection and some measurements. Life cycle methodology is behind the calculation of the weighted external environmental impact. A case study is presented to show the application of EcoEffect using a comparative assessment of Lindas and a Reference property. The results show that Lindas block is better in internal environment quality than the Reference property. It performs slightly worse than the Reference property in the external environmental impact due to emissions and waste from energy and material use. The approach of integrated presentation of quality and impact as in EcoEffect provides with the opportunity of uncovering issues problem shifting and sub-optimisation. This avoids undesirable situations where the indoor quality is improved through measures that result in higher external environmental impact. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 29.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Industrial Ecology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    Department of Infrastructure, Royal Institute of Technology, Built Environment Analysis, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kindembe, Beatric
    White Arkitekter, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hult, Marie
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Landscape Architecture, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Myhr, Ulla
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Landscape Architecture, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Environmental assessment of building properties - where natural and social sciences meet: the case of EcoEffect2007In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 1458-1464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EcoEffect method of assessing external and internal impacts of building properties is briefly described. The external impacts of manufacturing and transport of the building materials, the generation of power and heat consumed during the operation phase are assessed using life-cycle methodology. Emissions and waste; natural resource depletion and toxic substances in building materials are accounted for. Here methodologies from natural sciences are employed. The internal impacts involve the assessment of the risk for discomfort and ill-being due to features and properties of both the indoor environment and outdoor environment within the boundary of the building properties. This risk is calculated based on data and information from questionnaires; measurements and inspection where methodologies mainly from social sciences are used. Life-cycle costs covering investment and utilities costs as well as maintenance costs summed up over the lifetime of the building are also calculated.

    The result presentation offers extensive layers of diagrams and data tables ranging from an aggregated diagram of environmental efficiency to quantitative indicators of different aspects and factors. Environmental efficiency provides a relative measure of the internal quality of a building property in relation to its external impact vis-à-vis its performance relative to other building properties.

  • 30.
    Astner, Linda
    et al.
    Gävle Hamn AB, Gävle, Sweden.
    Carpenter, Angela
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Utilizing waste to create new port land2018In: Port Technology, Vol. 77, no Spring, p. 118-119Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the most recent port expansion and the major dredging and land creation project that has been undertaken in the Port of Gävle since 2007. This project has seen the deepening and widening of the fairway to accommodate larger vessels, as well as the construction of a new cargo terminal area due to open in late 2019. This land creation work has been undertaken using contaminated sediments dredged from deepening the shipping channel.

  • 31.
    Aurusell, Louise
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Ytbehandling baserad på hampolja2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The varieties of paint are today very big, but many of the more popular paints are less than environmental friendly. The uses of fossilized fuel in paints are common because these paints dry fast and are color true. It would be beneficial for the environment if more renewable source were used to produce paint. Linseed oil is an old base for oil paints. It is renewable and easily procured. But linseed oils have some aspects that give it a bad reputation. There are problems with the slow drying and the color turning yellow when exposed to darkness for long periods of time. Researchers at KTH have connected the yellowing to linolenic acid, one of the common fatty acids in linseed oil (Svensson, M. Johansson, M, Stenberg, C. Samuelsson, J. 2003). Hempseed oil is also a drying oil like linseed, but hempseed oil contains a larger amount of the fatty acid linoleic acid and a smaller amount of linolenic acid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hempseed_oil). This might mean that oil paint based on hempseed-oil instead of linseed-oil might have fewer problems with yellowing.Experiments with the two oils have been executed side by side in order to compare results. Two oil paints have also been produced and tested. Test pieces painted with the two different oil paints were exposed to moisture, daylight and complete darkness and then compared.

