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  • 1.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Jonsson, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Nyström, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Insvällning av olimmade och limmade trädymlingar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wood is a renewable material, unlike many other building materials. The amount of wood used in the construction industry can be increased by using wooden dowels as a substitute for screws and nails. Screws and nails are made of metals, which are non-renewable materials. The manufacturing process of metal-based materials is more energy consuming than it is for wooden materials and therefore it has a greater impact on our global environment.The purpose of this study was to investigate the adhesion capacity of wooden dowel-joints, non-glued and glued made out of beech and pine. The attachment of the non-glued wooden dowels was achieved by swelling of the wood. Swelling was achieved by first drying the wooden dowels in an oven and then letting them acclimatize with the surrounding materials and the relative air humidity. The adhesion capacity of the wooden dowels should be able to compete with the withdrawal strength of nails to be practically useful.Tensile strength tests have been carried out in the laboratory in house 45 at the University of Gavle to determine the adhesion capacity of wooden dowel-joints. The tensile strength tests were performed with a Shimadzu AG-X machine. The results of the tests have been compared with the theoretical withdrawal strength for nails. Characteristic strength values have also been calculated from the tensile strength test results for the wooden dowels.The results of the study shows that only the glued wooden dowels can compete with the withdrawal strength of nails. Glued wooden dowels can therefore be a substitute for screws and nails. The calculated characteristic values for glued beech-dowels and glued pine-dowels are 5,2 kN respectively 4,3 kN.

  • 2.
    Astner, Linda
    et al.
    Gävle Hamn AB, Gävle, Sweden.
    Carpenter, Angela
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Utilizing waste to create new port land2018In: Port Technology, Vol. 77, no Spring, p. 118-119Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the most recent port expansion and the major dredging and land creation project that has been undertaken in the Port of Gävle since 2007. This project has seen the deepening and widening of the fairway to accommodate larger vessels, as well as the construction of a new cargo terminal area due to open in late 2019. This land creation work has been undertaken using contaminated sediments dredged from deepening the shipping channel.

  • 3.
    Blom, Linus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Hedlund, Dan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Tilläggsisolering och fuktproblem i grundkonstruktionen platta på mark: En fallstudie i flerbostadshus inom stadsdelen Sätra i Gävle2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Between 1965 and 1974, the Swedish Parliament decided to build one million dwellings, called Million Program. The million program buildings were erected with new, untried design solutions, in a short range of time, and at low cost. The residential buildings from that time are now greatly in need of renovation. The municipal housing company, Gavlegårdarna, renovates and improves the energy efficiency at some of it’s apartment buildings in the district Sätra, Gävle. One problem is how to make the basic design of the slab on ground more energy efficiency and moisture proof. The study covers four representative flooring types in the Gavlegårdarnas million program area in Sätra.

    This study aims to investigate and evaluate proven methods for adding insulation in the four floor types. Also to look for solutions by designing additional insulation to treat damp problems and improve energy efficiency in an economical way. Existing flooring types are to be examined to check for new solutions as well. The aim is to produce a number of measures to provide property owners with different energy efficiency solutions.

    Results of calculations show that the perimeter area of the slab is exposed to moisture problems, while the centre of it does not have any notable problems. According to calculations, improved floor types have U-values reduced by 31% – 40% depending on the insulation thickness and design. However, investments have a long payback period and this is sometimes not economically viable. When a redevelopment project is performed, it is beneficial to simultaneously add insulation. If investors promote sustainable development, reduced energy consumption by the proposed measures is viable, as advocated by the environmental goals set by Sweden and the EU. 

  • 4.
    Blomberg, Emil
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Boqvist, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Lauridsen, Markus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Tvärkraftsförstärkning av limträ med inlimmade gängstänger2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur tvärkraftskapaciteten i limträ påverkades om den förstärktes med inlimmade gängstänger samt att studera samverkan mellan limträ och gängstänger.

    En litteraturstudie genomfördes för att ta del av tidigare forskning. Förstärkning av tvärkraftskapaciteten hos limträbalkar är ett område där begränsad forskning skett. Ahlskog och Ross (2015) berörde detta område om hur limträ förstärkts mot tvärkraftbrott med pålimmade träribbor på utsidan. Resultatet från Ahlskog och Ross (2015) visade att deras förstärkningsmetod medförde en ökad tvärkraftskapacitet på 11 %. Denna studie var en vidareutveckling på Ahlskog och Ross (2015) arbete men med en ny förstärkningsmetod med inlimmade gängstänger i olika vinklar mot fiberriktningen.

