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  • 1.
    Abugessaisa, Imad
    et al.
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Testing-SDI: E-government Prospective, Requirements, and Challenges2011In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 2011, no 1, p. 11-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial Data Infrastructure denotes the collection of technologies, policies and institutional arrangements that facilitate the availability of and access to spatial information. During the last few years the development of spatial data infrastructure in Sweden has been influenced by two actions. The first was the European Directive in spatial data infrastructure namely Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe (INSPIRE), and the second action was the Swedish parliament's directive early in 2008 on e-Government. In a modern society, spatial data play major roles and have different applications such as information support during disaster prevention and management. These two milestones involving Geodata development have created huge demands and represent great challenges for researchers in the area of spatial data infrastructure. One of these challenges concerned the methodologies involved for testing proposed data specifications from INSPIRE. This paper addresses the above challenge and introduces a framework for testing Geodata. The testing of Geodata includes, the testing of the data specifications for different geographical themes and data structure, the performance testing of Opengeospatial Web Services (OWS) and the usability of Geoportals and services. The proposed methods were evaluated during a pilot test for a regional geoportal in Sweden, and the reported results in this paper show the feasibility and applicability of the methods used. The methods used assisted in the identification of the performance related defects and the bottleneck involved in relation to the response time, stress and load. The methods support the detection of different types of errors that occur during the testing time such as http error, timeout error, and socket error. During the pilot test of a geoportal, it was discovered that the response time was 30 seconds which is 6 times higher than the INSPIRE required time (Maximum 5 second), with 500 virtual users accessing the system and performing a specific task. A usability test was conducted which focused on the users' acceptance and the “think aloud” methods. The usability testing enabled the identification of user-interface related problems and the results were quantified to enable comparisons to be made with current results and those from the new test.

  • 2.
    Aittamaa, Christina
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Inmätning av fastigheten Hållsta 2:3, Hudiksvall2007Student paper second term, 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt har genomförts på mark- och mätningsavdelningen i Hudiksvalls kommun och projektets område är beläget norr om Hudiksvall, ca 6 km från centrala Hudiksvall vid norra infarten till E4:an.

    I området ligger en friskola, en gymnasieskola som heter ”Glada Hudik-skolan”. I skolans lokaler har det tidigare bedrivits hotellverksamhet i många år, f.d. Hammering Hotell. Hösten 2006 öppnade skolan sina portar och de räknar med att öka antalet elever varje läsår. I närheten av skolan finns den kända travbanan, Hagmyren.

    Syftet med arbetet var att göra en inmätning av fastigheten Hållsta 2:3, eftersom det inte fanns några inmätningar där tidigare. Stompunkter mättes in både i plan och höjd, därefter gjordes det detaljmätningar. Koordinatsystemet i plan i Hudiksvall är RTR10 2.5 gon V 0:- 15 och i höjd RH 70. Efter stom- och detaljmätningarna konstruerades en primärkarta i Geosecma som är ett kartprogram.

    I den här rapporten kommer mätmetoder, beräkningar, dokumentation och kartframställning att redovisas.

    Målet med projektet är att kommunen skall få nytta av inmätningarna i framtiden för olika projekteringar och att jag skall få mer erfarenhet av både mätning och kartframställning. Jag får även kunskaper om hur det går till på arbetsplatsen, tankegångar kring ett projekt och lärdomar av att arbeta självständigt.

  • 3.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Ecology, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Stockholm.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Stockholm.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Quality versus impact: Comparing the environmental efficiency of building properties using the EcoEffect tool2010In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1095-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are tools that are developed for the assessment of the environmental impact of buildings (e.g. ATHENA). Other tools dealing with the indoor and outdoor environmental quality of building properties (referred to as real estates in other literature) are also available (e.g. GBTool). A platform where both the aspects of quality and impact are presented in an integrated fashion are few. The aim of this contribution is to present how the performance of different building properties can be assessed and compared using the concept of environmental efficiency in a Swedish assessment tool called EcoEffect. It presents the quality dimension in the form of users' satisfaction covering indoor and outdoor performance features against the weighted environmental impact covering global and local impacts. The indoor and outdoor values are collected using questionnaires combined with inspection and some measurements. Life cycle methodology is behind the calculation of the weighted external environmental impact. A case study is presented to show the application of EcoEffect using a comparative assessment of Lindas and a Reference property. The results show that Lindas block is better in internal environment quality than the Reference property. It performs slightly worse than the Reference property in the external environmental impact due to emissions and waste from energy and material use. The approach of integrated presentation of quality and impact as in EcoEffect provides with the opportunity of uncovering issues problem shifting and sub-optimisation. This avoids undesirable situations where the indoor quality is improved through measures that result in higher external environmental impact. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Industrial Ecology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    Department of Infrastructure, Royal Institute of Technology, Built Environment Analysis, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kindembe, Beatric
    White Arkitekter, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hult, Marie
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Landscape Architecture, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Myhr, Ulla
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Landscape Architecture, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Environmental assessment of building properties - where natural and social sciences meet: the case of EcoEffect2007In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 1458-1464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EcoEffect method of assessing external and internal impacts of building properties is briefly described. The external impacts of manufacturing and transport of the building materials, the generation of power and heat consumed during the operation phase are assessed using life-cycle methodology. Emissions and waste; natural resource depletion and toxic substances in building materials are accounted for. Here methodologies from natural sciences are employed. The internal impacts involve the assessment of the risk for discomfort and ill-being due to features and properties of both the indoor environment and outdoor environment within the boundary of the building properties. This risk is calculated based on data and information from questionnaires; measurements and inspection where methodologies mainly from social sciences are used. Life-cycle costs covering investment and utilities costs as well as maintenance costs summed up over the lifetime of the building are also calculated.

    The result presentation offers extensive layers of diagrams and data tables ranging from an aggregated diagram of environmental efficiency to quantitative indicators of different aspects and factors. Environmental efficiency provides a relative measure of the internal quality of a building property in relation to its external impact vis-à-vis its performance relative to other building properties.

  • 5.
    Astner, Linda
    et al.
    Gävle Hamn AB, Gävle, Sweden.
    Carpenter, Angela
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Utilizing waste to create new port land2018In: Port Technology, Vol. 77, no Spring, p. 118-119Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the most recent port expansion and the major dredging and land creation project that has been undertaken in the Port of Gävle since 2007. This project has seen the deepening and widening of the fairway to accommodate larger vessels, as well as the construction of a new cargo terminal area due to open in late 2019. This land creation work has been undertaken using contaminated sediments dredged from deepening the shipping channel.

  • 6.
    Bergefur, Jill
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Warberg, Karin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Stora bostadsfastigheter på landsbygden med skogsskiften. Hur påverkar förändrad tillämpning av fastighetsbildningslagen bosättningen på landsbygden?: En undersökning i Gävle, Ockelbo och Hofors kommun.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, residential property is limited to the area needed for the property to substantially have the character of a residential plot. An increased demand for an attractive rural housing resulted in changes to property law, which made it possible to form large residential properties with combined purposes, all in line with the existing rural policy. Still, however, there were restrictions to bring forest land to residential plots for the protection of the productive forestry. The Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority (Lantmäteriet) have therefore created working recommendations to facilitate the opportunity to incorporate forest plots, including the collection of firewood for household use. This study had the aim to investigate how the amended legislation, with subsequent work recommendations influenced the formation of large residential properties in rural areas.

    Why people move is an important issue for both researchers in the field and politicians, as the regional policy should be adapted to where people want to live and why they choose to move there. Previous studies have mainly focused on economic motives, but the living environment and nature’s impact has been increasingly highlighted in recent years. The importance of the property’s physical design for the decision to move, however, is less investigated. We have therefore examined whether and how those properties affected settlement in rural areas within the selected municipalities. The study consisted partly of a postal questionnaire to the property owners who hold these large residential properties with forest parcels included and semi-structured interviews with surveyors who carried out these missions.

    Overall, we saw that large residential properties with forest and land was a reason for the counter-urbanization that has taken place because many of the migratory reasons given have been difficult to achieve with a different type of property. Although surveyors’ assessment differed in terms of details the main purpose to create appropriate and attractive residential properties without the productive forest damaged was fulfilled. We made the conclusion that the property formed, perceived as attractive by those who moved to these properties because they took advantage of the opportunities available with this accommodation.

  • 7.
    Bergkvist, Benjamin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Modellering av fukt i en yttervägg på ett fritidshus2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 8.
    Bergquist, Arne
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Klang, Dan
    Vad är optimal kvalitet på geografisk information som underlag för detaljerad översvämningskartering?2008In: Kart & Bildteknik (Mapping and Image Science), ISSN 1651-792X, no 4, p. 18-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Chemistry.
    Air exchange and ventilation in an underground train station2012In: 10th International Conference on Healthy Buildings 2012: Vol. 2 / [ed] Eliza Morawska, 2012, p. 1406-1411Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The indoor air climate of an underground train station was investigated during two days in January 2008. The underground platform was accessed from ticket halls on each side with air volumes of 1 000 m3 and 1 430 m3, respectively. The station platform air volume was approximately 14 300 m3. Air from the outside could enter either via the ticket halls or via the train tunnels from ventilation towers situated on each side of the platform area. The local mean age of air was determined in several locations at different heights using pumped sampling and homogeneous emission of PFTs. In addition, the temperature and relative humidity was measured at selected locations. The average air exchange rate per hour (ACH) was found to be 3.62 h-1, ranging from 4 h-1 at rush hours to slightly more than 3 h-1 at night and in the middle of the day. The largest ACH (4.5 h-1) was found at rush hour in one of the ticket halls, corresponding to a flow rate of 75 000 m3/h. The lowest ACH (2.8 h-1) was found in the other ticket hall at night, corresponding to a flow rate of 47 000 m3/h. In the middle of the station platform the ACH was lower than the ACH at the platform ends.

