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  • 1.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Erlingsson, Sigurdur
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Väg- och banteknik, VBA.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Öberg, Gudrun
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Klimatanpassning av vägkonstruktion, drift och underhåll2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global climate change is a reality and affecting society and transport systems. Climate change adaptation of transport systems will make the means of transportation more resilient and decrease the risk and magnitude of disruptions. Generally, climate change adaptations in road construction, operation and maintenance will need relatively large changes, but there is a shortage of the specific knowledge required as to what steps need to be taken, when and where, before measures can actually be implemented. Since climate change effects vary among Sweden's climatic zones, the impact of climate change on the road behavior and longevity is extremely difficult to predict. The need for winter maintenance in Sweden will generally decrease due to the warmer climate. Ploughing frequency will probably decrease as well, but preparedness should not be reduced too much since occasions with more extreme instances will increase. In order to succeed in making the road transport system resilient to climate change, we conclude that there is a need to develop more knowledge about the impact on the road infrastructure system as well as the operation and maintenance of the system including how to adapt through different types of variable and flexible climate adaptation measures and the effects of extreme weather events.

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  • 2.
    Astner, Linda
    et al.
    Gävle Hamn AB, Gävle, Sweden.
    Carpenter, Angela
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Utilizing waste to create new port land2018In: Port Technology, Vol. 77, no Spring, p. 118-119Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the most recent port expansion and the major dredging and land creation project that has been undertaken in the Port of Gävle since 2007. This project has seen the deepening and widening of the fairway to accommodate larger vessels, as well as the construction of a new cargo terminal area due to open in late 2019. This land creation work has been undertaken using contaminated sediments dredged from deepening the shipping channel.

  • 3.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences. Division of Surveying—Geodesy, Land Law and Real Estate Planning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Shirazian, Masoud
    Department of Geomatics Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran.
    Amin, Hadi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Horemuz, Milan
    Division of Surveying—Geodesy, Land Law and Real Estate Planning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Time transfer and significance of vertical land motion in relativistic geodesy applications: a review paper2023In: Frontiers in Earth Science, E-ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 11, article id 1139211Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determination of the Earth’s gravity field and geopotential value is one of the fundamental topics in physical geodesy. Traditional terrestrial gravity and precise leveling measurements can be used to determine the geopotential values at a local or regional scale. However, recent developments in optical atomic clocks have not only rapidly improved fundamental science but also contributed to applied research. The latest generation of optical clocks is approaching the accuracy level of 10−18 when facilitating atomic clock networks. These systems allow examining fundamental theories and many research applications, such as atomic clocks applications in relativistic geodesy, to precisely determine the Earth’s gravity field parameters (e.g., geopotential values). According to the theory of relativistic geodesy, the frequency difference measured by an optical clock network is related to the gravity potential anomaly, provided that the effects of disturbing signals (i.e., tidal and non-tidal contributions) are filtered out. The relativistic geodesy principle could be used for a practical realization of global geodetic infrastructure, most importantly, a vertical datum unification or realization of height systems. This paper aims to review the background of relativistic (clock-based) geodesy and study the variations of optical atomic clock measurements (e.g., due to hydrology loading and land motion).

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  • 4.
    Borg, Tommy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av Wordpress: Design och Säkerhet2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Wordpress har använts länge för att bygga webbsidor, från början mest webbsidor där bloggen stod i centrum, men på senare tid även för att bygga mer avancerade webbsidor. Detta är skrivet i första hand för att få ett grepp om vilka fördelar och nackdelar det finns med Wordpress som webbplattform. Dokumentet ska kunna fungera som visst informationsunderlag vid utvecklandet av en Wordpresswebbsida. Dokumentet pekar på problematiken med att ge en kund viss begränsad möjlighet att lägga upp eget material, och ändå försöka säkerställa webbsidans grundkonstruktion och design. Det som gjordes är en Wordpresswebbsida och mall i Wordpress som ska kunna ligga till grund vid utvecklande av nya webbsidor i Wordpress, bägge med en mängd relevanta inlagda plugin, allt för att webbsidan ska ha vissa funktioner som video, bildgallerier, medlemshantering med mera, och en utvärdering om säkerheten i Wordpress.

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  • 5.
    Bronegård, Martina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Policy för markåtkomst: Granskning av Svensk Energis ”Policy - Markåtkomst”2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The management of land access for construction and maintenance of electric grids are handled differently by the electrical grid companies in Sweden. The branch organization Svensk Energi has created a policy for land access in order to create a unitary and equitable management that they recommend their members to use. The purpose of this study was to examine how the policy is used, to identify the areas of development and compile suggestions for improvement.

    Data for the study were collected through semi-structured interviews with experts in nine of the electrical grid companies that are members of Svensk Energi. The result shows that the application of the policy varies between the companies. According to the study the policy's positive features outnumbers its negative characteristics. The companies consider that the policy can be improved by more distinct guidelines in certain areas and more flexibility in other areas. The study presents and states the grounds for improvement proposals that Svensk Energi is recommended to implement to improve the policy.

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  • 6.
    Friman, Margareta
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Lättman, Katrin
    Karlstads universitet, SAMOT.
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Karlstads universitet, Handelshögskolan (from 2013).
    Carpoolers' perceived accessibility of carpooling2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 21, article id 8976Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to constitute a realistic option to existing travel modes, carpooling needs to be able to offer adequate levels of accessibility. Insights into how carpooling services affect perceived accessibility up until now remain unexplored. In this study we explore carpooling experiences of 122 users in Sweden and examine a number of possible determinants of the perceived accessibility of carpooling. Results show that carpooling is not perceived by the users as particularly accessible with low levels across the sample. Moreover, multiple linear hierarchical regression analyses show that simplicity of travel, population density, years of education, and school and work-trips appear to affect perceptions of accessibility of carpooling, whereas travel time and cost appear not to. The final model explains a third of the variance in perceived accessibility of carpooling, thus nearly two thirds of the variation is still unaccounted for. Future research should explore further possible determinants of perceived accessibility of carpooling in order to explain, understand, and counteract the low levels of accessibility that appear to be linked to this specific travel mode.