    Testet bestod av fem olika provserier med åtta prover i varje serie. Provserie 1 var oförstärkt. Provserie 2 och 4 var förstärkta med inlimmade gänstänger i två olika vinklar mot fiberriktningen och testades med avseende för tvärkraftkapaciteten och jämfördes mot den oförstärkta. Provserie 3 och 5 var förstärkta på samma sätt som provserie 2 och 4 men provbitarna var klyvda i mitten och testades med avseende på gängstängernas hållfasthet och jämfördes mot provserie 2 och 4 för att undersöka samverkan. Provbitarna skruvades fast i två anhåll som placerades i tryckprovmaskinen som utsatte provbitarna med belastning tills brott inträffade. Maskinen var kopplad till en dator som registrerade samtliga värden i maskinens datorprogram Trapezium X.

    Studien resulterade i en ökning av tvärkraftkapaciteten på 13 % för provserie 2 förstärkt 45° och 1,0 % för provserie 4 förstärkt 90° jämfört med provserie 1. Samverkan mellan limträ och gängstänger resulterade i 32 % samverkan för provserie 2 förstärkt 45° och 4 % samverkan för provserie 4 förstärkt 90°. Resultatet hade förbättrats och visat en tydligare ökning av tvärkraftskapaciteten om fler felkällor hade beaktats i ett tidigare skede. En av dessa felkällor var torrsprickor, vilket resulterade i att provbitarna gav ett lägre värde gentemot de teoretiska beräkningarna.

  • 5.
    Dahir, Mohamed
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Invändig eller Utvändig tilläggsisolering av ett flerbostadshus- LCC analys av optimal isoleringstjocklekar: Fallstudie på Sicksackvägen 39 i Gävle2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stadsdelen Sätra som ligger 3 km norr om Gävle centrum uppfördes undermiljonprogrammet mellan 1960-1974. Det är enkelt och ta sig till och från Sätramed både fordon, cykel och till fots. AB Gavlegårdarna har tagit initiativ till attrenovera deras byggnadsbestånd som uppfördes under miljonprogrammet istadsdelen Sätra, däribland Sicksackvägen 39. Byggnaden har byggts 1969 ifunktionalistisk stil i närheten av Sätra Centrum.Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka den kostnadsoptimala isoleringstjocklenvid invändig eller utvändig tilläggsisolering av husets ytterväggar. Med hänsyn tillandra åtgärder som AB Gavlegårdarna vill genomföra vid renovering av denbefintliga byggnaden.För att genomföra denna studie har en okulärbesiktning, litteraturstudie,beräkningar, uppmätningar, undersökningar, samt energisimulering utförts. Därpåjämfördes lönsamheten vid tilläggsisolering med optimala isoleringstjocklekeninvändigt respektive utvändigt.Resultatet av denna studie visar att de komponenter i husets klimatskärm somläcker mest värme är ytterväggar och fönster. Med hänsyn taget till derenoveringsåtgärder som AB Gavlegårdarna ska genomföra blir den optimalaisoleringstjockleken invändigt är 45 mm och utvändigt 170 mm. Den åtgärd som germest lönsamhet är tilläggsisolering utvändigt med 170 mm mineralull i kombinationmed AB Gavlegårdarnas renoveringsåtgärder: fönsterbyte och uppgradering avventilationssystemet till FTX.

  • 6.
    Eggers, Patrick
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Parallelization of ray casting for solar irradiance calculations in urban environments2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The growing amount of photovoltaic systems in urban environments creates peaks of energy generation in local energy grids. These peaks can lead to unwanted instability in the electrical grid. By aligning solar panels differently, spikes could be avoided. Planning locations for solar panels in urban environments is very time-intense as they require a high spatial and temporal resolution. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the decrease in runtime of planning applications by parallelizing ray-casting algorithms. This thesis includes a software tool for professionals and laymen, which has been developed in a user centered design process and shows ways to perform those calculations on a graphics processing unit.After creating a computational concept and a concept of the software design, those concepts have been implemented starting with an implementation of the Möller-Trumbore ray-casting algorithm which has been run with Python on the central processing unit (CPU). Further the same test with the same algorithm and the same data has been performed on the graphics processing unit (GPU) by using PyCUDA, a Python wrapper for NVIDIAs Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA). Both results were compared resulting in, that parallelizing, transferring and performing those calculations on the graphics processing unit can decrease the runtime of a software significantly. In the used system setup, the same calculations were 42 times faster on the Graphics Processing Unit than on the Central Processing Unit. It was also found, that other factors such as the time of the year, the location of the tested points in the data model, the test interval length and the algorithm design of the ray-casting algorithm have a major impact on the performance of such. In the test scenario the processing time for the same case, but just during another time of the year, increases by factor 4.The findings of this thesis can be used in a wide range of software as it shows, that computationally intensive calculations can easily be sourced out from the Python code and executed on another platform. By doing so, the runtime can be significantly decreased and the whole software package can get an enormous speed boost.

  • 7.
    Ekenståhl, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Medén, Oskar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Vilken hållfasthet har ett trädymlingsförband?2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One way to increase the amount of wood in buildings is to replace framing tie with timber dowel joints. It has to be investigated if timber dowel joints strength value is high enough.