  • 10.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Akander, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Steen Englund, Jessika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    On Measuring Air Infiltration Rates Using Tracer Gases in Buildings with Presence Controlled Mechanical Ventilation Systems2016In: Indoor Air 2016: The 14th International Conference of Indoor Air Quality and Climate, July 3-8 2016, Ghent, Belgium: Conference Proceedings / [ed] E. Van Kenhove, J. Laverge, P. De Vlieger, ISIAQ , 2016, article id 875Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ventilation and air leakage of a school building was investigated. Information was collected from the parameters of the mechanical ventilation system and from measurements of the local mean age of air using the homogeneous emission method. While the average local mean ages of air can be accurately measured by passive integrative samplers, the estimation of the average room specific air change rate by taking the inverse of the measured average local mean age of air did not give correct results. The main problem is that integrative sampling represents a linear averaging process that is inappropriate to capture the average of nonlinearly related properties. This problem is accentuated when the ventilation rates for different periods differ a lot. A simple computational model was developed to discuss the system behavior. A partial solution to the measurement problem is to actively sample the different populations of air change rates separately.

  • 11.
    Blomberg, Christian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Wigren, Lena
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Stadsdelsförnyelse i Norra Björksätra, Sandviken2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The housing estates in the outskirts of Sandviken, consist of relatively large scale apartment buildings. This report, that is a B.A. thesis at 10 Swedish university points, aims to investigate and describe the opportunities to improve safety and security for inhabitants in Norra Björksätra. The purpose with this report is to make Norra Björksätra to a more attractive place to live in, by changing the negative trends in the area. Since demolition of at least some of the houses could be of current interest in some years; the purpose is also to investigate whether demolition or renewal of the area is the best solution. The main methods that are used for this investigation is Botrygg05 and Trygghetsvandring. There is also lots of scientific evidence, that have been used, that proves security and safety can be improved with cost saving changes in the physical structure of the area. The report shows that efforts must be done in the illumination of the area and especially in the parking areas and along footpaths. Further more the vegetation, facades and the yards between the houses, are important factors that today affect the feeling of security and safety in a negative way. A variety of renewal proposals are presented in this report and two different approaches for renewal of the area are suggested. Finally, conclusions are made that not only physical changes can remove the negative trends in areas like Norra Björksätra. Social efforts and activities are important factors as well, and without the comprehensive approach of urban renewal projects like this can fail. Since this kind of urban areas often have social problems and simultaneously need an increased popularity to keep and attract inhabitants, the social work and public relations efforts are important.

  • 12.
    Blomgren, Torbjörn
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Stadsrumsanalys av Hallonbergsplan, Sundbybergs stad2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    2005 antogs en fördjupad översiktsplan för stadsdelarna Rissne, Hallonbergen och Ör i Sundbyberg. Ett av målen med den fördjupade översiktsplanen var att stärka de offentliga rummen i stadsdelarna för att skapa ett livaktigt och varierat stadsliv under dygnets alla timmar, attraktivt för människor i alla åldrar och präglat utav mångfald. Hallonbergsplan är ett ”busstorg” beläget i direkt anslutning till Hallonbergens centrumanläggning. Målet med rapporten var att analysera Hallonbergsplan ur ett socialt perspektiv med fokus på platsens fysiska miljö och vilka förutsättningar den fysiska miljön ger för att skapa det stadsliv som har formulerats som mål med den fördjupade översiktsplanen. Arbetet syftade till att klargöra hur stadslivet ser ut på Hallonbergsplan idag och hur platsen används av dess besökare. Vidare syftade arbetet till att klargöra om det finns behov av kompletteringar i den fysiska miljön för att förbättra förutsättningarna för stadslivet och i så fall vilka. Vid analysen av Hallonbergsplan användes en metod framtagen av arkitekten Jan Gehl. Gehls metod baseras på platsens aktiviteter, hur den används samt vilka kontaktmöjligheter som finns. Metoden analyserar platsen med avseende på sex delar; aktiviteter, rumsform, möjligheter och hinder för kontakt, skydd, komfort samt njutning. Analysen av Hallonbergsplan gav ett detaljerat resultat som visade såväl positiva som negativa egenskaper i den fysiska miljön på platsen inom alla analysens olika delar. Hallonbergsplan har således fysiska egenskaper, såväl rumsliga som visuella, som både hindrar och främjar utveckling av det stadsliv som är målet med den fördjupade översiktsplanen. Hallonbergsplan domineras av nödvändiga aktiviteter, men även frivilliga och sociala aktiviteter förekommer med en koncentration till ytan runt fontänen och centrumhusets ingång. Vid en framtida utveckling av Hallonbergsplan bör platsen få en bättre trafikbalans, utveckla befintliga kvaliteter, förbättra miljön för fotgängare och cyklister, förbättra förutsättningar för varaktiga aktiviteter samt hitta en bättre balans mellan centrumanläggningen och Hallonbergsplan. Vidare bör Hallonbergsplan bli en levande, trygg och varierad plats under dygnets all timmar och ges en inbjudande och öppen rumsform.

  • 13.
    Bolohan, Marcel
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Framställning av digitala terrängmodeller med totalstation respektive terrester laserskanner2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Digitala terrängmodeller (DTM) är mycket användbara geografiska produkter som behövs av många organisationer och företag. Som exempel kan nämnas telekommunikationsföretag som behöver terrängmodeller för analys vid planering av områden för nya master, och försäkringsbolag som använder DTM för att identifiera områden med hög eller låg risk för översvämningar när de fastställer premier. Markbaserad (terrester) mätning är en metod för framställning av DTM där man genom fältmätning insamlar data för objekt vars positioner bestäms med plan- och höjdkoordinater. Dessa objekt används sedan för att beskriva terrängen digitalt. Eftersom terrängmodellerna är generaliseringar av markytan, ställs olika krav på deras kvalitet, beroende på användningsområden.

     

    Målet med detta examensarbete var att skapa två digitala terrängmodeller i enlighet med tekniska specifikationen SIS/TS 21144:2004 (specifikation vid framställning av digitala terrängmodeller). Modellerna representerar samma område men inmätningarna genomfördes med två olika mätinstrument, en totalstation och en terrester laserskanner. En bedömning av kvaliteten hos dessa terrängmodeller gjordes, i förhållande till varandra och det uppmätta området.

     

    Det undersökta området är beläget i närheten av Teknikparken i Gävle och består av park-, vatten- och skogsområden med en areal på ca 3500 m². Mätningarna utfördes med totalstation av märket Leica TPS 1203 och terrester laserskanner av märket Leica ScanStation 2 som finns tillgängliga på Högskolan i Gävle och överfördes sedan till dator för bearbetning i lämplig programvara.

     

    En volymberäkning av terrängmodellerna gjordes och skillnaderna mellan dem lagrades i en differensmodell. Denna jämförelsemodell har använts till redovisning av avvikelser mellan DTM.

     

    Enligt min uppfattning representeras markytan bättre i terrängmodellen framställd med hjälp av totalstation. Fördelen med totalstation är i detta fall att koordinaterna i plan och höjd bättre representerar den faktiska markytan, till skillnad från laserskannern, som skannar grästopparna, vilka registreras som markyta. Som framgår av volymberäkningarnas resultat blir skillnaden i volym betydande, eftersom laserskannerns terrängmodell ligger på en högre nivå på platser där vegetationen är tät.

  • 14.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Betydelse av höjdmodellers kvalitet vid översvämningsmodellering2009In: ULI aktuellt, ISSN 1654-6016, no 1, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Föreläsningar - övningar - eller?: en jämförande studie av undervisningsmetoder inom gevärsskytte och geografiska informationssystem2004In: Kunskap & lärande i den högre utbildningen: lärarreflektioner från praktiken, Gävle: Pedagogiska rådet, Högskolan i Gävle , 2004, p. 19-38Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Geoinformatics 2004: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Geoinformatics : Geospatial Information Research : Bridging the Pacific and Atlantic. University of Gävle, Sweden, 7-9 June 20042004Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    FOREWORD

    Geoinformatics 2004, the 12th International Conference on Geoinformatics, is the premier research forum for Geospatial Information Research. It commenced in 1992 in Buffalo, and has been held every year since. Meetings have been held in North America and Asia in Beijing (1993), Calgary (1994), Hong Kong (1995), West Palm Beach (1996), Taipei (1997), Beijing (1998), Ann Arbor (1999), Monterey (2000), Bangkok (2001), Nanjing (2002), and Toronto (2003, cancelled due to the outbreak of SARS). This is the premier event organized by the University of Gävle, together with the Association of Chinese Professionals in Geographic Information Science (CPGIS-abroad).

     

    This conference is the first of the series that takes place in Europe, hence the subtitle of the conference - bridging the Pacific and Atlantic. I believe it offers an opportunity for all professionals involved in research and development of geographic information systems, global position systems and remote sensing to discuss new theories and technologies around geoinformatics research.

     

    Based on the extended abstracts and following advice from the program committee, the organizing committee selected 108 papers (involving 264 authors from 29 different countries) around 10 different themes included in the proceedings. The conference themes include some emerging research issues such as location-based services and geovisualization as well as long studied conventional issues. As a post-conference publication effort, some selected papers around special themes will go another round of review process to be published in special issues with some scientific journals.

     

    The organization of the event is rather team-oriented work. On behalf of the organizing committee, I would like to thank CPGIS, the University of Gävle, our sponsors and all those individuals involved in making it a successful event, in particular, Kickan Fahlstedt, the conference secretary who took most administrative and organizational matters into her hands; Anders Brandt who read the papers and provided useful comments to the authors; Bengt Eriksson, Stig-Göran Mårtensson, and Bengt Rystedt who are always very supportive for the event; Peter Fisher and David Maguire who share their vision on current geoinformatics research; and all the authors who contribute with their papers of high quality.