  • 7.
    Gadaan, Kim
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Lund, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Riktlinjer för trafiksäkerhetsåtgärder i småstäder: Exemplifierat i Söderfors tätort2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafiksäkerhet är den viktigaste utgångspunkten vid planering av vägar. Små tätorter saknar ofta underlag för storskaliga trafiksäkerhetslösningar och kräver istället mer lokala åtgärder i det befintliga vägnätet. Lokal trafikplanering är kommunernas ansvar som de genomför med hjälp av TRAST (2015) framtaget av bland annat Boverket och Trafikverket. TRAST (2015) inkluderar bland annat riktlinjer för ökad trafiksäkerhet, främst inom stadsmiljöer, men saknar konkreta riktlinjer för små tätorter. Examensarbetets syfte är att bli ett komplement till TRAST (2015) och tillhandahålla riktlinjer med rekommendationer för trafiksäkerhet i små tätorter (1000-5000 invånare).

    I framtagandet av riktlinjerna har olycksstatistik från tre likvärdiga tätorter undersökts där olycksorsakerna har brutits ned i sina beståndsdelar. Lämpliga åtgärder har framställts genom litteraturöversikten som består av underlag från huvudaktörerna inom området, vetenskapligt forskningsunderlag, samt exempel från likvärdiga tätorter där trafiksäkerhetsåtgärder har framtagits tidigare. I examensarbetet har fallstudier i Söderfors genomförts för att framställa riktlinjerna genom att undersöka lokal olycksstatistik, göra inventeringar och observationsstudier på orten. Söderfors har sedan använts som exemplifierad ort där de framtagna riktlinjerna har applicerats.

    Resultatet består av det sammanställda materialet från all olycksstatistik där de olika olyckskomponenterna har brutits ned samt kartor och bilder från inventeringen och observationsstudierna i Söderfors. De vanligaste olycksorsakerna är höga hastigheter samt distraherade förare. De mest olycksdrabbade platserna i Söderfors är Tamms väg och området kring Tierpsvägen. Riktlinjerna framgår under 4 huvudrubriker: gator, hastigheter, passager och beteendeförändringar. Därefter demonstreras de framtagna riktlinjerna i ett flödesschema där arbetsmetoden framställs och problemställningar matchas mot åtgärder. Riktlinjerna appliceras sedan på de olycksdrabbade vägarna samt ytterligare tre gator i Söderfors.

    För förankring till lokala förhållanden har inventering och observationsstudier varit tillräckliga metoder för att göra kopplingar och finna lämpliga åtgärdsförslag till problemområden. Mer djupgående fallstudier med fler observationstillfällen samt tekniska verktyg hade gett ett säkrare resultat. Bra komplement till vidare studier är även frågor kring ägoförhållanden samt projekt tillsammans med medborgarna om estetisk utformning av gatumiljöerna.

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  • 8.
    Gren, Ing Marie
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Jönköping University, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap.
    Calculating the costs of animal-vehicle accidents involving ungulate in Sweden2019In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 70, p. 112-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal-vehicle collisions (AVCs) involving ungulate species pose a serious problem in many countries, and the prediction of accidents and costs on a regional and national spatial scale is important for efficient accident mitigation. Based on the assumption that AVCs are determined by traffic volume and ungulate population dynamics, this study developed a relatively simple method for calculating and predicting the costs of current and future traffic accidents involving moose, roe deer and wild boar in Sweden. A logistic population model was assumed for all three ungulate species and econometric methods were applied to obtain population growth models based on panel data on traffic accidents, traffic load, hunting bags, hunting licenses and landscape characteristics for each Swedish county and year from 2003 to 2015. The population growth models were used to predict vehicle accidents and costs. The predicted annual discounted costs of AVCs over a 15-year period based on projected ungulate populations and traffic volume fell by 25% from 406 million USD in 2015, however the allocation of costs between ungulates differed. AVCs involving roe deer accounted for the largest share of the costs (54%), but collisions involving wild boar showed the most rapid increase over the study period because of a relatively high estimated growth rate and recent expansion of wild boar populations to several new counties. However, the predicted costs were sensitive to assumptions regarding population dynamics as well as assumptions about future hunting pressure and traffic volume.

  • 9.
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Brutemark, Andreas
    Calluna AB, Nacka, Sweden.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Jönköping University, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap.
    Svedén, Jennie B.
    Calluna AB, Nacka, Sweden.
    Costs of air pollutants from shipping: a meta-regression analysis2020In: Transport reviews, ISSN 0144-1647, E-ISSN 1464-5327, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 411-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study estimated the external cost of air pollution from shipping by means of a meta-regression analysis, which has not been made before. Three pollutants, which were included in most of the primary studies, were considered: nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxides (SO2) and particulate matters with a diameter of max 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5). All primary studies included damages of health and a majority added impacts on agriculture and estimated the cost of air pollutants by transferring cost estimates from studies on costs of air emissions from transports in Europe. Different regression models and estimators were used and robust results were found of statistically significant emission elasticities of below one, i.e. total external costs increase by less than 1% when emissions increase by 1%. There was a small variation between the pollutants, with the highest elasticity for PM2.5 and lowest for NOx. Calculations of the marginal external cost of the pollutants showed the same pattern, with this cost being approximately six times higher for PM2.5 than for the other pollutants. Common to all pollutants was that the marginal external cost decreases when emission increases. Another robust result was a significant increase in the cost of studies published in journals compared with other publication outlets. These findings point out some caution when transferring constant external unit cost of air pollutant from shipping, which is much applied in the literature, and the cost functions estimated in this study could thus provide a complementary transfer mechanism.

  • 10.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Grumert, Ellen
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Hastighetsdämpande åtgärder: en litteraturstudie med fokus på nya trafikmiljöåtgärder och ITS-orienterade lösningar2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A literature survey has been conducted regarding international traffic calming measures that could have a potential use in Sweden and other Nordic countries. Focus has been on measures in new traffic environments and ITS (Intelligent Transport System) based solutions. Information has been obtained through searches in literature databases and on different homepages, as well as from contacts in networks. Initially, we describe common traffic calming measures used today in Swedish traffic environments. For example, different forms of vertical and horizontal measures, and different types of surfaces, road markings and paintings. In the case of existing ITS solutions, we mention speed reminder signs, variable message signs and Motorway Control System (MCS).

    New kinds of physical measures that have most potential for use are e.g. modifications of speed bumps and the construction of small curves that enforce lower speed. Such curvatures can be used at entrances to communities or before roundabouts.

    Different concepts of "shared space" (e.g. walking speed zones) are something that could be used more extensively, even at intersections and other locations in urban areas. In such cases, all traditional road equipment is removed and a synergy between different user groups is created, leading to lower speeds.