    This study investigates the strength of timber joints anchored with a dowel. The dowels have three different dimensions and were anchored in the joint by swelling. Theoretical calculations were made with formulas from Eurokod 5 (2004) for steel screws. The formulas were modified to be applied to wood instead of steel. Pressure tests wereperformed on ten double shear models per dowel dimension. The tests are considered tobe statistically and compiled in a normal distribution curve. Characteristic strength with thesafety margin of 95 % was calculated from the data from the tests. Characteristic strength for the timber dowel joints were 2100 N for 8 mm, 2300 N for 10mm and 4400 N for 12 mm.

  • 8.
    Fredriksson, Anton
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Fors Edman, Christoffer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    En ekonomisk analys av att använda en Quartzenebaserad puts vid energieffektivisering av äldre q-märkta byggnader.2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Older q-labeled buildings may not be changed according to the corruptions banning, resulting in difficulties in energy efficiency of q-marked buildings, as traditional energy efficiency methods cannot be used without altering the building's properties. This report examines the profitability to energy-efficient a q-labeled building with a heat insulating plaster based on Z1 quartzene and lime cement render. By only changing the render properties of the plot, the building does not change characteristic or cultural historical value.

    The report sets out a general framework describing the maximum additional cost of a heat insulation plaster in comparison to a traditional plaster at four different thermal conversion coefficients; 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 W/m2 ×K. The framework can be used as a template that shows what a heat insulation plaster at varying thermal conductivities maximally may cost for the product to be economically viable compared to lime cement plaster. 

    A life cycle cost analysis is used in a case study to assess if it is profitable to energy-efficient a qlabeled building in Gävle, with a heat insulating plaster based on Z1 and lime cement pits. Five theoretical mixtures with different proportions of Z1 and lime cement plaster was analyzed to assess profitability at different thermal conductivity. The result of the case study shows that all heat-insulating plasters is economically profitable, where the most profitable mixing is the one with the highest proportion of Z1 (80%). That the most profitable mixture is the one with the highest proportion of Z1 can be explained by the fact that energy saving is increasing at a faster rate than the additional cost of the heat insulating plaster

    The estimated additional cost of the case study is tested in the cost ceiling to identify the profitability at different heat transfer coefficient. The results shows that walls with an high heat transfer coefficient has the largest profitability, while the walls with a lower heat transfer coefficient (a better heat transfer coefficient) is the least profitable. This is because of the walls with a higher heat transfer coefficient has a greater energy saving potential then walls whit a lower heat transfer coefficient

  • 9.
    Hall, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    BIM Green Box: En undersökning om behovet av digital byggmaterialinformation2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Information om byggvaror tillhandahålls bland annat i form av byggvarudeklarationer och säkerhetsdatablad, vars syfte är att ge en bild av de ingående komponenterna och dess miljöpåverkan under hela varans livscykel. Syftet med denna studie har varit att undersöka de brister som finns i hanteringen av byggmaterialinformation och hur man ska gå tillväga för att förbättra dem. Arbetet har genomförts tillsammans med WSP och deras projekt BIM Green Box, ett projekt med avsikt att skapa en databas som på ett enklare sätt kan åskådliggöra och tillhandahålla information i olika byggvaror. I arbetet har en intervjustudie genomförts med olika aktörer i branschen för att samla in åsikter kring hantering av byggmaterialinformation.

     

    Resultatet från denna studie visar var det brister i informationen om byggmaterial. Bristerna handlar bland annat om otydliga krav från beställare och ofullständig dokumentation från leverantörer. Studien visar dock att det finns en attitydförändring och att utvecklingen går i rätt riktning, där bland annat behovet av att digitalisera byggmaterialinformationen diskuteras och hur det kan utveckla hanteringen av byggmaterialinformationen. Studien påvisar också betydelsen av att ha informationen kopplad till BIM, vilket kan göra att byggmaterialinformationen blir mer lätthanterlig för en byggnad. Studien avslutas med att påvisa de brister som finns med informationshanteringen av byggmaterial samt ge förslag på aspekter att tänka på vid utformningen av en ny databas.

  • 10.
    Hani, Sami
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Byggmetod, energianvändning, transport: vid jämförelse mellan Gävle Strands Etapp 2 och Maskinisten2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT                                                                                                                    