     

    Last but not least, the following colleagues or students deserve special thanks for their contributions to the organization of the conference: Gunter Göckelmann, Pia Ollert- Hallqvist, Anna Hansson, Neta Hedberg, Elisabeth Hugg, Mikael Johansson, Rebecca Jonsson, Hendrik Loch, Bengt-Olof Lundinger, Staffan Nygren, Kaj Wejander, and Wenjun Xie.

     

    Welcome to the Geoinformatics 2004, and enjoy your stay in Gävle!

     

    Bin Jiang

    Co-chair of the organizing committee

     

    ---

     

    CONTENTS - VOLUME 1

    Keynote session

    The logic of fuzzy detecting change in geographical information, p. 3

    P. Fisher

    Distributed GIS: computing in the internet age, p. 4

    D. Maguire

    Plenary session

    About egocentric geovisualisation, p. 7

    L. Meng

    Shannonian, semantic and pragmatic geoinformation, p. 15

    J. Portugali

    Spatio-temporal modelling and analysis of geolifelines, p. 22

    C. Claramunt

    Location-based service, mobile GIS and GPS

    Location-based solutions for application services, p. 25

    K.H. Kim, S.G. Hong, J.H. Park and J.H. Lee

    A test-bed simulator for GPS and GIS integrated navigation and positioning research: - bus positioning, using GPS observations, odometer readings and map matching, p. 31

    J. Li, G. Taylor, C. Brunsdon, A. Olden, D. Steup and M. Winter

    Real-time map labelling for personal navigation, p.  39

    Q. Zhang and L. Harrie

    Multi-criteria decision analysis for location based services, p.  47

    M. Raubal and C. Rinner

    Map generalization for OSMasterMap data in location based services & mobile GIS applications, p. 54

    S. Anand, J.M. Ware and G.E. Taylor

    The media and the messages of location-based services (LBS): death of distance or the revenge of geography?, p. 61

    D.Z. Sui

    Real time community mapping: evaluating two wireless technology approaches, p. 69

    Y. Lao

    Digital data collection and analysis techniques for forestry applications, p. 77

    M.G. Wing and L.D. Kellogg

    A review of research and development on intelligent transport systems in Hong Kong - a geographic information system perspective, p. 84

    W.Z. Shi and H.K. Lam

    A distributed architecture for WAP-based mobile GIS, p. 92

    Wang F., Bian F. and Hou Y.

    Efficient routing service for the open LBS services, p. 99

    S.-S. Kim and J.-H. Park

    Network perspective for spatial data distribution on wireless environments, p. 107

    E. Lee, M.-J. Kim, M. Kim and B.-T. Jang

    Precise navigation with the use of buffer zones, p. 115

    A. Banachowicz and J. Uriasz

    The implementation of presentation service using JAVA web services, p. 120

    T.-W. Heo and J.-H. Park

    An open architecture of common core component for location based service, p. 127

    J.-C. Kim, J.-H. Park and J.-H. Lee

    Open LBS solution architecture using service chaining webservices technology, p. 134

    S.-G. Hong, K.-H. Kim and J.-H. Park

    Analysis accuracy integrated position of hyperbolic system JEMIOLUSZKA and satellite navigation system GPS, p. 139

    A. Banachowicz and R. Kamiński

    Spatio-temporal modelling and databases

    A web-based multimedia framework for diffusing spatio-temporal information: application to natural hazards, p. 149

    P-A. Davoine, J. Gensel and H. Martin

    Continuous data warehouse: concepts, challenges and potentials, p. 157

    T.O. Ahmed, M. Miquel and R. Laurini

    An extended locking method for geographical database with spatial rules, p. 165

    Cheng C., Shen P., Zhang M. and Lu F.

    A hybrid approach to detect spatial-temporal outliers, p. 173

    T. Cheng and Z. Li

    A knowledge-based restricted problem solving method in GIS applications, p. 179

    Wei H., Xu Q. and Bai Y.

    Representation of moving objects along a road network, p. 187

    N. Van de Weghe, A.G. Cohn, P. Bogaert and P. De Maeyer

    A three-dimensional temporal GIS for the analysis of morphometric changes, p. 195

    M. Sriti, R. Thibaud and C. Claramunt

    Quality assessment and uncertainty handling in spatial data mining, p. 203

    B. He, T. Fang and D. Guo

    From the schema matching to the integration of updating information into user geographic databases, p. 211

    A. Braun

    Construction and specification of spatial configurations in a geographical information retrieval context, p. 219

    M. Ould Ahmed Limam and M. Gaio

    A new tetrahedral network (TEN) generation algorithm for 3-D GIS, p. 226

    Song Z., Liu Y. and Niu W.

    GIS data modeling of 17th century fortresses on Dardanelles, p. 233

    C. Guney, B. Yuksel and R.N. Celik

    The spatial data server based on open GIS standards in heterogeneous distributed environment, p. 241

    M.-J. Kim, E. Lee, B.-W. Oh and M. Kim

    Vector cellular automata based geographical entity, p. 249

    Hu S. and Li D.

    A method for testing low-value spatial clustering, p. 257

    G. Lin and T. Zhang

    Research on Petri Net based spatiotemporal data model, p. 265

    Yin Z. and Li L.

    Advances in earth observation technologies

    Lossless inter-array predictive coding for subpixel-shifted satellite images based on texture analysis, p. 275

    Gao S., Zhang X.J. and Sun W.D.

    Visualizing distributions from multi-return lidar data to understand forest structure, p. 283

    D. Kao, M. Kramer, A. Love, J. Dungan and A. Pang

    3D scanning and photogrammetry for heritage recording: a comparison, p. 291

    W. Boehler and A. Marbs

    On modelling and visualisation of high resolution virtual environments using LIDAR data, p. 299

    S. Ahlberg, U. Söderman, M. Elmqvist and Å. Persson

    The utilization of GPR data in GIS, p.  307

    Chen B.Z., Hu Z.Q. and Li W.D.

    APIAS - Airborne photos and images attainment system, p. 311

    J.C.C. Gonçalves Junior, E.C. Piovesan, G.C. Silveira and E.A. Silva

    Geovisualisation

    Representation of geographic terrain surface using global indexing, p. 321

    J. Kolar

    Geo-visualization support for multidimensional clustering, p. 329

    G. Andrienko and N. Andrienko

    Annotated observations as knowledge construction elements in visual data analysis, p. 336

    I. Denisovich

    3D geovisualization as a communication and analysis tool in fluvial geomorphology, p. 339

    S.A. Brandt and B. Jiang

    A study on algorithms of a 3D visualization dynamic modification system based on TIN, p. 347

    P. Yang, H. Lin, S.J. Mao and D. Shen

    A multi-user mobile system to visualize environmental processes, p. 355

    J. Danado, E. Dias, T. Romão, N. Correia, A. Trabuco, C. Santos, J. Serpa, M. Costa and A. Câmara

    Interacting with 17th century fortresses on Dardanelles through web-based geo-visualization, p. 363

    C. Guney and R.N. Celik

    Visualization of landscape data in digital maps by exclusive use of XML-based languages, p. 370

    K. Neumann, P. Ahlbrecht, S. Eckstein, B. Mathiak and A. Kupfer

    Embedding digital rights in geovisualizations, p. 375

    J. Döllner

    Experimental research on web-based 3D terrain visualization - using Java3D and Microsoft.Net, p. 383

    Wang Y., Tan H. and Liu J.

    The principles of designing CIS - cartographic information system, p. 389

    Zheng S. and Chen Y.

    A network common data form (NetCDF) utility for efficient environmental data processing and visualization, p. 397

    J. Liu, J.M. Chen, D.T. Price, and S. Liu

    Design and implementation of high precision map symbol library based on GDI+, p. 405

    Wu X., Du Q., Cai Z. and Xu Z.

    User-centered 3D geovisualisation, p. 412

    A. Nielsen

    Studying groundwater resource by volume visualization technology, p. 417

    Zhu G., Xu Z., Wu X. and Yan H.

    Cognition theory-based research on adaptive user interface for GEO-visualization system, p. 424

    Ling Y., Chen Y. and Wang Y.

     

    CONTENTS - VOLUME 2

    GIS in urban planning and modelling

    Spatial patterns of urban growth in Nepal: a GIS-assisted analysis, p. 435

    M. Adhikari, B.A. Portnov and M. Schwartz

    What's planning (support system design)?, p. 443

    M. Campagna and G. Deplano

    GIS and remote sensing for urban planning: a case of Festac town, Lagos, Nigeria, p. 451

    M.J. Fasona and A.S. Omojola

    Geographical information systems on the web for public participation in planning, p. 459

    O. Gudes, E. Stern and T. Svoray

    Study on China National Park planning supported by spatial information technology, p. 464

    Dang A., Liu X., Yang R. and Zhuang Y.

    Uncertainty and data quality

    Uncertainty evaluation of military terrain analysis results by simulation and visualization, p. 473

    P. Horttanainen and K.Virrantaus

    Defuzzification operators for geographical data of nominal scale, p. 481

    T. Hatzichristos and J. Potamias

    Fuzzy model and Kriging for imprecise soil polygon boundaries, p. 489

    R. Sunila, E. Laine and O. Kremenova

    Fuzzy description of fuzzy direction relations and their similarities, p. 496

    Du S., Wang Q. and Yang Y.