  • 32.
    Axner, Emil
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Att utvändigt värmeisolera köldbryggor i utkragade balkonggolv: En fallstudie om energianvändning, kostnader och påverkan av byggnadens yttre gestaltning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order for Sweden to reach its goals for a sustainable future, the government continues to increase demands on improving energy efficiency of buildings. A first step should be to improve the buildings ability to keep its heat. This means that the thermal insulation of the envelope should be improved and effect of thermal bridges in various constructions be minimized. A recurrent problem when renovating already existing buildings is the requirement of preservation and how that affects the possibilities on how to renovate. All buildings constitute a storytelling that illustrates how society has developed over time. Building characteristics and expressions must be preserved even if it leads to higher renovation costs. This thesis aims to study the energy use caused by thermal bridges in balcony slabs and how the energy use is affected by insulating the balcony slabs. It also investigates how the overall building appearance is affect by this figuration. And last, the study aims to explore however the investment in material is defensible when comparing it with the cost for energy in a life cycle perspective. The result shows that the thermal bridges caused by the balcony slabs increase the energy use by almost 4000 kWh per year and building and by adding insulation to the slabs, the energy usage decline by almost 75 %. In view of the buildings appearance, the additional insulation has a minimal affect. When comparing the investment cost in a life cycle perspective with the saving of energy, results shows that the costs in material is too high and at the same time the price for energy is too low for obtaining any profit for the given time period.

  • 33.
    Barrefjord, Madelene
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Delin, Hanne-Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Förrättningslantmätarens hantering av stiftelser utifrån Kammarkollegiets och tillsynsmyndigheternas prövningar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudsyftet med studien var att utreda och klargöra hur förrättningslantmätaren bör handla när en stiftelse blir sakägare i en lantmäteriförrättning och hur stiftelsen ska behandlas utifrån förrättningslantmätarens undersökningsplikt. Studien hade även två delsyften där det första skulle beskriva och analysera hur stiftelsers föreskrifter kan ändras, medan de andra skulle utreda hur tillsynsmyndigheternas registrering av stiftelser genomförs. Förrättningslantmätare är en yrkesroll inom lantmäterimyndigheten och har till uppgift att handlägga samt besluta i fastighetsbildnings-ärenden. Lantmäterimyndigheten är den myndighet som har till uppgift att ansvara för att en effektiv och rättssäker fastighetsindelning genomförs. En stiftelse är en typ av juridisk person som bildas av en eller flera personer för att verka för ett bestämt ändamål. Stiftelsen ska förvalta en ekonomisk förmögenhet som har avsatts för ett bestämt ändamål, där förvaltningen ska ske över en längre tid. Förmögenheten kan bestå av fast egendom i form av fastigheter.

    Metoder som använts för att besvara studiens syften och forskningsfrågor var en litteraturstudie, en intervjustudie och en fallstudie. Litteraturstudien granskade tidigare forskning inom ämnes-området, lagstiftningen och facklitteratur för att ge en vetenskaplig grund. Intervjustudien genom-fördes för att få en grundlig förståelse för hur tillsynsmyndigheternas och Kammarkollegiets prövningar går till vid ändring av stiftelsers föreskrifter. Fallstudien granskade och jämförde tillsynsmyndigheternas och Kammarkollegiets prövningar vid ändring av stiftelsers föreskrifter, men fallstudien jämförde även vilka dokument tillsynsmyndigheterna kräver in av en stiftelse när den ska registreras. Intervjuer gjordes i fallstudien med samtliga tillsynsmyndigheter för att samla information om hur deras prövningar går till när stiftelser ska registreras i stiftelseregistren.

    Resultatet av litteraturstudien bestod av beskrivningar av förrättningslantmätarens yrkesroll, fastighets-, ägande- och stiftelsebegreppet. Resultatet av intervjustudien visade att de intervjuade tillsynsmyndigheterna och Kammarkollegiet har olika grundliga prövningar vid ändring av stiftelsers föreskrifter. Detta visade även fallstudien samt att tillsynsmyndigheternas prövningar skiljer sig åt vid registrering av en stiftelse. Slutsatsen beskriver hur förrättningslantmätaren ska handla när en stiftelse blir sakägare i en lantmäteriförrättning och hur stiftelsen ska behandlas utifrån förrättningslantmätarens undersökningsplikt. Två mallar finns i slutsatsen som innehåller riktlinjer för hur en kontroll av stiftelsens föreskrifter kan göras för att vara säker på att fastighets-bildningen inte strider mot stiftelsens föreskrifter.