    Different types of road markings and paintings can be used to visually narrow the road, but also in order to create an optical illusion that makes one feel as if the speed is high. However, such measures are not fully effective during winter conditions. Applications in 3D can also be used to create the illusion of obstacles in the roadway and result in reduced speeds. It is important to consider the overall picture and to combine various measures in a correct way. This report gives some examples on how to implement speed reduction measures in communities with thoroughfares. Furthermore, we give example on how strategic approaches and policy design may help to efficiently implement different kinds of traffic calming measures.

    ITS-solutions, where a two-way communication between vehicles and between vehicles and the infrastructure is used, have gained momentum in Europe and internationally. Three possible systems that have not yet been introduced on the market are described. Most of the cooperative systems are still in a research and development phase. The potential of the systems is considered to be large, and this is also reflected in the extensive research and development investments in the area. Furthermore, ITS as a whole, i.e. cooperative systems as well as other ITS solutions is believed to have a great potential.

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  • 11.
    Hellsing, Linnea
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Styrande dokument för rutiner som ska säkerställa mätnoggrannhet Fallstudie Väg 552013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt professionellt mätningsarbete i Sverige styrs av olika dokument för att säkerställa att kvalitetskraven uppnås, anläggningsarbeten är inget undantag. Därför var syftet att sammanställa de objektspecifika kraven på väg 55 Yxtatorpet – Malmköping och undersöka vilka rutiner och kontroller som genomförs för att säkerställa kvaliteten.

    Litteraturstudier har gjorts för att sammanställa kraven, främst av dokument som finns på arbetsplatsen. Sökningar på Internet har gjorts främst för att hitta kravdokument som styr handlingarna på arbetsplatsen.

    Intervjuer genomfördes med 2 personer på arbetsplatsen, med olika arbetsuppgifter för att ta reda på om det finns rutiner och kontroller som genomförs och vilka dessa i sådana fall är.

    Resultatet blev en sammanfattning av styrande dokument speciellt de som gäller för väg 55. De styrande dokumentens krav på metoder och kontroll styrks av de två intervjuerna.

     

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  • 12.
    Iglesias Estellés, Javier
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Study of the ventilation system in a warehouse and a cooking school: Impact of the use of a heat exchanger system and a more optimised operating schedule2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The motivation of this project is found on the past trend of growing greenhouse gases emissions and, also growing, energy use over the world that still remains. This trend overlaps with a more recent increase in the awareness regarding the effects of human activities towards the Earth ecosystems. Thus, the upgrade of the already-in-use systems is necessary to move towards greener and more modern technologies that permit continue with the economic growth while building more sustainable societies.

    Thereby, the research focuses on the improvement of the ventilation system of a warehouse building and a cooking school located in the same plot, in an industrial area in Gävle, Sweden. The current system conditions, even consisting in some cases in recirculating air handling units, doesn’t permit the utilisation of the waste heat by bringing it back to the system.

    The strategy used during the project follows a case study scheme: looking the system, understanding it in a complete way and designing the proper solution that fulfils the requirements. The study was approached as an energy audit: with several meetings with the company, collecting airflows data with the thermo-anemometer device, sketching the required building drawings and designing the optimal solution for the company.

    Finally, the project resulted in the selection of the proper air handling unit, equipped with a heat recovery system, and the design of its ventilation duct system that permit a heat energy savings derived of the heat demand used to heat the makeup air of about 67 %. Furthermore, the occupancy study helped design the new scheduling for the ventilation periods that reduce the electricity demand of the ventilation system by 30 %. Thus, was obtained a significant energy use reduction that results in a sizeable energy cost saving.

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    Master thesis - Javier Iglesias
  • 13.
    Ismail, Dijar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energianvändning för markkonstruktioner förlagda med ytvärme: En teknisk och ekonomisk utredning av fördelarna med att isolera under värmerören2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The need for snow-free surfaces at squares, bus stops, platforms, car parks and sports facilities increases and at the same time energy price rise and the environment is becoming a hotter issue. The construction of the ground heating systems often lack thermal insulation under the heating pipes, which means that the heat from the pipes not only warm up the soil surface but also heats the surrounding soil. The insulation also has more features, by insulating the risk of frost damage is minimized. The goal of this report is to demonstrate the large heat loss and energy costs in the absence of insulation under the heating system.

    The report begins with a scientific way to study and treating the soil heating system uses, and the theory involved. Furthermore it also deals with different routing principles of heat pipes depending on the facility.

    All calculations are made with so called finite element method (FEM), in COMSOL Multiphysics 3,5a, where models are created with different conditions. These models are then compared to the models but with insulation. The difference is noted and further analysis is done on the results.

    The conditions, on which the calculations are based on, are 100mm insulation. The surface is estimated to be 8000 square meters which corresponds to the size of a football field and the time the heating systems is assumed to be started is 3240 and 1296 hours depending on the model calculated.-

    The models are divided into a stationary model, a dry dynamic model, a partially dry dynamic model and then a wet dynamic model. The differences between these are partly the time they are running, but also the certain conditions and properties of the materials and how the control of heat flow in the pipes is made.

    The findings in the report show that it is economically viable to isolate sports facilities based on today's energy prices, and the investment cost insulation entails. The results also show the relatively large differences in energy consumption in each case depending on whether the construction has or lacks insulation. Despite the large investment costs estimated payback period for the investment based on a 8000 m

    2 surface with an operating time of 3240 and 1296 hours/year to be in 25 years, while the heat pipes is expected to last for about 50 years.

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    Energianvändning för markkonstruktioner förlagda med ytvärme
  • 14.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Statens väg- & transportforskningsinstitut (VTI).
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Jönköping University, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap.
    Vägnära vegetation i staden – påverkan på trafiksäkerhet och luftkvalitet2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att använda vegetation för att minska halterna av luftföroreningar i tätorter har blivit alltmer vanligt. Tidigare studier har visat att vegetationen bör placeras nära källan för att underlätta rening av luften via filtrering. Det finns också andra aspekter på hur vegetationen ska designas för att ge positiva effekter på luftkvaliteten. Då placeringen av vegetation mycket nära trafiken också kan ge effekter på trafiksäkerheten har denna studie kombinerat de nya rekommendationerna avseende luftkvalitet med en genomgång av hur vegetation behandlas i de planeringsprocesser som är aktuella för vägnära vegetation och hur vägnära vegetation påverkar trafiksäkerheten. Denna studie har genomförts främst med hjälp av litteraturstudier, både av vetenskaplig litteratur och av handledningar och annan typ av skriftligt material inom området.