    A new approach for modeling uncertainty in remote sensing change detection process, p. 503

    A. Alimohammadi, H.R. Rabiei and P.Z. Firouzabadi

    GIS in environmental management and decision making

    Mapping landslide susceptibility in the Three Gorges area, China using GIS, expert systems and fuzzy logic, p. 511

    A-X. Zhu, R. Wang, J. Qiao, Y. Chen, Q. Cai and C. Zhou

    A 3D GIS for managing building rehabilitation process, p. 518

    F. Ramos, D. Siret and M. Musy

    Spatial-temporal carbon sequestration under land USE and land cover change, p. 525

    S. Liu, J. Liu and T.R. Loveland

    GIS based analysis of store closure: a case study of an Office Depot store in Cincinnati, p. 533

    Y. Xu and L. Liu

    Branch bank closures in Sydney: a geographical perspective and analysis, p. 541

    L. Zhao, B. Garner and B. Parolin

    Integration of multidisciplinary knowledge and modelling techniques for a river-SDSS, p. 549

    J. Möltgen and G. Schmidt

    Applications of GIS and RS for land use dynamics monitoring in the rim zone of North China, p. 557

    Z. Qin, B. Xu, J. Liu and W. Zhang

    A methodology for siting a water harvesting reservoir, p. 565

    W.M. Jabre and F.A. Awar

    Landscape indices for comparison of spatial forest patterns in different geographical regions, p. 573

    E.M. De Clercq and R.R. De Wulf

    GIS in spatial management on a local level of administration in Poland, p. 578

    P. Fogel and J. Fiszczuk-Wiktorowicz

    Development of spatial GIS database for monitoring on dynamic state of grassland productivity, p. 585

    and animal loading balance in Northern China

    B. Xu, X. Xin, Z. Qin, H. Liu, Z. Chen, G. Yang, W. Wu, Q. Zhou and X. Wu

    Remote sensing coupled to a database of catchments and coastal zones, p. 593

    S.G. Halldórsdóttir and H. Þorbergsson

    Regionalization of N2O measurements for the North China Plain, p. 599

    G. Bareth and M. Kogge

    Application of RS and GIS in ecological environmental dynamic monitoring and management information system, p. 607

    Liao K.

    Geospatial cancer analysis for the state of Santa Catarina, brazil - environmental parameters considered, p. 615

    C.E. Hübner and F.H. Oliveira

    Information extraction from remote sensing data

    Object-based updating of land-use maps of urban areas using satellite remote sensing, p. 623

    R.J. Dekker

    Multiscale object-specific analysis: scale problems and multiscale solutions, p. 631

    O. Hall, G.J. Hay and D.J. Marceau

    A greedy point algorithm derived by Gabor filter bank for IKONOS satellite image segmentation, p. 639

    N. Nezamoddini-Kachouie and J. Alirezaie

    A modeling-based threshold approach to derive change/no change information over vegetation area, p. 647

    Y. Hu, S.M. de Jong and R. Sluiter

    A neural network approach for information extraction from remotely sensed data, p. 655

    J. Liu, G. Shao, H. Zhu and S. Liu

    New stereo matching and 3D view generation algorithms using aerial stereo images, p. 663

    J.-C. Kim and J.-H. Park

    Comparison of remote sensing based analysis of crop diseases by using high resolution multispectral and hyperspectral data - case study: Rhizoctonia solani in sugar beet -, p. 670

    R. Laudien, G. Bareth and R. Doluschitz

    A comparison of land-use classification with sampled IKONOS and TM imagery, p. 677

    Tang Z. and Zhu L.

    Quality study of ASTER data geometry by digitize contour lines in ILWIS, p. 683

    A. Partovi, K. Grabmaier and J. Hendrikse

    A new algorithm for map projection reverse transformation in GIS, p. 691

    Teng J., Huang W. and Sun M.

    Exploitation of geospatial techniques for studying the snow and water runoff parameters, p. 699

    A.S. Almas, M. Azam, M.J. Butt and S. Amer

    Land cover mapping of Khulna City applying remote sensing technique, p. 707

    M. Billah and G.A. Rahman

    Integration of ground sampling with satellite imaging through GIS database to monitor rangeland productivity for grazing in north China, p.  715

    Z. Qin, B. Xu, W. Li, W. Zhang and J. Liu

    Forestry inventory and information systems in developing countries: constraints and benefits, p. 723

    S.M. Malaza, P.G. Abbot and S. Mabena

    Multi-scale representation and generalisation

    Building a multi-granularity based spatial database, p. 733

    Cheng C. and Lu F.

    Automated generalisation in a multiple representation database, p. 741

    M. Dunkars

    Data update across multi-scale databases, p. 749

    H.-K. Kang, J.-W. Moon and K.-J. Li

    Modelling urban road networks integrating multiple representations of complex road and junction structures, p. 757

    N.N. Ulugtekin, A.O. Dogru and R.C. Thomson

    Streaming of compressed multi-resolution geographic vector data, p. 765

    J. Persson

    Metadata and spatial data infrastructure

    A hierarchical framework to aid the entry of metadata, p. 775

    J.-H. Hong, Y.-H. Chen and H.-P. Liao

    Building a taxonomy of GI knowledge - using Bloom's taxonomy to evaluate non-professional users' understanding of GI, p. 783

    M. Arleth

    Opportunities and challenges for SDI development in developing countries - a case study of, p. 789

    Uganda

    M. Musinguzi, G. Bax and S.S. Tickodri-Togboa

    SDI and network-based GIS for disaster management, p. 797

    A. Mansourian, A. Rajabifard and M.J.V. Zoej

    Discovering structure in geographical metadata, p. 805

    I. Podolak and U. Demšar

    Map interface valid coverage analysis based on XML metadata, p. 812

    H.-P. Liao and J.-H. Hong

    A cadastral domain model, p. 820

    J.M. Paasch

  • 17.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Rapport från Utbildningssektionens årliga utbildningskonferens2009In: Kart- & bildteknik, ISSN 1651-792X, Vol. 2009, no 3, p. 18-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kartografiska sällskapets utbildningssektion genomför varje år de så kallade lärardagarna, en utbildningskonferens som kretsar kring geografisk information. Tilltänkta deltagare är alla, både utbildare och avnämare, som har intresse av utbildningsfrågor från skol- till universitetsnivå. Den 17 till 18 augusti detta år stod KTH som värd, med Hans Hauska hållande taktpinnen, och med 19 deltagare från ett tiotal olika arbetsgivare.

  • 18.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Resolution issues of elevation data during inundation modeling of river floods2005In: Proceedings of the XXXI IAHR Congress [Elektronisk resurs]: Water engineering for the future: choices and challenges. COEX Seoul September 11-16, 2005, Seoul: Korea Water Resources Association , 2005, p. 3573-3581Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study of the Eskilstuna River in Sweden is presented. This study is carried out within the project KRIS-GIS®, a Swedish initiative of handling crisis situations, including flooding. The purpose is to show how different resolutions in input elevation data affect the resulting inundation maps. Terrain elevation points at the sides of the river were gathered from an airborne laser altimetry survey, and river bed elevations were gathered from an echosounding survey. The terrain model was constructed in ArcView GIS as a triangulated irregular network (TIN), which served as the base for all later modeling. The hydraulic modeling was done as one-dimensional steady flow in HEC-RAS flow routing software. High-resolution elevation data resulted in better inundation delineation than did lowresolution elevation data. If the mean water discharge was used in the modeling and if the river is narrow, a low resolution could even lead to that the river itself would not be marked as inundated. At high water discharges, the river was usually inundated, but there was great uncertainty if the riparian areas really would be flooded or not. With steep side slopes, the delineation of inundation becomes more certain, while at gentler side slopes, the flow is distributed on a larger surface with a risk that the raster cells will be incorrectly marked regarding inundation. Finally, the use of high-resolution elevation data compared with lowresolution data, makes estimates of friction factor, Manning’s n, relatively more important for correct results in inundation studies.

  • 19.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Svensk kartografiutbildning i ett historiskt perspektiv2008In: Kartan i våra hjärtan: Kartografiska Sällskapet 100 år 2008, Stockholm: Kartografiska Sällskapet , 2008, p. 305-318Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    The University Exchange Programme and the Master's Programme for ALAGaC Employees: Report No. MN 3-14 in the project Capacity Building in Human Resource Development to Strengthen the Land Administration Sector of Mongolia, September 20062006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Utbildning och kompetensutveckling inom lantmäteri, kartografi, GIS och mätningsteknik2008In: Atlas: Geografi och kartor — igår — idag — imorgon, ISSN 1654-9015, Vol. 1, p. 34-34Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Översvämningsmodellering i GIS: betydelse av höjdmodellers upplösning applicerat på Eskilstunaån - ett delprojekt i KRIS-GIS®2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare tid har översvämningar alltmer uppmärksammats av allmänhet, politiker, myndigheter och organisationer. Samtidigt har allt fler insett att det inte är en fråga om en översvämning kommer att ske utan när och hur stor den blir. Detta innebär att översvämningsrisker ständigt måste vara en närvarande del i politikers, planerares och krisberedskapsorganisationers arbete. Ett sätt att vara väl förberedd inför översvämningar är att ta fram översvämningsområden för olika stora vattenflöden. Därför har det inom projektet KRIS-GIS®, beställt och finansierat av Krisberedskapsmyndigheten, gjorts en mer detaljerad specialstudie över översvämningar kring Eskilstunaån. Tillförlitligheten hos framtagna översvämningsområden beror framför allt av två faktorer: korrekt vattenflödessimulering och korrekt beskrivning av terrängen. I denna studie har den endimensionella modellen HEC-RAS använts för flödessimuleringen och för beskrivning av terrängen har en flygburen 3D-laserskanning över området kring Eskilstunaån utförts. Dessutom har ekolodning utförts för att möjliggöra beskrivning av bottentopografin i Eskilstunaån. Samtliga höjddatapunkter kopplades ihop i ett GIS till ett triangulärt oregelbundet nätverk, TIN. Därefter lades sektioner tvärs över vattendraget och omgivande terräng. Dessa tvärsektioner tilldelades höjdvärden från TIN-modellen innan de exporterades till HEC-RAS. Fyra olika vattenföringar simulerades i HEC-RAS: medelvattenföringen på 23,7 m3/s, årsfloden på 70 m3/s, 100-årsflödet på 123 m3/s samt högsta beräknade flödet på 198 m3/s. Dessutom har det gjorts några alternativa körningar med varierande värden på Mannings n, dvs. markfriktion. Efter körningar i HEC-RAS, exporterades resulterande vattennivåer tillbaka till GISet där ett resultatraster skapades, där varje rastercell visades som översvämmad eller ej, och i förekommande fall översvämmat djup. Resultaten av översvämningsanalyserna visar att betydligt säkrare översvämningsprognoser nu kan göras när tillgång till terrängmodeller av hög kvalitet finns. Vid tidigare studier har Lantmäteriets höjddatabas använts, där höjder finns representerade med ett värde per 50-metersruta. Från att terrängmodellen har varit den begränsande faktorn övergår i stället en korrekt beskrivning av markens råhet eller friktion, uttryckt som Mannings n, till att vara den begränsande faktorn. Det rekommenderas därför att differentiera råhetsvärdena beroende på vilken markanvändningstyp som finns längs med vattendraget. Speciellt viktigt är detta i flacka områden. För Eskilstunaåns nordligaste delar är det viktigt att vattennivån i Mälaren bedöms korrekt. För att sprida och kunna dra nytta av resultaten framtagna i KRIS-GIS®-projektet rekommenderas det att färdiga översvämningspolygoner kan användas av kommuner, räddningstjänst osv. i deras arbete. De kan ringa eller automatiskt få information, från t.ex. SMHI eller vattenregleringsföretag, som innehåller upplysningar om förväntade flöden. Motsvarande polygon för förväntat flöde visas i ett GIS och direkt har man lägesbilden klart för sig. Utöver detta har även visualiseringsaspekter behandlats.