  • 34.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Schewenius, Maria
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Campus Albano, Stockholm - Creating a social-ecological ‘best practices’ campus area in the Baltic region for supporting learning, innovation, and sense of community: In Live Baltic Campus: Inventory Reports2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Campus Albano is the newest addition to the Stockholm University campus, Stockholm, Sweden. Production commenced on Nov. 30, 2015, after a five-year planning and design process. The student- and researcher accommodations, and the university buildings are expected to be ready by 2018 and 2019, respectively. The project is significant both for its participatory planning process, and for the strong focus on supporting ecosystem services, for example wetlands and allotment gardens, in the final campus design.

  • 35.
    Barås, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Brunberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    A supply chain strategy for an innovative commodity producer: Testing the applicability of established theoretical models2014In: EurOMA 2014 Full Papers, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The distinction between innovative and functional products have for more than a decade been central to our understanding of how to design appropriate supply chains. However, the distinction between the two types of products, and the associated "optimal" supply chain, are blurring, as high competition forces commodity producers to move up the value chain and increase the innovative content of their products. The purpose of this paper is to use a single case study to test whether established supply chain models can be applied to an innovative commodity producer. The paper finds that although some established model still have merits, a supply chain strategy cannot only be based on product characteristics. Factors such ease of transport and uncertainties in materials supply needs to be taken into account and an effective supply chain may involve utilising decoupling point to combine the benefits of both efficient and responsive supply chains.

  • 36.
    Bennemo, Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Stockhaus, Jennie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Effektivisering av materialförsörjning mellan leverantör och kund: En fallstudie vid Emballagetillverkaren2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: A supply chain has a mayor impact on company’s competitiveness and profitability, this fact has led to increased interest in efficiencys of supply chains. This bachelor degree consist a case study at Emballagetillverkaren where the supply chain was analysed between supplier and customer with the intention of reducing tied up capital and lead times.Purpose: The aim of this thesis is to find prerequisites for a effective material supply between supplier and customer.Method: In order to answer the purpose of this thesis a case company called Emballagetillverkaren and its customer has been investigated. The case company and the supply chain between supplier and customer were observed and interview questions were formulated based on the observations. Interviews and observations were conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the problems of high tied up capital and long lead times.Results: A mapping of the current situation was established to clarify the methods of operation. The material and the information flow from both the case company and The Engeneering Company was mapped. The interviews have been devided into the categories "Planning and Forecasting", "Inventory and Materials" and "Communication".Conclusion:The prerequisites for effective material supply are an integrated and coordinated supply chain, healthy processes at work, the lean philosophy and its tools, supply chain efficiency, efficient and coordinated information and material flows, appropriate material supply method, inventory management, forecasts, good customer and supplier relationship and communication. As a conclusion we want to highlight forecasts, high resource utilization and communication to achieve a effective material supply between supplier and customer.

  • 37.
    Bennhult, Linnea
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Engren, Karolina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Bedömning av området energi: En jämförelse mellan Miljöbyggnad, Svanen, FEBY12 och PHI2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish building and property management sector are responsible for about 30 % of the total energy use. In order to take environmental consideration, different environmental assessment tools and standards are used. Miljöbyggnad, Svanen, FEBY12 and PHI are some of these. There has been increased interest to certify buildings and therefore it is of interest to evaluate the assessment of the energy field to see if relevant energy aspects are assessed. First a literature review was carried out with delimitation to evaluate the systems manuals and guidelines for new produced multi-apartment dwellings in Sweden. Then a comparison between the systems assessments and methods of calculations for the energy field as well as the systems considerations for the energy’s environmental effect was carried out. The comparison was based on emissions related to production and use and also depletion of non- renewable resources. Finally the theory from the literature review and the results from the comparison were discussed and that led to some recommendations for the systems.

    Different assessment systems that are used for the systems are grading systems, marking systems and certifications. The systems judge similar indicators and subfields for energy. Something that they all judge is building’s annual energy use but they define them differently. Beyond that, the systems distinguish in the judgements of the energy field. The requirements of the inputs for energy calculations are different for the systems. As well as the energy’s environmental impact, all systems take some consideration by judging the energy use. Some of the systems also take into consideration the environmental impact through assessment of energy source’s environmental impact or through energy form factors and primary energy factors for the energy type.