    Viktiga slutsatser av studien är att vegetation behandlas på olika sätt i olika delar av planeringsprocesserna, vilket kan göra att hanteringen av vägnära vegetation ibland försvåras. Vår bedömning är att vägplanering och vegetationsplanering kan behöva integreras i fler fall.

    Avseende trafiksäkerhet finns rekommendationer om att röja den vegetation som hindrar synbarheten, både direkt och genom att skugga behövlig belysning. Det finns också anledning att hålla stamdiametrar nere för att minska risken för allvarlig skada, samt att beakta hur vegetation kan ta upp krockkrafter och minska skaderisken. Vegetationen kan också ha positiva trafiksäkerhetseffekter genom visuell eller fysisk avgränsning, skydda mot bländning eller användas som en hastighetsdämpande åtgärd.

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  • 15.
    Jwaida, Zahraa
    et al.
    Industrial Preparatory School of Vocational Education Department, Educational Directorate Babylon, Ministry of Education, Babylon 51001, Iraq.
    Dulaimi, Anmar
    College of Engineering, University of Kerbala, Karbala 56001, Iraq;College of Engineering, University of Warith Al-Anbiyaa, Karbala 56001, Iraq.
    Mydin, Md Azree Othuman
    School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia.
    Özkılıç, Yasin Onuralp
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya 42000, Turkey;Department of Civil Engineering, Lebanese American University, Byblos 1102-2801, Lebanon.
    Jaya, Ramadhansyah Putra
    Faculty of Civil Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang Al-Sultan Abdullah, Kuantan 26300, Malaysia.
    Ameen, Arman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    The Use of Waste Polymers in Asphalt Mixtures: Bibliometric Analysis and Systematic Review2023In: Journal of Composites Science, E-ISSN 2504-477X, Vol. 7, no 10, article id 415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asphalt is widely employed in road construction due to its durability and ability to withstand heavy traffic. However, the disposal of waste polymers has emerged as a significant environmental concern. Recently, researchers have used polymer waste to modify asphalt pavements as a new approach. This approach aims to improve pavement performance and address the environmental concerns of polymer waste. Researchers have demonstrated that incorporating polymeric waste into asphalt mixtures can lead to performance improvements in asphalt pavements, particularly in mitigating common distresses including permanent deformation and thermal and fatigue cracking. The current comprehensive review aims to summarize the recent knowledge on the usage of waste polymers in asphalt mixtures, encompassing their impact on performance properties and mixture design. The review also addresses different types of waste polymers, their potential benefits, challenges, and future research directions. By analyzing various studies, this review offers insights into the feasibility, effectiveness, and limitations of incorporating waste polymers into asphalt mixtures. Ultimately, this contributes to the advancement of sustainable and environmentally friendly road construction practices.

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  • 16.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Anpassning av vägmiljö och vegetation som åtgärd mot viltolyckor2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wildlife accidents are a global problem that causes human fatalities as well as physical and economic damage. Current preventive measures do not seem sufficient enough to achieve a reduction in wildlife accidents. The road environment may be modified so as to reduce the attractiveness of resources in the road area. Modifications may be directed towards the maintenance (e.g. adjustment of mowing practices) or the structure or composition of the vegetation. This report presents an overview of the current knowledge about how the road area, and to some extent also the adjacent areas, can be made less attractive to wildlife through road environment and vegetation changes. The report deals with relationships between wildlife presence/wildlife accidents and the surrounding environment as well as road operation and maintenance. Studies of wildlife collisions and the surrounding environment reveal complex relationships between wildlife collisions and landscape features (e.g. forest or open landscape), species and/or habitat diversity. How crucial these characteristics are for wildlife collisions largely depends on which game animals are studied. Mowing and clear-cutting activities, as well as adjacent land use may influence the roadside attraction for wildlife, sometimes in unknown ways. The list of plants that should be unattractive to grazing should be evaluated and developed further.

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  • 17.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Jönköping University, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap.
    Evaluation between energy efficiency, ecological impact and the compliance of regulations of road lighting2019In: Proceedings of the 29th Session of the CIE: Washington D.C., USA, June 14 – 22, 2019, Volume 1 – Part 2, Vienna: The International Commission on Illumination , 2019, p. 1720-1728Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road lighting causes unwanted ecological impact on species and habitats where species may be protected and/or light-sensitive. Yet, there is very little information available on how roadlighting should be ecologically designed while simultaneously considering energy efficiency and the regulations needed for safety reasons. The aim of this study was study designs of different dimensions regarding energy efficiency, ecological impact and the compliance with regulations for traffic safety. By using DIALux evo simulations with four different LED luminaires, different scenarios of road lighting designs (pole distance of 10m, 25m and 40m, and pole heights of 3m, 5m, and 8m) on a 7m wide road was evaluated. Ecological thresholds of 1 lux and 0.1 lux are possible to get below at distances from the road edge between 5–11m, and 8.5–20m, respectively. Results are discussed from the perspectives of increased demand on energy efficiency on road lighting.

  • 18.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut .
    LED (Light-Emitting Diode) road lighting in practice: An evaluation of compliance with regulations and improvements for further energy savings2016In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, no 5, article id 357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light-emitting diode (LED) road lighting has been widely implemented in recent years, but few studies have evaluated its performance after installation. This study investigated whether LED road lighting complies with minimum regulations in terms of traffic safety and whether improvements for energy efficiency are possible. Average road surface luminance (L), overall luminance uniformity (U0), longitudinal luminance uniformity (U1), power density (PD) and normalised power density (PN) were evaluated for 14 roads (seven designed for vehicular traffic and seven for pedestrians and bicycles). Energy savings were calculated as the percentage reduction to the minimum level of the existing lighting class or a lower lighting class and by applying a dimming schedule. The results showed that LED road lighting for vehicular traffic roads generally fulfilled the requirements, whereas that for pedestrian and bicycle roads generally corresponded to the lowest lighting class for L, and often did not meet the statutory requirements for U0 and UI. By adapting lighting levels to the minimum requirement of the existing lighting class or by dropping to a lower lighting class, vehicular traffic roads could save 6%-35% on L to lighting class M5 and 23%-61% on L to lighting class M6. A dimming schedule could lead to energy savings of 49%. There is little potential for savings on pedestrian and bicycle roads, except by implementing a dimming schedule. Thus, in general, for vehicular, pedestrian and bicycle roads, a dimming schedule can save more energy than can be achieved in general by reducing lighting class. Furthermore, since a dimming schedule can be adjusted to traffic intensity, any potential risk of compromising traffic safety is minimised.