    Energy use during production of new buildings is an aspect of the hot environmental issues, yet both regulations and studies are absent. In this study a comparison is made on energy use at Strand Etapp 2 which is located at Sjaaregatan 19 and Maskinisten, located at Maskinistgatan 19, both in the city of Gävle. The objective of this study has been to determine which of the projects has the lowest energy use as well as emissions of green house gases due to transportation at the time of erecting the buildings. Maskinisten and Gävle Strand Etapp 2 differ in mainly two points: Gävle Strand Etapp 2 is prefabricated and has wooden frames and Maskinisten is site built and has concrete frame. The method has been to assume a functional unit for the projects in order to make an assessment of which of the projects that have minimum of energy use and emissions. In the calculations, energy use has been divided into three parts: the energy use of the factory (only for the prefabricated project), during transportation and at the building site. The emissions are calculated based on the distance of transportation and the choice of truck when transporting materials and modules. When comparing the two projects a distinct difference can be seen. The prefabricated house, Gävle Strand Etapp 2 requires a lot more energy during production, about 160 % more, compared to site built the Maskinisten. Although the energy use in transport, which is a large part of the total energy of Gävle Strand Stage 2, is disregarded in the comparison, the project still has an energy usage that is about 25 % higher than the value for Maskinisten. The emission that occurs during transport by diesel trucks used in the projects has been calculated in g/ton for each type of trucks and distance. When compared to a previous study, it seems that the amount of emissions is mainly due of the transport distance and not on whether it is transported as complete modules or as separated building materials. To further identify the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods of construction, several project managers from the two projects have been interviewed. The main advantage of prefabricated is considered the shortened construction period and a more efficient work - regardless of the season - on the other hand it is inflexible in comparison to the site-built. Looking only at energy use and emissions, which has been the main issue in this study; it is clear that Maskinisten is the project with the least environmental impact during the construction phase.

  • 11.
    Hedlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Jakobsson, Anton
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    En parametrisk undersökning om hur spännvidd och val av stomsystem påverkar materialkostnaderna för stallbyggnader2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish agriculture is developing towards fewer and larger farms. The growing business for the farmers results in an increased number of animals in livestock. This provides a greater need for agricultural buildings with open spaces and long spans.

    Länsstyrelsen has noted large variations in total construction costs for agricultural buildings in the country. Along with Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg developed an idea to explore how material costs are affected by various spans and different frame systems. The objective is that the study will result in a decision-making basis for new construction and reconstruction of agricultural buildings.

    Previous research and theories were examined and a number of site visits were made to increase knowledge in the field and determine which spans and frame system to be investigated. Parametric studies of four different scenarios of the agricultural buildings were made. Two cases in the study were constructed of glulam and two of steel.

    The parametric study is to report relationship between agricultural building spans and costs as well as which building system that is most economically advantageous. The cost of the survey includes only material costs. The result shows that the cost increases linearly with the increasing span. The material costs of the four tested scenarios are relatively equal, but the tapered steel frame has the lowest material cost for all tested spans.

  • 12.
    Holmstedt, Klara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Burman, Nadja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Utdragshållfasthet av inlimmade skruvar i limträ2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis tests has been performed on the pull strength of screws glued into glulam beams.

    The experiment is based on the already approved method whereby the diameter of the drilled holes is the same as the screw outer diameter of 1 mm or bigger. The screws strength class shall not be less than 4.6 (EN ISO 898-1:1999, 1999).

    The difference in the experiments that were performed where that the drilled diameter were 1 mm smaller than the outer diameter of the screw so that the screw thread was worked into the wood.

    In the tests the gluing where made on M8 glulam beams. The screws where drilled at and angel of 90°tangental to the fiber direction with a diameter of 7 mm. The gluing of the screws where made in three different depths and where later exposed to pulling forces. The results showed both pulling breaks and screw breaks when they reached their maximum capacity. This conforms to the assessments made before the tests.

    From the evaluation of the tests the characteristic values have been calculated so that the method can be compared with nails and bolts in the roof trusses. The experiments showed that the glued screws with adapted drill-depths have similar pull strength as the corresponding wood screws and glued screws according to standards.

    There is a great need for continued research in this method of glued screws if they are going to be used in roof trusses and fulfill the same function as bolted joints does today. Tests should then be made on amongst others glued screws in different fiber directions, drill diameters, screw dimensions, glue types and climate tests.

  • 13.
    Hosseini Aghdam, Reihaneh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energieffektivisering av Sörbyskolans gymnastiksal2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to Sweden’s environmental quality objectives (Miljömål) all the buildings energy usage must be reduced by 50 % till 2050. Therefore many buildings especially those which were built during the million program (miljonprogrammet) should be renovated and become energy efficient. In this work the gymnastic hall of Sörby School -located in Gävle, Sweden- is considered to be more energy efficient. The school is more than 50 years old and it has to be renovated to be used for another 50 years. The aim of this study is to analyze if the building renovation is viable and profitable through reducing warming cost of the spaces and hot tap water. The objective is to examine economic energy measures, which can be recommended to Gavlefastigheter AB; the communal firm which owns and manages the school. The work starts with a literature study and at the same time investigation of the construction which conducted to a basic energy audit of the building. During the investigation, drawings were studied, the building’s measurements were controlled, constructions materials were estimated, indoor temperature measured and Blower Door method was run. Energy simulations were performed with help of BV2building energy simulation program in order to examine the outcome of different energy saving measures. Profitability of the measures was evaluated by payback method. The conducted case study led to improvement suggestions owing to lower thermal bridge and U-values. An economic energy efficiency measure can be reached by implementing the methods, used in this case study. The results are recommended to the property manager company, i.e. Gavlefastigheter AB.