    For all systems the indicators and the subfields are mandatory but the criteria and requirement levels are different. The systems that take consideration to climatic zones allow buildings located in colder climate to use more energy and have more environmental impact, the systems should reformulate the criteria and requirements were consideration is not taken to climate zones. The requirements of the heat effect demand for buildings should not take consideration to the heating system because the heating system does not affect the heat effect demand.

    At the moment the systems are undeveloped when it comes to consideration to the energy’s environmental impacts and should therefore revise this. Some recommendations for the judgements of the energy field is to allocate the energy use/ per person and to judge primary energy or carbon dioxide emissions, other emissions and to judge the energy’s environmental impacts from “the cradle to the grave”. However it can be problematic to judge primary energy because today, there are no standards for how primary energy factors should be calculated currently.

    Key words: environmental assessment tools, Passive house standards, Miljöbyggnad, Svanen, FEBY12, PHI, energy, environmental impact 

  • 38.
    Berg, Marianne
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Berglund, Helene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av möjligheten att använda UAS vid gränsmätning i skogsmiljö2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Real properties in Dalarna often consist of small lots of forest or agriculture. These lots are often elongated and consequently impractical, therefore the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority performs comprising land consolidations. These are to swap land between the owners of the properties, in order to form appropriate lots, for purpose of, inter alia, promoting investment and development opportunities in the region. In order to establish a map, a decision basis, for the valuation of the lot, the claimed proprietary right has to be surveyed. The work is performed with NRTK (network-RTK) or total station, and the maximum allowed planar deviation is 0.50 m (base level requirement). The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is a possibility of using Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) when claimed property boundaries are going to be surveyed. UAS is a system consisting of an unmanned aerial vehicle, a digital camera, a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, an Inertial Navigation System (INS) and a control station.

    In a delimitated area of about 24 ha in Norra Åbyggeby, north of Gävle, black and white and white markers, with the size of 0.40x0.40 m, were positioned in the terrain and then surveyed as ground control points or boundary points with network RTK. Mean planimetric coordinates have been calculated for the control points, which have been used as reference coordinates. These have been compared with the coordinates measured in an orthophotomosaic produced from flights with UAS at an altitude of 100 and 180 m. To get a further comparison, the coordinates were determined by a block adjustment in the software PhotoScan from Agisoft. The object identification of the markers, placed in different environments, and from different altitudes has been studied.

    The digitalization in the orthophotomosaic resulted in a Root Mean Square error (RMS-value) of 0.083 m at an altitude of 100 m and a value of 0.049 m at an altitude of 180 m. Corresponding RMS values were 0.071 m at an altitude of 100 m and 0.077 m at an altitude of 180 m when computed in PhotoScan. F-test has been calculated using the four RMS values, the result of the F-test showed that coordinates obtained in an orthophotomosaic, in ArcMap, are equivalent to coordinates obtained by block adjustment, in PhotoScan. The F-test also showed that the coordinates are equivalent from altitudes 100 and 180 m by block adjustment, but they are not equivalent when they are obtained in an orthophotomosaic from altitudes 100 and 180 m. If we disregard the systematic error at three of the points (orthophotomosaic 100 m) the F-test did not show any statistically significant difference between the two altitudes.

    All deviations were below the base level requirement. The largest planar deviation was 0.181 m at an altitude of 100 m and 0.083 m at an altitude of 180 m. Corresponding values for PhotoScan were 0.155 m and 0.148 m. How dense the forest was where the marker was placed and the impact of the sun, in terms of shadows and brightness, have affected the composition of the mosaic, and consequently the deviations. UAS can be used for surveying of claimed property boundaries, but there is no guarantee that all signalized boundary points can be surveyed directly in the orthophotomosaic. One recommendation is to use a less accurate method for the measurement of the ground control points (needed for the georeferencing of the point cloud/orthophotomosaic) than the method used in this thesis. The higher altitude is preferable because the time requirement of the flight will be shorter, and a smaller number of aerial photos need to be processed. Choose the method that the user is used to, manual digitizing in an orthophotomosaic or automatic calculation in a block adjustment.