  • 23.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Arnberg, Wolter
    Stockholm University.
    A harmonized GIS course curriculum for Swedish universities2007In: EUC'07 HERODOT Proceedings: ESRI European User Conference 2007: Stockholm, Sweden, 25-27 September 2007, 2007, p. 10 s.-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the implementation of the Bologna declaration, European and other universities must change or adjust courses and programmes so they fit into the Bologna model. In Sweden this will take place during 2007. The intention with the declaration, for example, is that a basic course in one subject at one university should be treated as equivalent to the same type of course at another university. Once a year, the recently formed section for education of the Swedish Cartographic Society gathers university lecturers and others for an education conference to discuss matters concerning higher education in geomatics, geoinformatics, geography, etc. Last year’s conference identified the need for a harmonized course curriculum in basic GIS. One of the advantages of such a course is easier transfer of study records for inclusion of course credits in study programmes at other universities. Therefore, an attempt has been made to write a harmonized course curriculum for basic GIS. The course will contain about 50% common content and about 50% of content decided by the individual university. The common content will be described as learning outcomes, and then it is up to the universities to place the learning outcomes into a context. Thanks to this common core, the course can be given for such diverse programmes as archaeology, land surveying, or economy, and still be able to include the required knowledge for students to continue on more advanced courses at other universities.

  • 24.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Bergquist, Arne
    Lantmäteriet.
    Översvämningskarteringars tillförlitlighet2009In: Kart & Bildteknik (Mapping and Image Science), ISSN 1651-792X, no 4, p. 33-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett tidigare nummer av Kart & Bildteknik beskrevs ett pågående forskningsprojekt som försökte ta reda på om det finns en optimal kvalitet på geografisk information som underlag för detaljerad översvämningskartering (Bergquist, Brandt & Klang, 2008). Projektet är nu avslutat och avrapporterat i Brandt (2009) och Klang och Klang (2009). Av resultaten framgår bland annat hur mycket tillförlitligheten av en översvämningskartering minskar med graden av försämrad höjdmodell, vilken utgör ett av de viktigaste underlagen för en översvämningsanalys. I samband med EUs översvämningsdirektiv (Europaparlamentets och rådets direktiv, 2007) föranleder detta en diskussion om vilka översvämningskarteringar som krävs för att uppfylla direktivet.

  • 25.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Karlsson, Janne Margrethe
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Ollert-Hallqvist, Pia
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Harmonization of GI educations in Sweden and the Bologna process: viewpoints of University of Gävle2006In: Fifth European GIS Education Seminar (EUGISES 2006), 2006, p. 10-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the implementation of the Bologna declaration, many study programmes and course curricula needs to be updated and revised. This paper describes the current situation in Sweden regarding GIT educations and courses and whether a harmonization is needed. A survey was made to see which GIT courses that are given and at which level they are given at the various universities. For some universities, interviews were conducted about their courses’ contents and their strategies for determining course levels. Discussions were also made about harmonization of courses between Swedish universities. Some problems due to lack of harmonization was noted, which probably will be more severe in the future due to increased student mobility. To harmonize courses, Bloom’s revised taxonomy is put forward as a tool which is used to clearly state the level of the course in relation to learning objectives.

  • 26.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Larsson, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Kartografiska Sällskapets utbildningssektion: ett nytt tillskott i KS-familjen2006In: Kart- & bildteknik, ISSN 1651-792X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    På Kartografiska Sällskapets årsmöte i Jönköping den 21 mars beslutades att inrätta en ny sektion inom sällskapet – en utbildningssektion. Denna artikel beskriver bakgrunden till sektionen och dess verksamhetsidé. Utbildningssektionens embryo tillkom för tre år sedan efter förslag från ULI som delegerade uppgiften till Geomatikprogrammet vid Högskolan i Gävle. Tanken vara att skapa ett forum för lärare inom geomatikområdet. Både för att sammanföra lärare från olika lärosäten, för att öka förståelsen för varandras arbeten, och för att kunna förbättra möjligheterna till samarbete.

  • 27.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Mårtensson, Stig-Göran
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Utbildning inom kart- och mätningsteknik2008In: Sveriges kartläggning: tillägg 1998-2007, Gävle: Kartografiska sällskapet , 2008, p. 208-213Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Bredin, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Majholm, Kim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av multistation Leica MS50 för detektering av deformationer2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Deformationsövervakning har en betydande roll i samhället idag. Genom att studera och förutse deformationer har problemen kring konstruktion av dammar, broar och tunnlar kunnat hållas nere. Utan en fungerande deformationsövervakning kan såväl industrier som människor påverkas negativt. Deformationer i gruvor kan leda till stopp i produktionen medan deformationer i byggnader utgör en risk för människans säkerhet. För att förhindra dessa följder är det viktigt att analysera och övervaka deformationer med lämpligast mätningsmetod. Punktmolnsinsamling för deformationsövervakning utförs i huvudsak med markburna laserskannrar. Ett nytt instrument har dock nyligen kommit ut på marknaden, multistationen Leica MS50, som har möjlighet att skanna in hela punktmoln på liknande sätt som markburna laserskannrar.

     

    I denna studie har deformationsmätningar utförts för att visa den minsta detekterbara rörelse som kan upptäckas med multistationen Leica MS50. Studien behandlar även hur olika upplösningar påverkar skanningstiden och skanningsfrekvensen samt om materialet som skannats har någon inverkan vid detektering av deformationer. I studien användes Leica MS50 i tre olika moment för att skanna punktmoln i flera olika upplösningar för deformationsmätningar. I de olika momenten skannades plastmaterial av olika tjocklekar och optiska egenskaper för att simulera deformation. För att analysera punktmolnen användes mjukvaruprogrammet Geomagic Control. Analysen utfördes genom att skapa en mesh av referensytan och mäta avstånden från deformerade objekt till den nämnda meshen.

     

    Resultaten som erhölls visar tydligt hur deformationer på 2,1 mm kan upptäckas i djupled. Vidare kunde det konstanteras att skanningsmaterialets egenskaper har en stor påverkan vid avståndsmätningar. Det gick att se ett tydligt samband mellan tjocklek på material och avståndsfel i de fall där reflekterande transparenta plastmaterial användes. I denna studie kunde samtliga icke-transparenta deformationsobjekt detekteras vid mätning med alla upplösningar. Därmed kan slutsatsen dras att den lägsta upplösningen (15 × 15 mm) är den mest fördelaktiga i denna studie p.g.a. den korta skanningstiden. Det kunde även fastställas att punktupplösningen hade en direkt inverkan på skanningsfrekvensen, ju lägre upplösning desto lägre frekvens.

  • 29.
    Bring, Hedda
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    A Digital Elevation Model of the Lövåsen Esker2007Student paper second term, 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The threats imposed by the ongoing climate change become successively more clear. In the municipality of Sandviken the possible rise in water level in the lake Storsjön might cause major problems. This study aims to produce an elevation model over one of the threatened areas so that the effect of different water levels in the lake can be studied in the future.

    The area of study consists of an esker cutting straight through the lake Storsjön. The area is densely populated and the size is about 13 hectares.

    Measurements were performed, both with GPS, utilizing Network-RTK, and with total station. The formations of the ridge were captured by following the breaklines with a point density of 225 points/ha as an intended goal.

    The GPS measurements were transformed into the local coordinate system of Sandviken municipality. The measured coordinates for six control points were compared to the true coordinates. The fit was not perfect, so a Helmert transformation was performed on the plane coordinates. The accuracy of the measurements was below 50 mm after the transformation. Net adjustments in plane and height were performed on the total station measurements. The error ellipses for the station points varied from 2 to 44 mm. The over all point density achieved was 274 points/ha.

    Two elevation models were created, one Triangular Irregular Network (TIN) and one interpolated model using a kriging interpolation. Contour lines from both models were produced and compared with each other. The TIN creates a more angular surface and therefore the contour lines are not as smooth as in the interpolated model. Both models showed good resemblance compared with the original data.

  • 30.
    Brännlund, Therese
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    En inblick i en byggmätares vardag vid LKAB:s anläggning i Kiruna2007Student paper second term, 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med detta examensarbete var att jag skulle omvandla mina teoretiska kunskaper inom mätning till praktiska färdigheter. Resultatet blev denna skriftliga rapport, en muntlig presentation och en poster.