  • 14.
    Johansson, Linnéa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Känsälä, Pekka
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Utdragshållfasthet hos limmade och olimmade gängstänger i limträ2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines pull-out strength of threaded rods fixed into glulam timber. The technology is intended to be used in hidden joints between glulam components. The work began with a study of literature focusing on current research within the topic, mainly to create a base of knowledge before the testing was initiated. Studies of scientific articles reveals a lack of research within this area, which makes it difficult to develop standards and calculation models for these joints. The drill holes in the tests have a diameter of 7 mm. The pull-out tests include three depths of threading as well as three fiber directions. Threaded M8 rods pencilled with glue and without glue are tested, after which the results are compared with each other. Results are indicating a slightly inferior pull-out strength parallel to the grain compared to perpendicular dito. A linear relationship between the pull-out strength and geometry of the joint can be observed, only on rods perpendicular to the grain however. More testing is needed. Prior to the experiments, assumptions were made that most of the glue was scraped off when the rod was screwed in. This appears to be correct since some non glued rods under certain conditions even showed better performance than glued ones. Statistically reliable conclusions can not be made since the quantity oftests in this work is too small. Nevertheless, the results indicates that further testing also on non glued rods is essential.

  • 15.
    Jonsson, Jimmy
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Nybyggnation eller ombyggnation, vilket alternativ genererar minst växthusgaser?: Fallstudie för ett mindre hyresradhus i Gävle2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thedecision to demolish the building and erect a new or renovate the existingbuilding is often based on aspects such as economy, function, energy,environment and conservation requirements. This report focuses exclusively onthe decision from an energy perspective, and what the differences are in thegreenhouse gas emissions of a smaller rental property in Gävle if renovated ordemolished and replaced by a new building. This is done by summarizing theestimated emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in carbondioxide equivalent value of manufactured building materials, heating, propertypower and necessary transportations. Calculations are performed for a period of50 years. The survey shows that renovations or new constructions that resultsin low specific energy consumptions are a better choice when energy sourceswith high emissions of greenhouse gases are used to produce electricity tooperate the building and heating of the building. When using energy sourcesthat result in low emissions of greenhouse gases the effects from materialshave a higher degree of impact on the total level of emissions from thesealternatives. This results in alternatives with a high specific energy use andlow consumption of new materials to perform better than the alternatives withlow specific energy consumption and a higher amount of material use.

  • 16.
    Jäderberg, Antonia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Mirzajee, Gilnaz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Stallbygge för den moderna hästhållningen: Hållfasthet hos boxmaterial2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is mainly about the strength of box stall materials but also about the planning of box stalls in stables. The background of this thesis is that the equestrian sport in Sweden is big and because of that there are a lot of stables with different qualities. In many of these, the materials in the box stalls need to be replaced and the box stalls need re-planning to get bigger. Four different materials have been studied and compared for their strength, cost and maintenance. A strength test was performed on each of the four materials. That was done by examining the energy level at a horse kick. Then the kick was simulated in a lab. The tensile strength was also tested for all the materials. An information search on the materials where done so they could be compared in view of maintenance and cost. After the strength tests and the information search, the materials were given points so it could be determined which of them are best suited to be a wall in a box stall. An illustration of an existing stable was made where the box stalls have been re-planned to meet today’s requirements. From the illustration, the amount of the material with the highest points was calculated and the cost estimated.         

  • 17.
    Kriebel, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Wolgsjö, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Proaktiv ändringshantering i uppstart av byggprojekt: En fallstudie om hur projektledare kan förebygga kostnader för tillägg i mindre byggprojekt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A project can be defined as a temporary work that is within the scope of time and budget in terms of achieving a project goal. Due to the fact that construction projects are unique and usually very complex, project management therefore requires a working method that is adapted to the prerequisites of the project. The project manager's responsibility to follow up on the budget and ensure that resources such as working hours and consulting services are distributed correctly, is becoming increasingly challenging as the change paradox shows that flexibility decreases and costs for changes increase as the project progresses. Exceeding the project budget in construction projects has today become a global phenomenon and involves several negative social effects. Scientific studies show that the increased costs can be derived from deviations such as additions and changes during the construction project. On the other hand, there are perceived gaps in the literature for which factors affect the extent of these and thus became the study's area of ​​investigation. Based on the scientific gap, the study aims to analyze the startup process in smaller construction projects with regard to identifying the factors that have an impact on additions, but also to review how project managers can proactively manage these factors in order to reduce the risk of increased deviations. To answer the research questions and purpose, a qualitative case study has been applied to a global consulting company in the construction industry, where semi-structured interviews were conducted with five project managers at the company.