  • 19.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Jönköping University, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap.
    LED-belysningens effekter på djur och natur med rekommendationer: Fokus på nordiska förhållanden och känsliga arter och grupper2018Report (Other academic)
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  • 20.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Jönköping University, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap.
    Synergies and trade-offs between sustainable development and energy performance of exterior lighting2020In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, no 9, article id 2245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this review was tomap synergies and trade-offs between sustainable development and energy efficiency and savings regarding exterior lighting. Exterior lighting, such as public road and street lighting, requires significant amounts of energy and hinders sustainable development through its increasing of light pollution, ecological impact, and global climate change. Interlinkages between indicators in sustainability and energy that have positive interactions will lead to a mutual reinforcement in the decision-making process, and vice versa, interlinkages between trade-offs may lead to unwanted and conflicting effects. Very few studies have presented a clear vision of how exterior lighting should be contributing to, and not counteracting, the sustainable development of our planet. This study was conducted through a theoretical and systematic analysis that examined the interactions between sustainable development and energy performance based on a framework using indicators and variables, and by reviewing the current literature. Additionally, 17 indicators of energy efficiency and energy savings were identified and used in the analysis. Most interactions between variables for sustainable development and energy performance (52%) were found to be synergistic. The synergistic interactions were mostly found (71%) in the ecological and environmental dimension showing that environmental and ecological sustainability goes hand in hand with energy efficiency and savings. Trade-offs were found only in the economic and social dimensions accounting for 18% of the interactions identified. This review shows that the interactions between sustainable development and energy performance can be used to establish more efficient policies for decision-making processes regarding exterior lighting.

  • 21.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Trafiksäkerhets- och trygghetsaspekter i samspelet mellan gatumiljöns utformning och en mer energieffektiv belysning2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project's aim was to study the traffic safety aspects of new lights and the interaction with the street environment for pedestrians and cyclists. This project investigated the lighting conditions, effects on cyclists, and the interactions between lighting, traffic safety, street environmental conditions and/or other effects such as perceptions of safety for three different light sources (mercury vapour 125W, ceramic metal halide 70W and LED 25W) located in about the same type of street environment on a pedestrian and bicycle path on Kungsholms strand in Stockholm. Results show that the energy consumption of the LED lighting is 28% of the traditional mercury vapour lighting and 49% of ceramic metal halide lighting. This study shows that it is possible to obtain sufficient uniformity levels with LED lighting but that the levels are dependent on the luminaire design, pole design and the number of poles per meter road (in this study the pole spacing was 15.3 m). This study demonstrated no difference in cycle speed for LED lighting between daylight and darkness, or between different types of lighting. It worked well to perform analysis of perception of safety aspects based on simple estimates (through analysis of digital photographs). For example, perceptions of visibility corresponds very well with the measured uniformity.

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  • 22.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Observationer av funktionskonflikter mellan miljö och drift och underhåll av vägar2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to increase the knowledge of functional conflicts between the environment and the operation and maintenance of roads. Functional conflicts may arise for example, when operation and maintenance measures are interfering negatively with land owners’ use of their land.

    The goal of this project was to find new, relatively unknown examples of functional conflicts through observations in the field as well as by using recorded comments and opinions received by the Swedish Transport Administration.

    Following functional conflicts were identified in the field:

    • Reuse of old materials may negatively affect the life-time of roads.
    • Brush cutting in the roadside may enhance erosion in vulnerable areas.
    • Forest clear-cutting with easily eroded soil may cause clogging of ditches and culverts.
    • Culverts that end in the middle of the forest may cause the forest land to become waterlogged.

    To identify more functional conflicts, opinions and comments received by the Swedish Transport Administration in three regions (central region, western region and Stockholm region) were studied.

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  • 23.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Potential för en energieffektivare väg- och gatubelysning: jämförelser mellan dimning och olika typer av ljuskällor2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reduce energy use and its accompanying costs, it is important to have as energy-efficient road and street lighting as possible. The objectives of this project were to provide basic data for different energy efficiency measures for road and street lighting and to examine how the use of dimming and various light sources affects visibility. This study shows that there is potential to reduce the energy consumption of several of the existing road lightings by reducing power and still meet the requirements based on traffic safety, because the luminance and the illuminance we measured show that some of the values fall between the recommended classes. This study highlights four different types of dimming schedules based on different conditions in which the savings in kWh/year is between 19-50%. The results from a web survey based on photographs from roads with various lighting show that responses were not conclusive regarding the best visibility between light sources. However, the survey shows that more people (62.4-71.6%) choose ceramic metal halide lighting instead of high-pressure sodium in order to feel most comfortable when driving.

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  • 24.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Jönköping University, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap.
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Consequences of increases in wild boar-vehicle accidents 2003–2016 in Sweden on personal injuries and costs2018In: Safety, E-ISSN 2313-576X, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined whether the rising trends of wild boar (Sus scrofa)-vehicle accidents in Sweden are accompanied by a higher amount of personal injuries and costs. Temporal trends in accident frequencies and the number of persons injured in wild boar-vehicle accidents were examined for 2003-2016, and the cost of wild boar-vehicle accidents was calculated. Results show increases in the number of personal injuries, and increased costs, particularly after 2010-2012. The total number of wild boar accidents correlated with the number of injured persons as well as with the number of accidents with personal injuries. Approximately one person (1.13%) is injured per 100 wild boar-vehicle accidents, and approximately one accident per 200 wild boar-vehicle accidents will result in one or more persons with injuries (0.5%). However, most of the persons injured have slighter injuries. Although the number of wild boar-vehicle accidents and the number of persons injured in the accidents have increased, the frequency of accidents resulting in personal injuries is still at low levels in comparison with, for example, frequencies of personal injuries for moose accidents. The cost for wild boar-vehicle accidents has increased between 2003 to 2016 and is currently estimated to vary between approximately EUR 9.66-12.31 million per year.