    Jag gjorde mitt examensarbete hos Svenska Mätcenter AB. Projektet hette KK4 och innefattade kulsinterverk, utfrakt och bangård på LKAB:s anläggning i Kiruna. Svenska Mätcenter AB var även utsättare nere i gruvan där LKAB drev en ny väg. Under mitt examensarbete var jag runt på alla delarna av projektet för att lära mig så mycket som möjligt.

    När mina fem veckors praktik var över hade jag lärt mig en hel del om mätning i allmänhet och byggmätning i synnerhet. De områden där mina kunskaper ökade mest var inom toleranser, kvalitetssäkring, tunnel- och gruvmätning och maskinstyrning.

    En relationsritning över bultgrupperna vid drivstationen skapades för att kontrollera att de låg inom toleranserna.

    Den slutsats jag har dragit är att all kunskap man får inom skolan är bara en bråkdel av vad man kommer att lära sig när man börjar jobba. Men det är en bra bas att stå på.

  • 31.
    Dahlberg, Merike
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Solvärmelastens, dagsljusfaktorns och det termiska klimatets inverkan med olika fönster för Miljöbyggnad: En studie på Kv. Svalan i Uppsala2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report of 15 credits has had the goal to find a guide for planning window for buildings to be certified with Miljöbyggnad. The certification process includes calculation of solar heat load, giving a figure of how much sun heat is coming into the building, which may needs to be ventilated or cooled off during the summer. The certification process also demands the daylight factor, which gives a figure of how much natural light enters the building. These two aspects affects each other in a negative way, why various tests have been done using a variety of computer simulations to find what kind of window area would be appropriate to get a good rating in Miljöbyggnad. It has also been tested for the thermal climate, which is another aspect Miljöbyggnad investigates, and that windows can influence.

    The work uses an upcoming office building, Svalan in Uppsala, as a model for these tests. As there are many different parameters that are needed to make all the simulations and calculations it is difficult to make a guide that works for all projects. In this work there are two equally sized offices that have windows facing different directions and with different g-values, to see the differences in these simulations have been made for various window areas and different window placements. For the simulations, the IDA-ICE 4 and Velux Daylight Visualizer have been used.

    The work resulted in that the window's placement in the room has a big difference for daylight factor, and also for the window form, however none of the solar load. To affect solar heat load, the glass area of the window can be changed, the g-value, or the floor area of the room. When these parameters seem positive for the solar heat load, are they affecting negatively the daylight factor, therefore the building planner have to find a good level found that works for both solar heat load and the daylight factor.

    For the project with two offices in Svalan gave the result; to get GOLD in both solar heat load and daylight factor will not work without sun screening. As best reach one of them GOLD and the other SILVER, which can be in the final grade yet sufficient to reach the best grade GOLD with Miljöbyggnad, as long as this projects other Miljöbyggnad factors gives results which is good enough.

  • 32.
    Danneby, Björn
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Tillämpningen av tredimensionell fastighetsbildning: studie av resultatet efter 2,5 år med ny lagstiftning2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From January 1, 2004 a new legalisation had established that allow three-dimensional real estate property founding. Through a investigation, information would be collected how the application become the first two and a half years, and also get a image of how the continuing development would become.

    The questions was if detail plans had been adjusted for three-dimensional real estate property division, which purpose that existed represent, and how the rights and duties had been secured. Further the investigation would treat differences in the application depending on geographical distribution in the country, and which affect the location had in the cities.

    The information was collected by go through data from the real estate property directory, carry out case studies, make interviews with public authorities and participate at a training college. The municipalities that had been chosen out for the interviews was a representative selection of different amount of population and whether it had a high or low use of real estate properties with three-dimensional space.

    Totally, it had founded 89 real estate properties. The geographical spreading over the country was distributed approximately at the same way as the inhabitants. Big rental buildings come to be the biggest existed primary real estate property type, but the most purpose was existed. As big part as 75 per cent of the real estates were located in areas with roughly hard settlement pressure. In the big cities, foremost areas close to central business district and close to open water was employed. 92 per cent of the real estates were situated within a area that was covered by a detailed plan. 40 per cent had founded based on a detail plan that have a date not older than 1 July, 2003. This was in itself not a evidence on that these plans had been adjusted for three-dimensional real estate property division. The real estates had in 51 per cent of the cases only founded through partition. The relative frequency of the real estates that was encumbered with an easement was 90 per cent, and 51 per cent participating in jointly-owned facilities. In at least 10 per cent of the cases, some needs were provided in a official duty made afterwards. In one of the case studies, information came out that the official duty had founded a more suitable real estate property division, based on the existing circumstances, and had also create conditions for a more adapted administration. All municipalities had received queries 5 about three-dimensional real estate property division. There it earlier had founded threedimensional real estates properties, new official duties were going on.

    It was possible to discern that co-operative apartment junctions was somehow involved in a considerable part of the real estates properties that was three-dimensionally divided. But also a big part constitute cases there the purpose was that optimise the utilization of real estate property. The only geographical connection that existed within a purpose perspective was that rental buildings in a higher extension were located to bigger cities in south part of the country. Three-dimensional real estate property division become probably also to constitute a big importance in development and condensation of the most populated areas. It seems to be mult i-story car parking in combination with other purposes that becomes the first outline concept. It lay a big liability on the plan authors in the cities, that in a early stage of the plan process take up questions about a effectively land use. Three-dimensional real estate property division will become a natural part in the future building of social structures, regardless to the geographical location.

  • 33.
    Edvardson, Kristoffer
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Karlsson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Byte från lokalt referenssystem till SWEREF 99: fallstudie Gävle2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On February 1st 2007 the National land survey of Sweden changed reference system to the Swedish realisation of European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 (ETRS 89), SWEREF 99. The reason why municipalities, authorities and other users should use SWEREF 99 instead of other reference systems is because the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The change of reference system should be implemented in order to facilitate the exchange of information inside Sweden and so that the users of GNSS receivers (Global Navigation Satellite System) can refer to the municipality coordinate system easier.

    The aim with this 10 point thesis, on C-level, is to suggest solutions for municipalities and organizations that are changing reference system.

    The study results in a supervision for municipalities’ work procedures at a change of reference system, and show what they should consider during measuring of complement points to underlie their transformation. Geographic information is accessible in a large number of administrations and companies in the municipality. To avoid missing any organization at a change of reference system, an investigation of which data should be transformed has been made. A surveillance of two transformation functions in ArcMap and one in GTRANS are compared with GNSS technique measured coordinates for comparison divergence between the transformations in a future change of reference system.

    Measurements with GNSS technique are made to improve the present reference system in the municipality. The measurements are made because coordinates shall be present in SWEREF 99 as well as the from-system. These points shall keep a high accuracy with respect to equipment, method of measuring etc. The result from the transformations in ArcMap and GTRANS minimize the tensions and deformations in the municipal horizontal geodetic control network in different ways in relation to the coordinates. The numbers of known points in relationship for transformations are larger in ArcMap than GTRANS, a comparison in a small area in central Gävle shows that ArcMaps results are better than GTRANS.

  • 34.
    Ekberg, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    An approach for representing complex 3D objects in GIS applied to 3D properties2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main problem that is addressed in this thesis is how to represent complex three-dimensional objects in GIS in order to render a more realistic representation of the real world. The goal is to present an approach for representing complex 3D objects in GIS. This is achieved by using commercial GIS (ArcGIS), applied to 3D properties. In order to get a clear overview of the state-of-the-art of 3D GIS and the current 3D cadastral situation a literature study was carried out. Based on this overview it can be concluded that 3D GIS still is in its initial phase. Current 3D GIS developments are mainly in the area of visualisation and animation, and almost nothing in the area of spatial analysis and attribute handling. Furthermore, the literature study reveals that no complete solution has been introduced that solves the problems involved in 3D cadastral registration. In several countries (e.g. Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Israel, and Australia) 3D properties exists in a juridical framework, but technical issues such as how to represent, store, and visualize 3D properties has not yet been solved. Some countries (Sweden, Norway, and Australia) visualize the footprints of 3D property units in a base map. This approach partly solves some technical issues, but can only represent 3D objects in a 2.5D environment. Therefore, research in how to represent complex objects in GIS as ‘true’ 3D objects is of great need.

    This thesis will emphasize MultiPatch as a geographic representation method to represent complex 3D objects in GIS. A case study will demonstrate that complex objects can be visualized and analysed in a commercial GIS, in this case ArcGIS. Most commercial GIS software available on the market applies a 2.5D approach to represent 3D objects. The 2.5D approach has limitations for representing complex objects. There is therefore a need of finding new approaches to represent complex objects within GIS. The result shows that MultiPatch is not an answer to all the problems within 3D GIS but a solution to some of the problems. It still requires a lot of research in the field of 3D GIS, especially in development of spatial analysis capabilities.

  • 35.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL.
    Åkeson, Lynn
    Lunds Universitet.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys .
    Ljunggren Söderman, M
    IVL.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL.
    von Borgstede, Chris
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Bridging the gap between the sustainability pillars2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thorough assessment of the sustainability performance of a product, a system, or a decision requires expertise on environmental, economic, and social aspects. In an assessment that involves researchers from different disciplines, communication is challenging because of different background knowledge, terminology, research traditions, etc.In the research program Towards Sustainable Waste Management, a new approach to interdisciplinary interaction was tested. The program included a group of researchers on life cycle assessment (LCA) and systems analysis of waste management. To this group, specialists in national economy, environmental psychology, and ethnology were linked in various projects. In each specific research project at least 20% of the budget was allocated to a waste LCA expert, who, through participating actively in the project, would be an interpreter, a two-way bridge between the disciplines. The first purpose of this LCA expert was to interpret the sustainability questions and to help make the research relevant for the overall purpose of the research program. The second purpose was to interpret the results of the specialists’ research and to help making the results useful for the overall program.Our experience demonstrates that this set-up forces the specialists and their interpreters/bridges to face the challenge of understanding each other. Establishing such an interdisciplinary interaction requires that the researchers share a mutual interest in trying to reach understanding. However, despite this interest and despite the significant resources made available for the participation, our collaboration was restricted by the fact that it can be difficult for the specialists to find suitable tasks in their projects for the LCA expert. The chance of the interaction being successful increases if the background knowledge of the researchers in the project overlaps, if they have similar research cultures, if they share a common interest in the research questions, and/or if the disciplinary scientists are accustomed to interdisciplinary collaboration.