     

    The result of the study shows that project managers do not take preventive measures or work to prevent deviations in the startup process. Based on a thematic analysis of the results, factors with an impact on deviations have been identified in three areas; systematics, communication and experience and competence. The study has shown that increased costs for additions and changes can be deduced from different approaches to project management and misleading information, inadequate requirement specification that leaves room for own interpretation, unspecified communication channels, conflicts, lack of competence and abrupt completions of the project. In order to achieve a more proactive startup process in order to prevent increased costs for additions and changes, project managers should ensure a clear requirement specification by discussing important issues and decisions, requirements and expectations with support from templates and checklists. To avoid misunderstandings and conflicts, a communication plan can be established. Finally, the choice of project model should be established and routines for final reporting should be introduced to create a learning organisation that increases the project managers' self-insight and competence regarding increased costs for additions and project changes. The theoretical contribution of the study is the identified factors within three areas as well as suggestions for how project managers can facilitate the management of additions in the startup process of construction projects.

  • 18.
    Larsson, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment. University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Utfackningsvägg i fältfabrik: en studie av arbetsmiljö och enhetstider2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Construction companies are frequently criticized for high prices and long construction time. At the same time, statistics shows that construction workers are on the sick-list for occupational injuries or casualties more than other groups at the labour market.

    Skanska built a block of flats with tenant-ownerships in Gävle. The construction consists of concrete walls with in-fill walls in the front. The purpose with this degree project is to perform a risk analysis in work environment with focus on repetitive strain injuries and control the time report for in-fill walls manufactured in a field factory. The result of this project will help to make more realistic cost predictions in the future.

    This degree project has been performed in cooperation with the construction company Skanska. It based on literature studies, interviews and field studies.

    The result shows that the work environment is satisfactory with few exceptions and the time report is a lot higher than calculated

  • 19.
    Lim, Eunzu
    et al.
    Kyushu University japan.
    Ito, Kazuhide
    Kyushu University Japan.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology.
    Evaluation of the Photocatalytic Decomposition Eff ect on the Improvement of Iaq by New VentilationIndex – Net Escape Velocity2013In: Clima 2013 11th REHVA World Conference on IAQVEC June 16-19 Crech Republic, Prague: Society of Environmetal Engineering , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Mikaelsson, Lars-Åke
    et al.
    Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Integrated planning for sustainable building production: an evolution over three decades2017In: Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, ISSN 1392-3730, E-ISSN 1822-3605, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 319-326Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the authors'€™ work on Integrated Planning (IP) as a construction site management tool. IP integrates the different planning skills used by site managers, construction workers and craftspersons into an interactive group which manages a production planning process from the earliest stages to the end of a building project. The studies reviewed in this paper, performed over the last three decades, tested, longitudinally evaluated and refined the IP model for use in modern sustainable building sites. The refined model, Integrated Planning for Sustainable Building Production (SBP), includes the factors: leadership, health and safety, quality management and environmental management.

  • 21.
    Nilsson, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Lindström, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Placering av Phase Change Material i en yttervägg för minskning av köpt energi?: Fallstududie Ljusbo prototyphus2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle använder vi stora mängder energi och denna energi kommer huvudsakligen från fossila bränslen. Byggnadssektorn står för ca 40% av den totala energianvändningen och den termiska komforten har stor betydelse för hur mycket energi vi använder till byggnaden. Resultat från tidigare forskning visar att fasomvandlingsmaterial (PCM) kan lagra värme och kyla och på så sätt balansera temperaturen i en byggnad så att den termiska komforten blir bättre. Dagens samhälle är beroende av att förnybara energikällor skall börja användas för att främja en hållbar utveckling. Genom att sammankoppla PCM med solenergi skulle en hållbar energikälla kunna uppnås. Ljusbo Green Building satsar på att bli ett så kallat plushus, där man producerar mer energi än vad som görs av med.

    Syftet med studien var att studera om PCM kan bidra till att minska en byggnads energianvändning genom att placera ett PCM i ytterväggkonstruktion. Frågeställningen var om energibehovet minskar till byggnaden genom att inkludera PCM i en vägg enligt Ljusbos standard? Med simuleringar i COMSOL Multiphysics 5.3 utförs en fallstudie på Ljusbos prototypbyggnad för att se om ett PCM-material som placeras i en ytterväggkonstruktion kan minska energianvändningen hos byggnaden. PCM-materialet värms med varm uteluft dagtid eller soluppvärmd uteluft, så att värmen som tillförts uteluften minskar transmissionsförlusten genom ytterväggen.

    Resultatet visar att då PCM placeras i mitten av en yttervägg minskar värmeflödet från byggnaden under kallare perioder då uppvärmd luft tillförs i väggen. Det ger samma effekt oberoende på vilken fasförändringstemperatur som väljs på PCM:et. Studiens slutsats var att PCM kan minska värmeflödet från byggnaden under kallare perioder, men ger ingen effekt under varmare perioder. 