  • 39.
    Bergefur, Jill
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Warberg, Karin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Stora bostadsfastigheter på landsbygden med skogsskiften. Hur påverkar förändrad tillämpning av fastighetsbildningslagen bosättningen på landsbygden?: En undersökning i Gävle, Ockelbo och Hofors kommun.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, residential property is limited to the area needed for the property to substantially have the character of a residential plot. An increased demand for an attractive rural housing resulted in changes to property law, which made it possible to form large residential properties with combined purposes, all in line with the existing rural policy. Still, however, there were restrictions to bring forest land to residential plots for the protection of the productive forestry. The Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority (Lantmäteriet) have therefore created working recommendations to facilitate the opportunity to incorporate forest plots, including the collection of firewood for household use. This study had the aim to investigate how the amended legislation, with subsequent work recommendations influenced the formation of large residential properties in rural areas.

    Why people move is an important issue for both researchers in the field and politicians, as the regional policy should be adapted to where people want to live and why they choose to move there. Previous studies have mainly focused on economic motives, but the living environment and nature’s impact has been increasingly highlighted in recent years. The importance of the property’s physical design for the decision to move, however, is less investigated. We have therefore examined whether and how those properties affected settlement in rural areas within the selected municipalities. The study consisted partly of a postal questionnaire to the property owners who hold these large residential properties with forest parcels included and semi-structured interviews with surveyors who carried out these missions.

    Overall, we saw that large residential properties with forest and land was a reason for the counter-urbanization that has taken place because many of the migratory reasons given have been difficult to achieve with a different type of property. Although surveyors’ assessment differed in terms of details the main purpose to create appropriate and attractive residential properties without the productive forest damaged was fulfilled. We made the conclusion that the property formed, perceived as attractive by those who moved to these properties because they took advantage of the opportunities available with this accommodation.

  • 40.
    Bergendahl, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Johansson, Stina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Märkning av leveranser: En fallstudie utförd på Sandvik Materials Technology2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 41.
    Berggren, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Förnyelselagen, möjlighet eller hot?: Förnyelse av äldre inskrivna avtalsrättigheter, Gävle kommuns hantering av förnyelsekravet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the so-called ”förnyelselagen”, the Renewal Act, all title registration of contractual rights registered before 1 July 1968 will be de-registered from the Real Property Register, unless renewal is applied for the right no later than 31 December 2018. The aim of the degree project is to pay attention to the renewal requirement. The objective is partly to investigate how the municipality of Gävle will handle the renewal requirement, and partly to facilitate the municipality to determine for which registered rights renewal needs to be sought.

    Unnecessary registered rights cause additional work and costs at cadastral procedures and the Renewal Act is considered to be an effective tool to de-register unnecessary registered rights. At the same time, concerns have been expressed that right holders will apply for renewal for all registered rights that are affected, without investigate which of them are unnecessary. In addition, there is also a concern that the renewal requirement may be overlooked by right holders for rights that are still relevant, which can lead to legal loss.

    Three methods were used in the study. Juridical method was used to investigate the legal situation regarding what happens with registered rights that are de-registered from the Real Property Register. To study how a major right holder acts, an investigation of registered rights was made in the Real Property Register regarding the municipality of Gävle. Furthermore, interviews were conducted with representatives of the municipality concerning the work with the renewal requirement.

    A result of the juridical method is that there are four different situations when an unregistered right may end. The result of the inventory in the Real Property Register, shows that there are about 1 400 registered rights that affect the properties of the municipality. The interviews resulted in that the municipality is informed about the renewal requirement and the municipality in most cases will investigate which registered rights should be renewed.

    The first conclusion is that unregistered contractual rights currently remain valid in the same manner as registered rights, but they may end in four situations if they are not monitored by the right holder. Such protection of unregistered rights is found to be practically impossible in most cases regarding the municipality of Gävle. The other conclusion is that the municipality will investigate which registered rights that need to be renewed, therefore the risk of legal loss can be assessed as low. Finally, it can be concluded that the Renewal Act is an opportunity rather than a threat for the municipality of Gävle.

  • 42.
    Bergkvist, Benjamin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Modellering av fukt i en yttervägg på ett fritidshus2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 43.
    Berglund, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Altzar, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    A methodology development for layout planning regarding gates in marine terminals: A case study in a Swedish port2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The research purpose is to, in a systematic way, build a method to develop suggestions regarding layout planning of gates in a marine terminal and additionally conduct a base for a simulation model.