  • 36.
    Eliassi, Kamal
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Hur påverkas miljön av limträ- eller stålstomme för en lantbruksbyggnad?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global climate change is one of the most important tasks that scientists are trying to solve today. With the help of a Lifecycle Analysis (LCA) method, the impact that many materials and services have on the environment and humans, have been determined. 

    As a task given by Gävleborg County Administrative Board, this work examines which of the material, glulam or steel, is most suitable as load-bearing material for agricultural buildings (barns). The goal of this study is to perform a LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) of the two materials during production, use, transportation and reuse. The steel's advantage is to be reused again without losing its properties and the wood's benefits to be used as an energy source during combustion, is only one of the steps involved in a life cycle analysis. 

    The information that an LCA study requires can be infinite and complex and therefore needs limitations in resources and time. A system boundary makes a basis on which phases and influences are the vital parts of a study. The system boundary also includes geographical areas. The study examines only local agricultural buildings in Gävleborg, Sweden, with floor areas of approximately 1300 m2 and their global environmental impact. 

    Environmental impact of a product is usually allocated in several different environmental impact categories, in which the study examines only three of these: global warming, acidification and eutrophication. 

    The results show a great difference in emissions depending on how the materials are produced and how they are handled after use. It proves that glulam has significant fewer emissions than steel when it used as an energy source instead of being deposited. With help of the weighting method the result show that iron ore produced steel have 1.2 times greater emission then glulam with landfill and 5.2 times greater when it is used in energy recovery. The weight also shows that scrap produced steel have 0.5 less emission than glulam with landfill and 2.4 greater than glulam with energy recovery.

  • 37.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Fuure Position X.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Semantic Mapping: An Ontology Engineering Method for Integrating Building Models in IFC and CityGML2010In: 3rd ISDE Digital Earth Summit 12-14 June, 2010, Nessebar, Bulgaria, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38. El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Shahzad, K
    KTH.
    Geospatial Integration: Preparing Building Information Databases for Integration with CityGML for Decision Support2008In: Proceedings of Innovations 08th, IEEE Conference, Dubai, December 16-18, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Elofsson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Öberg, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Framställning av en digital höjdmodell över Storsjö strand i Östersund2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Östersunds kommun behövde höjddata inför planeringen av ett nytt bostads- och rekreationsområde som kallas Storsjö strand där en ny fördjupad översiktplan tagits fram. Syftet med examensarbetet var att skapa en digital höjdmodell över en del av området. Mätningar med Leica GNSS-utrustning samt totalstation utfördes under några dagar.  Höjddatat levererades till kommunen. En triangelmodell skapades och en karta med höjdkurvor togs även fram för att visualisera arbetet. En del felkällor kan ha haft inverkan på resultatet såsom tjälen i marken och eventuellt några enstaka flervägsfel, men vi anser ändå att resultatet är tillräckligt för en första översiktlig planering.

  • 40.
    Eriksson, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Metoder för framtagning av byggnader till virtuella stadsmodeller2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Flera av Sveriges storstadskommuner har under det senaste årtiondet börjat ta fram virtuella stadsmodeller. Även Mät- och Kartavdelningen på Falu kommun är intresserade av att ta fram en stadsmodell, men ännu vet man inte hur det arbetet bör utföras. Därför har jag fått i uppdrag att utreda hur byggnaderna till en sådan modell kan tas fram, vilket också är syftet med den här studien. Anledningen till att Falu kommun vill ha en stadsmodell är främst att den skall vara ett stöd vid stadsplanering. Kommunen har bestämt att den norska SOSI-standardens (Systematic Organisation of Spatial Information) 3D-nivå 2 skall följas. Den detaljnivån redovisar byggnaderna med enkla takformer. Standarden anger bland annat vad som skall mätas in, hur stort punktmedelfelet får vara och hur modellen för datalagring skall se ut.

     

    Ett noggrannhetstest för inmätning med datorprogrammet Pictometry utfördes. Testresultaten användes för att beräkna det totala medelfelet för inmätning med Pictometry. För övriga inmätningsmetoder beräknades de totala medelfelen från schablonvärden och uppskattade medelfel.

     

    Det finns många tänkbara inmätningsmetoder och mätinstrument, till exempel fotogrammetri och totalstation. Som höjdreferens för några av metoderna kan Lantmäteriets nya nationella höjdmodell användas. De största städerna i Sverige har laserskannats från luften. Den valda inmätningsmetoden bestämmer hur den geometriska rekonstruktionen av byggnaderna skall göras. Om de föreslagna rekonstruktionsmetoderna följs kommer byggnadsmodellerna bara att bestå av plana ytor utan onödiga diagonala veck. Överbestämningar kan användas under rekonstruktionen både för kontroll av grova fel och för att förbättra noggrannheten. Det sätt på vilken textur på ytor bör göras beror mest på hur lång tid textureringen tillåts ta och om modellerna skall användas i programmet Google Earth. De färdiga modellerna skall lagras både som ytor och linjer. Linjerna skall delas upp i separata dataset enligt anvisningarna i SOSI-standarden. En stadsmodell med platta tak och betydligt lägre noggrannhetskrav verkar vara ett tänkbart alternativ tills laserskannade punkter eller flygbilder på nya byggnader finns tillgängliga.

  • 41.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Environmental Strategies Research—fms, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anna
    Environmental Strategies Research—fms, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Life cycle assessment of fuels for district heating: a comparison of waste incineration, biomass- and natural gas combustion2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 1346-1362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is to compare district heating based on waste incineration with combustion of biomass or natural gas. The study comprises two options for energy recovery (combined heat and power (CHP) or heat only), two alternatives for external, marginal electricity generation (fossil lean or intense), and two alternatives for the alternative waste management (landfill disposal or material recovery). A secondary objective was to test a combination of dynamic energy system modelling and LCA by combining the concept of complex marginal electricity production in a static, environmental systems analysis. Furthermore, we wanted to increase the methodological knowledge about how waste can be environmentally compared to other fuels in district-heat production. The results indicate that combustion of biofuel in a CHP is environmentally favourable and robust with respect to the avoided type of electricity and waste management. Waste incineration is often (but not always) the preferable choice when incineration substitutes landfill disposal of waste. It is however, never the best choice (and often the worst) when incineration substitutes recycling. A natural gas fired CHP is an alternative of interest if marginal electricity has a high fossil content. However, if the marginal electricity is mainly based on non-fossil sources, natural gas is in general worse than biofuels. 

  • 42.
    Fredriksson, Tommy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Nybyggnadskarta och terrängmodell för ett framtida småhusområde i södra Årsunda2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med examensarbetet är att bistå stadsingenjörskontoret vid Sandvikens kommun som behöver hjälp att mäta in mark, vägar och objekt som kan påverka genomförandet av en detaljplan för etablering av småhustomter i södra Årsunda. Inmätning av området utfördes med en totalstation Leica TPS 1203+ inlånad från Högskolan i Gävle. Totalstation valdes för att få en hög noggrannhet i höjdmätningar av vägar och brunnar. Behandling av mätdata och framställning av en karta och en terrängmodell gjordes i programvaran Geo. Kartan presenteras i A3-format som en bilaga till rapporten och är en kombination av fastighetsgränser, fastighetsbeteckningar och byggnader ur Sandvikens kommuns primärkarta, sammanslaget med detta projekts inmätningar i området. Terrängmodellen visualiserar områdets höjdskillnader på cirka 3 m genom färgkodning och presenteras som en figur i resultatdelen. 

  • 43.
    Genel, Kerim
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Andersson, Jörgen
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    3D-visualization of fairway margins, vessel hull versus depth data2007Student paper second term, 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fledermaus is software where different kind of analysis with spatial data can be done. The main area where to use Fledermaus is related to hydrographical surveys. This study is aimed to test and analyse the way Swedish Maritime Administration (Sjöfartsverket) uses Fledermaus. Through step by step explaining how to do when measuring sea bed conditions from a vessel, this text is possible to use as a manual for the applications that are mentioned in this report.

    Another thing that is treated is the squat effect that belongs to vessel dynamic motions. Test of visualization that concerning squat in Fledermaus is done, but with a negative result when squat in a perspective to show motions in height that can be up to about a metre is very hard in a terrain model of thousands of metres. By further tests by arranging the input data, several interesting diagrams have been created through Microsoft Excel where graphs show that the depths are affecting the squat effect. This is showed in same diagram but with two different scales to show the relationship between how a point at the vessel moves in height compared to the depth under the vessel when the vessel is navigating in the sea.

  • 44.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and the Built Environment,, Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Studies, Environmental Strategies Research - fms.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Selecting environmental assessment tool for buildings2011In: Proceedings of 6th World Sustainable Building Conference, SB11 Helsinki, October 18-22, 2011, Helsinki, 2011, Vol. 1, p. Abstract 162-163Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Haimene, Rachel N.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Presentation of the Namibia Zero Order Stations and Information Site for Directorate of Survey and Mapping2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is focused on the presentation of the Namibia Zero Order Stations, including the descriptions of the 21 stations across the country and to create information site for Directorate of Survey and Mapping in Namibia. The main reason for the implementation of web site is for the distribution of information and data to domestic and international clients. Most of the materials and information used in this project were available in digital format. Some information was collected from Directorate of Survey and Mapping of Namibia, Swedesurvey of Sweden, and Asci of Sweden as well as from the internet and library facilities. As such it was very important to analyse and display geo-spatial data before creating web site. The computer makes it possible to create a link between filed documents, maps, graphic documents and other related information using hyperlinking. Therefore the computer made the world easier to communicate and mapping via internet.