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  • 25.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Calluna AB, Nacka, Sweden.
    Johansson, Maria
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Laike, Thorbjörn
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Speed Responses to Speed Humps as Affected by Time of Day and Light Conditions on a Residential Road with Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Road Lighting2018In: Safety, E-ISSN 2313-576X, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The speed-reducing effect of speed humps during darkness is important to ensure a consistent speed reduction and a decreased probability of accidents during darkness. This study examined the effects of speed humps, compared with a control location, on a residential road in Sweden with light-emitting diode (LED) street lighting and a 30 km/h posted speed limit. Hypotheses tested were that: (I) vehicle speed is higher during daylight than in darkness; (II) speed at speed humps is lower than at control locations during both daylight and darkness; (III) speed at humps is higher during daylight; (IV) vehicle speed at humps is lower when luminance or visibility of the humps is greater; and, (V) the road environment of speed humps is perceived as being similar by drivers. The results showed that vehicle speed at the control location was negligibly higher (+0.3 km/h) during daylight than in darkness. Speed humps reduced driving speed by 20% when compared with the posted speed limit and the effect was not significantly different between daylight and darkness. Speed reduction for the three speed humps varied between 9% and 29% as compared with the posted speed limit. In this study, the LED road lighting that was placed directly above or in front of the hump achieved the highest luminance. This study could not reveal any significant differences in vehicle speed attributable to light conditions per se.

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  • 26.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Andersson, Hans B
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Planering och beslutsprocesser för energieffektivare väg- och gatubelysning i svenska kommuner2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there has been considerably more energy-efficient road and street lighting available on the market than the light fixtures that dominate in Swedish municipalities today, there are relatively few investments and re-investments in energy-efficient and modern fixtures. This report summarizes an interview-based study of planning, decision making processes, responsibilities, and stakeholder involvement in 12 Swedish municipalities of different sizes to identify factors that constitute barriers or incentives for more energy efficient road and street lighting. The municipalities have highly variable share of mercury lights remaining. The municipalities differ considerably in how they have organized responsibilities and decision-making and how they work strategically with energy issues. Small municipalities had the most energy efficient lighting and all of them stated that energy savings were the main reason for their substitution of mercury lamps. In medium-sized and large municipalities the European Ecodesign Directive was seen as the main motive for renewal of road and street light equipment by four municipalities, and the remaining four municipalities mentioned technically-based reasons for the replacement of old road and street lights. Outsourcing of management, operation and maintenance may constitute a barrier for renewal whereas costs for renewal and lack of knowledge do not seem to be any significant barriers. From the results of this study, the strategic context–in this case strategic work aiming at energy savings–seems to be of great importance for decisions regarding investment in new road and street lights.

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  • 27.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Jönköping University, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap.
    Sjöbergh, J.
    Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
    Speed responses of trucks to light and weather conditions2019In: Cogent Engineering, E-ISSN 2331-1916, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 1685365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light conditions are essential factors in traffic safety, but the relationship between light conditions and vehicle speed is not fully understood and has rarely been examined for trucks. We asked the following questions: I) if vehicle speed between brighter and darker conditions in clear weather will be different? II) if vehicle speeds are lower during rain and snow than in clear weather conditions? and if so III) if the speed reduction in rainy and snowy weather conditions is more substantial on roads without road lighting in darkness? We investigated how the speed of trucks was affected by weather conditions (clear, rain, and snowfall), daylight, darkness, and road lighting by using traffic and weather data from 25 locations on the Swedish road network. Seventeen of the 25 locations were roads with road lighting. Speed responses by 5,344,287 vehicle passages by trucks was included in the analyses, more specifically 3,659,940 passages by light-duty vehicles and 1,684,347 passages by heavy-duty vehicles. The data was extracted from hourly measurements for the period 2012-09-01 to 2014-05-31. No evidence of consistent patterns of speed differences with respect to lighting conditions (darkness, daylight, twilight or road lighting) under clear weather conditions were detected. Truck speeds decreased in response to snowfall, but not to rain, with the decrease dependant on the amount of snow. Effects of road lighting on speed reduction in rainy and snowy weather was not shown. 

  • 28.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Sjöbergh, Jonas
    Hokkaido University.
    Effects of weather conditions, light conditions, and road lighting on vehicle speed2016In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light conditions are known to affect the number of vehicle accidents and fatalities but the relationship between light conditions and vehicle speed is not fully understood. This study examined whether vehicle speed on roads is higher in daylight and under road lighting than in darkness, and determined the combined effects of light conditions, posted speed limit and weather conditions on driving speed. The vehicle speed of passenger cars in different light conditions (daylight, twilight, darkness, artificial light) and different weather conditions (clear weather, rain, snow) was determined using traffic and weather data collected on an hourly basis for approximately 2 years (1 September 2012–31 May 2014) at 25 locations in Sweden (17 with road lighting and eight without). In total, the data included almost 60 million vehicle passes. The data were cleaned by removing June, July, and August, which have different traffic patterns than the rest of the year. Only data from the periods 10:00 A.M.–04:00 P.M. and 06:00 P.M.–10:00 P.M. were used, to remove traffic during rush hour and at night. Multivariate adaptive regression splines was used to evaluate the overall influence of independent variables on vehicle speed and nonparametric statistical testing was applied to test for speed differences between dark–daylight, dark–twilight, and twilight–daylight, on roads with and without road lighting. The results show that vehicle speed in general depends on several independent variables. Analyses of vehicle speed and speed differences between daylight, twilight and darkness, with and without road lighting, did not reveal any differences attributable to light conditions. However, vehicle speed decreased due to rain or snow and the decrease was higher on roads without road lighting than on roads with lighting. These results suggest that the strong association between traffic accidents and darkness or low light conditions could be explained by drivers failing to adjust their speed to the reduced visibility in dark conditions.