    Approach: Firstly, a literature review has been conducted in the fields relevant to port security and gate configurations in marine terminals. Secondly, a case study has been executed in a Swedish marine terminal. The case study consisted of interviews and observations at the case company, who also provided this thesis with numerical raw data. Additionally, a benchmarking was conducted at a company in the same port area where interviews and observations was executed.  

    Findings: The findings in this thesis resulted in a methodology improvement, which contains important procedure steps that need to be considered while conducting a layout for a gate in a marine terminal. The procedure resulted in a conceptual model that was conducted as a result of the literature review and verified by being tested in the case study.

    Limitation: The thesis is limited to one case company. Even though it verified and validated the findings, additional case companies are recommended to fully validate the conceptual model which applies for further research. Further limitations to this thesis is that the financial- and technical factors will not be executed.  

    Theoretical implications: Companies who plans to increase the security in their marine terminal area or implement a new gate system can benefit from the findings. This thesis contributes to science by adding new theory.  

    Practical implications: This thesis conducted a conceptual model for a layout procedure which recommends to follow while planning a layout for a gate in a marine terminal. The model were verified with a case company and provided two layout suggestions that can be implemented at the specific company.

  • 44.
    Berglund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Karlsson, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Den juridiska odlingsgränsen och dess inverkan på förvärv av statlig mark: En studie av markförvärv i samband med samhällsomvandlingen i Kiruna2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two urban transformations are in progress in northern Sweden today, in Kiruna and in Malmberget, due to expanding mining operations. The relocation of the two cities requires land acquisition. In Kiruna there are specific conditions due to certain protection provided by the so called cultivation border. The purpose of the study is to give a wide perspective on this unique cultivation border and indicate its association with land acquisition. In order to achieve the purpose of the study the history of the cultivation border, the urban transformations and national interests were investigated, as well as the process of land acquisition and how it can be improved. A literature study, qualitative interviews and visits at Kiruna and Malmberget was used to gain knowledge within the topic.As early as in the 1500s, the Swedish government started to take control of the northern parts of the country and encouraged its colonization. The cultivation border was created in the late 1800s to protect the Sami people and their industry from the settlers. The urban transformations are very extensive and have major impacts on the environment. Involved participants want to construct new areas before deconstructing the old ones. There are several different national interests in Kiruna and in Malmberget areas that have to be taken into account in the planning process. Two of those interests are the reindeer and mining industries. The mining industry takes precedence due to its economic benefits to the whole country. The State owns lots of land in Kiruna and in order to acquire it, the government has to give its approval. An application for such an acquirement must be adjudicated by the Swedish Board of Agriculture, the County Administrative Board, affected Sami villages and the National Property Board of Sweden. The high amount of authorities involved makes the process of aquisition long and an improvement to shorten it is to increase the competence of the involved parties and their intercommunication. The purpose of the cultivation border is still considered to be valid, although today for example the tourism is more important than the agriculturing to protect the Sami people.

  • 45.
    Bergquist, Arne
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Klang, Dan
    Vad är optimal kvalitet på geografisk information som underlag för detaljerad översvämningskartering?2008In: Kart & Bildteknik (Mapping and Image Science), ISSN 1651-792X, no 4, p. 18-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Bergsten, Lisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Hellsten, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Ägarlägenhetsförrättningar ur ett kostnadsperspektiv: Hur utvalda faktorer påverkar förrättningskostnaden och den framtida förvaltningen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to get the cadastral procedure for condominiums to become more affordable. The aims of the study is to examine how the number of condominiums, the number of joint facilities and the number of joint property units that are formed in a condominium cadastral procedure in Sweden influences the cadastral procedure cost. To get an overall perspective the study also explores how the chosen forms of co-operation have worked out in association management.

    A condominium is a type of three-dimensional property unit, which may only contain one residence.  This form of property formation has been allowed in Sweden since 1 May 2009.  At the end of 2014 less than 1000 condominiums had been formed despite the legislator’s expectations for 3000-5000 condominiums a year. The property unit can have access to necessary facilities, not available within the property boundaries, by establishing joint facilities or form joint property units. This co-operation is not only an important factor for a functional three-dimensional property ownership, but also a requirement from the legislator.