  • 22.
    Nordin, Kristoffer
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Petersson, Viktor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Dagsljus i Miljöbyggnad: En studie om dagsljusets relevans och del i certifieringsprocessen2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many challengesto achievinggood daylight in today’s buildings. Densercities, more stringentenergy requirements and lack of knowledge are some of the contributing factors. Indicator 12 dagsljus (daylight) in theenvironmental Certification System Miljöbyggnad isbased on the Swedish building regulations (BBR) general advice. Miljöbyggnad differs from BBR with it’s demand for verification and this process has revealedthat the daylight requirementis difficult to fulfil. The aimof the report was to investigate how the daylightindicator is experiencedin practice, establish an idea of why it is difficult to meetthe requirements anddevelop a process to facilitate daylight design. A study of how people are affected by natural light in buildings has been carried out to give weight to the survey. The result is based on a literature study, questionnaire and interviews.The results of the literature study has shown that daylight is of great importance to people as itaffects both mental and physical health. The daylight indicator is perceived as the most difficult indicator to fulfilandthe requirements are consideredby many in the industry to beoutdated, difficult to interpret and too ambitious. When the requirements are not fulfilledin the design process it may resultin high costs and extra work when attemptingtocertify aproject. There is a strong chance thatthe indicator will notbe approved ifthematter isbrought uptoo late in design process. The Miljöbyggnaddaylightindicator asbased on the general advicein BBR isnot designed for today's construction market. The methods areoften difficult to apply in modern buildings. Simultaneously it is important that theconstruction industry stops ignoringdaylight requirements. The main conclusions of this study is that if the building is to obtain certification and meet the requirements for this indicator,daylight must be considered early in the design process

  • 23.
    Olsén, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Yosefi, Nawid
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Produktionsanpassad BIM för arbetsberedning, visualisering och mängdning inom betong och markarbeten2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the authors investigated how the building construction company Skanska uses Building Information Modelling (BIM) today at the New Karolinska in Solna (NKS) and its capability. The study was limited to work preparation, visualization and quantification of concrete and ground works in the construction site. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not using BIM can create better conditions for job preparation, visualization and quantification at NKS. The goal of the survey was to provide recommendations to Skanska about how using BIM can improve conditions for work preparation, visualization and quantification of concrete and ground works. To achieve this goal, the authors conducted a review and analysis of scientific articles. The authors have carried out and analyzed a case study by interviewing a sample of professions from Skanska. The interviews were conducted to examine how Skanska are using BIM today. The case study was then compared with the literature study to investigate the link between theory and how it works at NKS.

    The study found that BIM has great potential to favor the process of work preparation, visualization and quantification of concrete and ground works in the construction site of NKS. By the use of BIM and its 3D models for visualization will create better understanding for the project. The 3D model gives the opportunity to get material quantities directly from the model by using the volume of the selected element. 4D BIM (scheduling) gives opportunies to create a time-efficient planning. That would be needed to do at NKS is to inform the staff of what BIM is and the benefits by using BIM.

  • 24.
    Qeit, Harun
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Användning av vakuumisolering i klimatsmart hus: En fallstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25.
    Sager, Wisam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Hantering av ÄTA-arbeten enligt standardavtalet AB 042014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Att det förekommer ändringar vid utförandet av ett byggprojekt är inte något nytt i byggbranschen, utan snarare något som alltid har funnits och förmodligen alltid kommer att finnas. Ändringar som uppstår vid utförandet av ett byggprojekt kan orsakas av en mängd olika anledningar. Men det ändringarna har gemensamt, är att de i regel resulterar i något som inom byggbranschen brukar benämnas ÄTA-arbeten. Begreppet ÄTA-arbeten står för Ändringsarbeten, Tilläggsarbeten samt Avgående arbeten och är ett resultat av ändringar i ett ursprungligt kontrakt.I utförandeentreprenader gäller i regel standardavtalet AB 04, vilket är ett avtal som innefattar bestämmelser som reglerar både beställares och entreprenörers förpliktelser gentemot varandra. Standardavtalet AB 04 reglerar i den meningen även hur ÄTA-arbeten ska hanteras, för att en entreprenör ska kunna erhålla ersättning för arbeten som inte omfattas av det ursprungliga kontraktet.Den här studien inleds med att beskriva hur ÄTA-arbeten ska hanteras enligt standardavtalet AB 04. För att i ett senare skede kunna avgöra vilka vardagliga hanteringssätt som strider mot bestämmelserna och av den anledningen medför rättsliga påföljder.För att kunna ta reda på hur ÄTA-arbeten hanteras i dagsläget, utfördes ett antal intervjuer med verksamma personer inom anläggningsbranschen. Intervjuerna resulterade i en slutsats som tyder att det vardagligt förekommer hanteringssätt som strider mot bestämmelserna i AB 04, vilket i sin tur är anledningen till att entreprenörer i en relativt vid utsträckning går miste om ersättning för utförda ÄTA-arbeten. Studien ger även förslag på hur parterna kan förbättra hanteringen av dessa arbeten samtidigt som samhällsnyttiga perspektiv tas i beaktande.