  • 29.
    Komatsu, Kimberly J.
    et al.
    Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD, United States.
    Avolio, Meghan L.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States.
    Lemoine, Nathan P.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, United States.
    Isbell, Forest
    Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, United States.
    Grman, Emily
    Department of Biology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI 48197, United States.
    Houseman, Gregory R.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS, United States.
    Koerner, Sally E.
    Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Greensboro, NC, United States.
    Johnson, David S.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA, United States.
    Wilcox, Kevin R.
    Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, United States.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Anderson, John P.
    Jornada Basin Long-Term Ecological Research Station, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, United States.
    Aerts, Rien
    Systems Ecology, Department of Ecological Science, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Baer, Sara G.
    Department of Plant Biology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, United States.
    Baldwin, Andrew H.
    Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, MD, United States.
    Bates, Jonathan
    Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center-Burns, Agriculture Research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Burns, OR, United States.
    Beierkuhnlein, Carl
    Department of Biogeography, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Belote, R. Travis
    Wilderness Society, Bozeman, MT, United States.
    Blair, John
    Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, United States.
    Bloor, Juliette M. G.
    Université Clermont Auvergne, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, VetAgro-Sup, Unité Mixte de Recherche sur l'Écosystème Prairial, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Bohlen, Patrick J.
    Bork, Edward W.
    Boughton, Elizabeth H.
    Bowman, William D.
    Britton, Andrea J.
    Cahill, James F.
    Chaneton, Enrique
    Chiariello, Nona R.
    Cheng, Jimin
    Collins, Scott L.
    Cornelissen, J. Hans C.
    Du, Guozhen
    Eskelinen, Anu
    Firn, Jennifer
    Foster, Bryan
    Gough, Laura
    Gross, Katherine
    Hallett, Lauren M.
    Han, Xingguo
    Harmens, Harry
    Hovenden, Mark J.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Jönköping University, JTH, Byggnadsteknik och belysningsvetenskap.
    Jentsch, Anke
    Kern, Christel
    Klanderud, Kari
    Knapp, Alan K.
    Kreyling, Juergen
    Li, Wei
    Luo, Yiqi
    McCulley, Rebecca L.
    McLaren, Jennie R.
    Megonigal, J. Patrick
    Morgan, John W.
    Onipchenko, Vladimir
    Pennings, Steven C.
    Prevéy, Janet S.
    Price, Jodi N.
    Reich, Peter B.
    Robinson, Clare H.
    Russell, F. Leland
    Sala, Osvaldo E.
    Seabloom, Eric W.
    Smith, Melinda D.
    Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A.
    Souza, Lara
    Suding, Katherine
    Suttle, K. Blake
    Svejcar, Tony
    Tilman, David
    Tognetti, Pedro
    Turkington, Roy
    White, Shannon
    Xu, Zhuwen
    Yahdjian, Laura
    Yu, Qiang
    Zhang, Pengfei
    Zhang, Yunhai
    Global change effects on plant communities are magnified by time and the number of global change factors imposed2019In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 116, no 36, p. 17867-17873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate prediction of community responses to global change drivers (GCDs) is critical given the effects of biodiversity on ecosystem services. There is consensus that human activities are driving species extinctions at the global scale, but debate remains over whether GCDs are systematically altering local communities worldwide. Across 105 experiments that included over 400 experimental manipulations, we found evidence for a lagged response of herbaceous plant communities to GCDs caused by shifts in the identities and relative abundances of species, often without a corresponding difference in species richness. These results provide evidence that community responses are pervasive across a wide variety of GCDs on long-term temporal scales and that these responses increase in strength when multiple GCDs are simultaneously imposed.Global change drivers (GCDs) are expected to alter community structure and consequently, the services that ecosystems provide. Yet, few experimental investigations have examined effects of GCDs on plant community structure across multiple ecosystem types, and those that do exist present conflicting patterns. In an unprecedented global synthesis of over 100 experiments that manipulated factors linked to GCDs, we show that herbaceous plant community responses depend on experimental manipulation length and number of factors manipulated. We found that plant communities are fairly resistant to experimentally manipulated GCDs in the short term (<10 y). In contrast, long-term (≥10 y) experiments show increasing community divergence of treatments from control conditions. Surprisingly, these community responses occurred with similar frequency across the GCD types manipulated in our database. However, community responses were more common when 3 or more GCDs were simultaneously manipulated, suggesting the emergence of additive or synergistic effects of multiple drivers, particularly over long time periods. In half of the cases, GCD manipulations caused a difference in community composition without a corresponding species richness difference, indicating that species reordering or replacement is an important mechanism of community responses to GCDs and should be given greater consideration when examining consequences of GCDs for the biodiversity–ecosystem function relationship. Human activities are currently driving unparalleled global changes worldwide. Our analyses provide the most comprehensive evidence to date that these human activities may have widespread impacts on plant community composition globally, which will increase in frequency over time and be greater in areas where communities face multiple GCDs simultaneously.

  • 30.
    Larsson, Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Småskalig kraftvärmeproduktion för ett medelstort svenskt industriföretag: Potentialen för konventionell Rankinecykel2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The emissions of greenhouse gases need to decrease rapidly over the coming decades. Sweden has set the target to achieve net zero emissions by 2045. The industrial sector plays a crucial role in that conversion by reducing its energy needs and to convert from fossil fuels to renewables.

    This conversion will require a more robust and reliable energy system were todays centralized system has been supplemented by small decentralized production facilities. To produce heat and power closer to the consumers means less transmission losses. Small scale combined heat and power (CHP) production based on biofuels or excess heat could be a solution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the possibility for a mid-size Swedish industrial company to produce its own base load of heat and power with a conventional Rankine cycle. Also to evaluate the production costs depending on the size of the plant.

    The work has consisted of data collection from different manufacturers of steam turbines and steam boilers, a calculation model has been made in Excel to compare different plant sizes and in different operating scenarios. Economical evaluations has been made with the Pay-off method and the net present value method (NPV).

    The result shows that production costs for facilities with steam turbines in the size range of 10 – 100 kWel is well below the price of bought electricity and district heating. The economical evaluation generally shows on short pay-off times and positive NPV.

    A comparison of the CHP plants shows that the electric efficiency is low and the total efficiency sometimes can be lower than for the existing heat supplier of the company. This means that a switch to local CHP will have a negative impact from a system perspective, because of the increased use of primary energy resources.

    There is many parameters that affects the performance of a CHP plant but the most crucial is the operation time. To have a continuous operation over a major part of the year has a great impact on the economic performance. The low electric efficiency means that the major part of the savings gets on the heat production. This means that the CHP plant should be dimensioned to replace primarily the heat requirement.