  • 46.
    Hall, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    BIM Green Box: En undersökning om behovet av digital byggmaterialinformation2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Information om byggvaror tillhandahålls bland annat i form av byggvarudeklarationer och säkerhetsdatablad, vars syfte är att ge en bild av de ingående komponenterna och dess miljöpåverkan under hela varans livscykel. Syftet med denna studie har varit att undersöka de brister som finns i hanteringen av byggmaterialinformation och hur man ska gå tillväga för att förbättra dem. Arbetet har genomförts tillsammans med WSP och deras projekt BIM Green Box, ett projekt med avsikt att skapa en databas som på ett enklare sätt kan åskådliggöra och tillhandahålla information i olika byggvaror. I arbetet har en intervjustudie genomförts med olika aktörer i branschen för att samla in åsikter kring hantering av byggmaterialinformation.

     

    Resultatet från denna studie visar var det brister i informationen om byggmaterial. Bristerna handlar bland annat om otydliga krav från beställare och ofullständig dokumentation från leverantörer. Studien visar dock att det finns en attitydförändring och att utvecklingen går i rätt riktning, där bland annat behovet av att digitalisera byggmaterialinformationen diskuteras och hur det kan utveckla hanteringen av byggmaterialinformationen. Studien påvisar också betydelsen av att ha informationen kopplad till BIM, vilket kan göra att byggmaterialinformationen blir mer lätthanterlig för en byggnad. Studien avslutas med att påvisa de brister som finns med informationshanteringen av byggmaterial samt ge förslag på aspekter att tänka på vid utformningen av en ny databas.

  • 47.
    Hani, Sami
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Byggmetod, energianvändning, transport:: vid jämförelse mellan Gävle Strands Etapp 2 och Maskinisten2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT                                                                                                                    

    Energy use during production of new buildings is an aspect of the hot environmental issues, yet both regulations and studies are absent. In this study a comparison is made on energy use at Strand Etapp 2 which is located at Sjaaregatan 19 and Maskinisten, located at Maskinistgatan 19, both in the city of Gävle. The objective of this study has been to determine which of the projects has the lowest energy use as well as emissions of green house gases due to transportation at the time of erecting the buildings. Maskinisten and Gävle Strand Etapp 2 differ in mainly two points: Gävle Strand Etapp 2 is prefabricated and has wooden frames and Maskinisten is site built and has concrete frame. The method has been to assume a functional unit for the projects in order to make an assessment of which of the projects that have minimum of energy use and emissions. In the calculations, energy use has been divided into three parts: the energy use of the factory (only for the prefabricated project), during transportation and at the building site. The emissions are calculated based on the distance of transportation and the choice of truck when transporting materials and modules. When comparing the two projects a distinct difference can be seen. The prefabricated house, Gävle Strand Etapp 2 requires a lot more energy during production, about 160 % more, compared to site built the Maskinisten. Although the energy use in transport, which is a large part of the total energy of Gävle Strand Stage 2, is disregarded in the comparison, the project still has an energy usage that is about 25 % higher than the value for Maskinisten. The emission that occurs during transport by diesel trucks used in the projects has been calculated in g/ton for each type of trucks and distance. When compared to a previous study, it seems that the amount of emissions is mainly due of the transport distance and not on whether it is transported as complete modules or as separated building materials. To further identify the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods of construction, several project managers from the two projects have been interviewed. The main advantage of prefabricated is considered the shortened construction period and a more efficient work - regardless of the season - on the other hand it is inflexible in comparison to the site-built. Looking only at energy use and emissions, which has been the main issue in this study; it is clear that Maskinisten is the project with the least environmental impact during the construction phase.

  • 48.
    Hollaus, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    CityGML - En analys av framtidens 3D-modeller: CityGML och LoD i planförslag2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    3D-modeller är ett allt mer förekommande inslag i planförslag. Ett problem som kan uppstå med dagens 3D-modeller i planer är att de människor som ska ta del av 3D-modellen inte förstår vad de faktiskt visar. Beroende på om det är en tjänsteman på en kommun eller om du är en medborgare vid ett samråd som ska ta del av planen kan denne visa olika mycket information. Ett annat problem är att framtidens 3D-modeller ska kunna delas via olika applikationer och digitala medium. Dock kan en 3D-modell innehålla mycket information vilket gör att denne kan vara svår att dela. Ett verktyg för att lagra, dela och presentera stadsmodeller i 3D är CityGML. Hur kan CityGML användas i planförslag och är det ett verktyg för framtiden inom planering?För att ta reda på hur CityGML kan användas i planförslag och hur framtidens 3D-modeller kommer att se ut har en litteraturstudie samt intervjuer med Sveriges fem största kommuner genomförts.Resultatet av studien visar att 3D-modeller i planförslag är ett måste. Dock varierar dess innehåll beroende på vem eller vilka som ska ta del av den. Därför kan CityGML’s olika detaljnivåer användas. CityGML är också ett verktyg som hör till framtiden inom planering då den även är en interaktiv modell som användare kan röra sig runt i och utforska. CityGML går även att dela via olika applikationer vilket är en del av framtiden inom 3D-visualisering.

  • 49.
    Hussain, Tayyab
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Checking the integrity of Global Positioning Recommended Minimum (GPRMC) sentences using Artificial Neural Network (ANN)2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to check the integrity of the Global Positioning Recommended Minimum (GPRMC) sentences. The GPRMC sentences are the most common sentences transmitted by the Global Positioning System (GPS) devices. This sentence contains nearly every thing a GPS application needs. The data integrity is compared on the basis of the classification accuracy and the minimum error obtained using the ANN. The ANN requires data to be presented in a certain format supported by the learning process of the network. Therefore a certain amount of data processing is needed before training patterns are presented to the network. The data pre processing is done by the design and development of different algorithms in C# using Visual Studio.Net 2003. This study uses the BackPropagation (BP) feed forward multilayer ANN algorithm with the learning rate and the momentum as its parameters. The results are analyzed based on different ANN architectures, classification accuracy, Sum of Square Error (SSE), variables sensitivity analysis and training graph. The best obtained ANN architecture shows a good performance with the selection classification of 96.79 % and the selection sum of square error 0.2022. This study uses the ANN tool Trajan 6.0 Demonstrator.

  • 50.
    Jakobsson, Isak
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Val av färdmedel till externa köpcentra: En studie av Valbo köpcentrum2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We travel more nowadays. The increasing travel rate generates greenhouse gases which in the long run cause an increasing number of natural disasters over the world. Car traffic is a major contributor to this development. Out-of-town shopping centres have historically good accessibility for car traffic. This study aims to look into what are the factors that influence the choice of transport mode for dwellers in the outskirts of a town when going to out-of-town shopping centres. It also examines how changes in the public transport system influence this choice. More specifically it looks into the effects and attitudes to direct busses and free home deliverance of large articles.

    The study was made up of two questionnaires and some statistical observations. The first questionnaire was sent out to 400 dwellers in Sätra, an urban district on the outskirts of the town Gävle. The respondents were asked about their attitudes to choice of transport modes. Thereafter a direct bus route was arranged during one Saturday, with free home deliverance of large articles from certain shops. The number of travelers for the direct bus route and for the competing bus routes was surveyed. A survey of the corresponding day the year before was also carried out. The second questionnaire was handed out on the direct busses. The respondents were asked to evaluate the tryout of the direct bus and the free home deliverance.

    The results of the first questionnaire showed that the supply of different shops was the main argument why respondents traveled to Valbo instead of Gävle or Sätra centrum. The main factors for the respondents to choose to go by bus to Valbo were lower bus ticket price, short travel time and the thought of a better environment. 77 percent did not think that a buss stop nearer their residence would make them go by bus to Valbo more often. A major portion of the respondents considered that a direct bus to Valbo and free home deliverance would make them choose bus as transport mode more often.

    The observations of the number of bus travelers showed that 152 persons did travel with the direct bus during the tryout-day. It also showed that the competing bus routes had a slightly greater number of travelers on the day of the tryout compared to the corresponding day the year before.

    The results of the second questionnaire showed that the majority of the respondents got to know about the tryout through a dispatch in their mailboxes. Most of the respondents experienced the tryout direct bus ride as “very good”. If there had been no tryout direct bus that day 22 percent of the respondents reported that they still would have chosen bus as transport mode, 8 percent would have gone by car and another 22 percent would have gone to Gävle centrum instead. A major portion of the respondents wished to travel with the direct bus on either workdays or weekends in the future. Short travel time was considered to be the chief factor for a successful direct bus route. Though there were few respondents who used the free home deliverance of large articles many of them believed that they would use it in the future if more shops would participate. Comfort and safety on the busses and home deliverance of articles were considered to be things that could be improved.

    When studying choice of transport modes you should consider the starting point of the shopping trip; it is not always the same as the residency but are rather more complex (Ibrahim, 2003). Furthermore a longer period of time could have been considered to carry out the surveys. The car travelers’ positive attitudes to a direct bus route may partly be explained by the short travel time that comes with a direct bus; which also means that the probability increases for car travelers to change transport mode (Nurdeen et al., 2007).

    Free home deliverance of large articles may work as a “surplus value”, which also may have long-lasting impact on the choice of transport mode (Taniguchi & Fujii, 2006). A co-ordinate system for home deliverance of articles could moreover contribute in counteracting the habit of car travelers to use the car as a “convenient shopping trolley” (Dieleman et al., 2002, s.525) as a purpose of its own.

    The study has showed that direct bus routes between urban districts on the outskirts of towns and out-of-town shopping centres probably will make more shoppers choose bus as transport mode. This is possible even without affecting the competing bus routes to decrease in number of travelers. However it will be necessary with further surveys on how direct bus routes do affect foot and bicycle traffic to city centres and urban district centres. In additition the study of Valbo showed that free home deliverance of articles could make more shoppers choose bus more often as transport mode.

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