  • 26.
    Schåman, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Åkerlund, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Kan användningen av BIM-objekt förbättra byggprocessen?: En intervju- och enkätundersökning om BIM-objekt och dess potential att förbättra byggprocessen2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27.
    Shamoun, Ramiz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    KOLDIOXIDUTSLÄPP FRÅN BYGGNADSMATERIAL: En jämförelse mellan projekten Maskinisten och Gävle Strand Etapp 22013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental impact of carbon emission from material extraction and production has been a key word in this study. The purpose of this study was to compare the projects Maskinisten and Gävle Strand Etapp 2 with respect to the amount of carbon dioxide emitted during the construction material extraction and production as well as carbon emissions that occur as a result of project material waste. Maskinisten is a site-casted apartment building while Etapp 2 is an apartment building that is built with a prefabricated wood frame construction system. The goal of the present study is to illustrate that the choice of building systems should take into account carbon emissions. The study was conducted by searching information in books, information from previous studies and reports through databases such as ScienceDirect and digital scientific archive DiVA. Information from the two projects was gathered through personal communication with two persons who were responsible for the project. The amount of carbon emission for each building material was estimated by using the computer program SimaPro 7 and database Ecoinvent. By calculating the total amount of each building material that was used in an apartment (the functional unit), the total discharge of carbon emissions that occurs for each apartment was calculated. Then the results were compared with each other.

    Emissions from construction materials used in Maskinisten are 150% higher than from materials used in Etapp 2. The materials used in Maskinisten release more carbon dioxide during material extraction and production. The difference becomes larger if the waste of material becomes larger in the construction of the site-cast housing. The comparison between the two projects can be generalized to be a comparison between a cast in place concrete building and prefabricated wood frame houses. It is important to keep in mind the amount of material waste and to try to minimize the use of resources.

    The study shows that it is better to build prefabricated wood frame houses than to cast a concrete building at site. The study focuses on carbon emissions that occur during extraction and production of building materials and waste quantity at both building systems. A result of this study is that it is better from a resource use perspective to build wood frame houses instead of concrete buildings, but there are several different aspects that must be taken into consideration, specially that the user phase of the life cycle of the building causes the greatest environmental impact. Usage phase has not studied in this report therefore the result obtained is taken from carbon emissions for building materials during the production phase.

  • 28.
    Sjöström, Rasmus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Baabish, Essa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Hisskrav vid ombyggnad av en q-märkt fastighet: En fallstudie av fastigheten Gnistan 2 i Bollnäs2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Culturally interesting buildings are often inaccessible in consideration of today´s standards. When reconstructing a building, the new construction requirements have to be satisfied. This could be a problem when the building is culturally marked.   The purpose of this report is to produce a draft for a new floor plan for the three-story building  Gnistan 2 in Bollnäs, that is accessibility adapted and simultaneously meet conservation requirements.   The first question to be answered in the thesis is if the building requires an elevator.  To answer that question, a study on BBR, PBL, BVL and Svensk Standard has been made. Also an interview with Gävle municipality and a study via internet sources has been made. The other question is how the Culture marking is going to affect the accessibility of the building. To answer that question a study on BBR, PBL, PBF* and Svensk Standard has been made, also an interview with Gävle municipality and a literature review has been made. The last questions that have been answered are evacuation and the reconstruction plausibility. This will be answered through literature review and a study via internet sources and BBR, PBL, PBF and Svensk Standard.  The result shows that it is able to find a solution that fits the accessibility and at the same time preserving the cultural value of the building. The reconstruction should be based on the condition of the building.   The lift requirements in this case could be disregarded because the building was considered to have two floors as the top floor was part of a duplex apartment.   There must be a projection for an elevator so that later in time it will be easy to install an elevator if needed. The reconstruction of the building seems reasonable considering the revenues that the apartments will bring.

  • 29.
    Yang, Bin
    et al.
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Outdoor thermal comfort under subarctic climate of north Sweden – A pilot study in Umeå2017In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 28, p. 387-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Outdoor microclimate is important to determine the quality of outdoor spaces. Swedish people cherish summer period and prefer more outdoor activities in summer because of long winter with harsh outdoor environments. People in urban areas use parks for recreation and outdoor activities frequently in summer. Under subarctic climate, limited studies have been performed to explore the effect of microclimate environments on usage of outdoor spaces such as parks. The study explored the relationship of microclimate environments, park use and human behavioral patterns in urban area of Umeå, Sweden, which is under subarctic climate. Observations of naturally occurring behavior were recorded. Structured interviews, based on specially designed questionnaires, were performed during July to August in 2015. Measurements of objective parameters for microclimate environments, including air dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation and globe temperature, were performed. Human subjective responses from the questionnaire survey were compared with objectively measured results. 49% of local persons still prefer higher solar radiation even under “slightly warm” Thermal Sensation Vote (TSV), which reflects their high expectation to solar radiation. Local persons in Umeå, who expose themselves to a wider climate, are more adapted to subarctic climate than non-local persons.

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