    To achieve the aims a quantitative study, where cadastral dossiers from condominium cadastral procedures were examined, and a qualitative interview with four selected joint property association was made.

    The result from the study of cadastral dossiers showed a connection between the condominium cadastral procedure cost and how many condominiums that was formed in the cadastral procedure. However, the study does not find any connection that shows neither the number of established joint facilities nor the number of joint property units affects the cost. The interview results showed that the joint property associations are satisfied with the association management, even if one of interviewed joint property associations had preferred an even simpler joint facility division.

    The cadastral procedure cost has varied considerably between various cadastral procedures. This can make the cadastral procedure costs difficult to calculate for someone planning to form condominiums. For affordable cadastral procedure costs when condominiums are formed the conclusion is to form a big amount of condominiums. The joint property associations opinion of what is a simple and obvious association management differs, that’s why the co-operation should be modified by the interested parties’ requests.

  • 47.
    Bergström, Eric
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Användning av LiDAR och ArcGIS inom skogsbruk i Sverige2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) has in the past decade developed a lot and is used as a data collection method for inventory of forest. The Swedish National Land Survey is between 2009 and 2015 carrying out a nationwide airborne laser scanning throughout Sweden, and this laser scanning process will lead to a new national elevation model called NNH. Data generated from this height model can be used by the forest industry to make forest inventories. The software developer ESRI Inc. has developed a support for handling LiDAR data in their new version of ArcGIS, ArcGIS 10.1. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the forest industry in Sweden are using LiDAR data, identifying gaps and needs, how ArcGIS is used and how ArcGIS can be developed to match the forest industry. This study was founded by comparing the new version of ArcGIS with the previous version and by interviewing six relevant people who are active in the industry. People from several stakeholders were interviewed: foresters, researchers and technical consultants.The results of the comparison between ArcGIS 10.0 and ArcGIS 10.1 show the potential of LiDAR data and how easy it is to deal with LiDAR data in the new version of ArcGIS. The results of the interviews show that the data available from the NNH are fully sufficient for forest inventory at stand level. It is however not sufficient for analysis of individual trees. Some of those interviewed experienced ArcGIS as an advanced and time-consuming program to learn while others emphasize that it will be interesting with support for managing LiDAR data. The interviewed consultants mostly use software that they have developed by themselves for managing LiDAR data, while other interviewees use ArcGIS as the main program. ESRI Sweden was not sure of the quality of the NNH and how much the forest industry uses NNH, before this study. But it turned out that the NNH data are widely used already, and that quality is adequate. ArcGIS is sometimes perceived as an advanced program and it has often to do with time constraints. If time is available the problem often can be fixed. LiDAR, and NNH is good and useful now, but the question is what will happen when it's time for the forest companies to make their next inventory?

  • 48.
    Bergström, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Tilläggsisolering av småhus ur ett klimatpåverkansperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi lever i en tid med klimatförändringar till följd av människans levnadssätt. Energiutvinning ger påverkan på klimatet genom växthusgaser, då främst genom koldioxid. Riksdagen har beslutat att Sverige ska minska energianvändningen i bostäder och lokaler med 20 % fram till år 2020 och med 50 % till år 2050 (Statens Energimyndighet, 2007). Det finns flera sätt att minska energianvändningen för bostäder, att minska transmissionsförlusterna genom klimatskalet är det mest vedertagna. Ett sätt att minska dessa transmissionsförluster är att tilläggsisolera fasaden.

    I denna studie har klimatpåverkan till följd av en tilläggsisolering satts i relation till de minskade emissionerna på grund av reducerat värmebehov. Studie är gjord på sju olika uppvärmningssätt och sex olika tjocklekar på isoleringen. För det beräknade värmebehoven gjordes en jämförelse mellan fyra olika städer i Sverige med olika klimat, en stad i varje klimatzon enligt Boverkets byggregler (BBR). 