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    Examensarbete Erik Larsson
  • 31.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Lantmäteriet.
    Jivall, Lotti
    Lantmäteriet.
    Lilje, Christina
    Lantmäteriet.
    Steffen, Holger
    Lantmäteriet.
    Lidberg, Martin
    Lantmäteriet.
    Johansson, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Jarlemark, Per
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Evaluation of newly installed SWEPOS mast stations, individual vs. type PCV antenna models and comparison with pillar stations2016In: Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vienna: European Geosciences Union , 2016, Vol. 18, article id EGU2016-4265-1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For about two decades, SWEPOS (the Swedish Permanent GNSS network) pillar stations have been used indifferent geodetic and geodynamic studies. To keep continuous measurements of these long lived pillar stationsand at the same time modernizing the SWEPOS network, it has been decided to install new truss mast stations,equipped with modern and individually calibrated antennas and radomes, capable of tracking all new GNSSsatellites. Installation of mast stations started in 2011. Today, each pillar station in the SWEPOS permanent GNSSnetwork has a close-by truss mast station, mostly in 10 meters distance with individual calibrated Leica chokering antenna and its attachment (LEIAR25.R3, LEIT). Due to their closeness to pillars, the modern mast stationsmay provide additional information for the analysis of ground movements in Sweden e.g. to distinguish betweentectonic and geodynamic processes (e.g. land uplift in Sweden).In this study, we have used two datasets from two different seasons for 21 pillars and 21 mast stations andformed different networks. The mast network has been processed using both IGS standard (type) and individuallycalibrated PCV (Phase Center Variation) models and therefore the effect of these two different PCV models onheight components has been investigated. In a combined network, we processed all 42 stations (21 pillars+21mast) to see how this multi-baseline network (861 baselines) combination differs from independent mast or pillarnetworks with much less baselines (210 baselines). For our analysis, we used the GAMIT-GLOBK softwareand compared different networks. Ambiguity resolutions, daily coordinate repeatability and differences betweenheight components in different solutions are presented. Moreover, the GAMIT and BERNESE solutions forcombined mast and pillar networks are compared.Our results suggest that the SWEPOS truss mast stations can reliably be used for crustal deformation studies.The comparison between pillar and mast stations shows similar time series for different horizontal and verticalcomponents and their Normalized rms (nrms) and weighted rms (wmrs) are almost equal.Comparison of standard and calibrated PCV models for mast stations show notable differences in height compo-nents and reach up to14 mm. These differences are antenna-dependent and are not systematic offsets. Therefore,whenever available, individual calibrated antenna models have to be used instead of standard (type) calibratedmodels.This study is part of the Swedish CLOSE III research project between Lantmäteriet, SP, and Chalmers Universityof Technology.

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  • 32.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Larsson, Karin
    Lunds universitet.
    Ågren, Ulrika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bohlin, Jonas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Var finns utbildningarna?2019In: Kart och Bildteknik, ISSN 1651-8705, E-ISSN 1651-792X, no 3, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur ser utbildningssverige ut idag när det gäller de ämnesområden som är relevanta för Kartografiska sällskapet? Detta gavs en kort inblick i artikeln Utbildningsverksamhet inom geodataområdet under det senaste decenniet i senaste numret av Sveriges Kartläggning (2018). Men vad är egentligen “relevanta ämnesområden” idag? Kartografi som ämne är idag endast en liten del av hela det område inom vilket kompetens om geodata är nödvändig. Det är idag betydligt svårare att få överblick över den ökade komplexiteten inom utbildningsområdet. Många ämnesutbildningar använder och studerar idag lägesbunden information och använder sig av geodata-/GIS-/kartografi i undervisningen.Samtidigt har branschorganisationer, myndigheter och politiker identifierat behovet av kompetens för att hantera en digitaliserad samhällsbyggnads- och informationshantering som en av nyckelfaktorerna för framgång. Trots detta var besökstalen låga på sessionerna Utveckling av grundutbildning och Kompetens för framtidens digitala samhällsbyggande under konferensen POSITION för digitalt samhällsbyggande 2030 i mars i år. Dock tog kompetensbehovet upp som centralt i många andra av konferensens presentationer.Tydligt framgår dock att ett av kärnområdena inom digitalisering i samhällsbyggandet är ökad kompetens, t.ex. inom informationshantering, standardisering, datakvalitet, kartografi och visualisering. Detta ställer nya krav på både praktiska och teoretiska/akademiska kunskaper inom geodata och digitalisering i ett bredare perspektiv. Samhällsbyggnadsprocessen är en del av en större helhet som omfattar en rad moment från planering och insamling av geodata och annan data till samhällsbyggnadsprocessen för Infrastruktur, Mark och Byggnader

  • 33.
    Uppenberg, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Jonsson, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Innovative noise protection solutions for Sweden's first high speed railway2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates and design innovative concepts of noise protection solutions (NPS) for the Swedish high-speed railway (HSR) that is planned to be built between Stockholm and Gothenburg in the near future. The planned traffic will start in 2035. The concepts have been developed through a design process, starting with a research phase of existing solutions for the problem, theory about noise and absorbing materials. Following by an analysis of all researched data to narrow down the project and the interviews with the Swedish transport administration, this in order to pinpoint the requirements for the NPS. To get opinions from people who are exposed to low frequency noise, two questionnaires were conducted with a total of 80 respondents. Because of the difficulty to find the exact target group of people who are only exposed to the noise from high speed trains, the first questionnaire was open for all people who are exposed to low frequency noise (traffic noise). The second questionnaire was published at Trafikverket Facebook page, and because of their high number of followers, people who are exposed to train noise could easily be reached. From the answers and the analyzed data, a requirement specification for the NPS was created with all the requirements that the NPS needed to have according to Trafikverkets standards and from the questionnaire. These requirements were the prerequisite used in the synthesis phase. Different brainstorming methods were used to develop a large amount of ideas. A workshop with people from the society was held to keep the creativity alive. From the first synthesis phase, six ideas out of 160 ideas were chosen by a dot evaluation, and in order to narrow down the ideas even more, a matrix evaluation was used. The matrix was built from the requirement specification to verify which ideas fit most of the requirements for a new NPS. From this evaluation, two concepts were chosen to be developed further. After a validation from Trafikverket, the two concepts were further developed, this by an open brainstorming session. Via discussions and sketching, new ideas for the concepts arose. We found solutions for the problems that arose with each concept and made final decisions about the design and material. Three concepts were 3D visualized in the CAD program Rhinoceros. Final touches of the concepts were made in Keyshot. Throughout this thesis, three concepts for noise protections for the HSR have been developed and the research question “How can innovation be created by using a design process?” have been discussed and answered.

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