    Resultatet visar variationer mellan klimatzonerna, tjocklek på tilläggsisoleringen och uppvärmningssätten. Studeras istället primär energianvändning i det olika fallen skiljer det sig en del från emissioner av växthusgaser. Slutsatsen är att sett över hela isoleringens livstid är det mest klimatsmarta valet att tilläggsisolera. Detta oavsett klimatzon, tjocklek på tilläggsisoleringen och uppvärmningssätt (av de i studien granskade).

  • 49.
    Bergvall, Therese
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Upphävande av onyttiga officialservitut vid bildande av gemensamhetsanläggningar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Officialservitut är en rättighet där en fastighet får nyttja annans fastighet för ett speciellt behov. Sådana servitut bildas genom beslut av lantmäterimyndigheten eller domstolen. När ett servitut inte längre behövs eller används för en fastighet förfaller det inte automatiskt. Om servitutet inte upphävs blir det onyttigt. Idag finns det många onyttiga servitut som belastar fastighetsregistret och på så sätt även förrättningsverksamheten.

    Syftet med det här arbetet är att öka kunskapen om onyttiga officialservitut samt att bidra till att på sikt minska förekomsten av belastande officialservitut. Eftersom det bildas relativt många gemensamhetsanläggningar idag kan många servitut komma att bli onyttiga när en anläggning bildas och servitut inte upphävs. Därför är det intressant att analysera varför servitut inte alltid upphävs i en sådan situation samt om någon förändring skulle kunna göras för att minska antalet onyttiga servitut. Genom en minskning av dessa skulle förrättningar bli effektivare och kostnaderna mindre.

    De metoder som har använts i arbetet är: (1) en litteraturstudie där tidigare forskning, svensk lagstiftning och propositioner studerats; (2) en granskning av förrättningsakter för att analysera hur förrättningslantmätare har hanterat vägservitut som blivit onyttiga vid bildandet av gemensamhetsanläggningar; (3) en intervjustudie för att analysera hur lantmätare idag behandlar onyttiga servitut när de påträffas vid bildandet av gemensamhetsanläggningar.

    Resultatet visar bland annat att förrättningslantmätare inte kan ta officialinitiativ för att upphäva onyttiga servitut vid en anläggningsförrättning. För ett upphävande krävs en ansökan, överenskommelse eller ett yrkande. Det har också framkommit att fokus kanske inte ligger på att upphäva onyttiga servitut när en gemensamhetsanläggning bildas. Slutsatsen av vad som har störst påverkan på att onyttiga servitut inte alltid upphävs är enligt studien, tid och kostnad. För att på sikt minska förekomsten av onyttiga officialservitut skulle en ”pott” av anslagspengar kunna skapas som lantmätare kan nyttja för att upphäva sådana servitut. Ytterligare ett förslag kan vara att införa en ny paragraf som ger lantmätare rätt att ta eget initiativ till att upphäva servitut som blir uppenbart onödiga vid bildandet av gemensamhetsanläggningar. De berörda fastighetsägarna borde inte bli missnöjda eftersom anläggningen ska tillgodose samma rätt som servitutet gjorde.

  • 50.
    Björklund, Emil
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Uppdatering av den svenska nationella höjdmodellen: Förutsättningar för att använda mobil laserskanning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the prerequisites for using data collected using mobile laser scanning are investigated for updating the Swedish national elevation model. In 2016, the Swedish Transport Administration started a project where information from the road network is collected with mobile laser scanning. The National Land Survey of Sweden has gained access to data from this project and wants to investigate the possibilities of using data from mobile laser scanning to update the national elevation model.

    The prerequisites for using data from mobile laser scanning to update the national elevation model is investigated by examining the deviation against measured control points, comparing height deviation between data from the national elevation model and mobile scanned laser data, as well as studying the distribution and completeness of data from the mobile laser scan is compared to the changed areas it is supposed to replace.

    The result shows a low deviation in height to the control points of 1.2 centimeter in mean deviation. The grid comparison also shows a low deviation in height, mean deviation -2.4 cm. The classification of the point cloud from mobile laser scanning shows problems in dense vegetation where there are no returns from the ground, which, along with restrictions on the spread of mobile laser scanning, impose restrictions on areas that can be updated. It is primarily the lack of ground points in the point cloud and that the point cloud does not fully cover the changed areas that limit the ability to use data from mobile laser scanning to update the National Elevation Model.

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