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  • 1.
    Abdi, Shorash
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Stedt, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av Leicas multistations och laserskanners mätosäkerheter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Presently there is no standard for the evaluation of measurement uncertainties for terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) despite the fact that the instrument has been on the market and used for a long time. Since the manufacturer's specifications do not always correspond with reality, it is important to have knowledge about how well the instrument performs. Numerous studies over the past decade have applied different approaches to estimate the measurement uncertainties on various TLS.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the measurement uncertainties of the TLS Leica ScanStation C10 with the multi station Leica Nova MS50 under two different weather conditions. The uncertainty was calculated using ISO 17123-5:2012, which is an international standard developed for acquiring measurement uncertainties of total stations, to investigate whether this standard could also be applicable for TLS. The survey, which took place outdoor at the University of Gävle, was carried out by scanning targets that were set up in a triangle formation from three stations. Both spheres and HDS-targets were scanned with the TLS while the MS50 only scanned spheres. The targets were scanned four times from each instrument setup. Cyclone was used to find the coordinates on the center of the targets which were used to calculate the uncertainties according to the ISO-standard. The results showed that the 3D-uncertainty of C10 with HDS-target and spheres were 2.9 mm and 3.5 mm during sunny conditions and 1.1 mm and 1.4 mm during cloudy conditions, respectively. In the case of the MS50, the uncertainty was 3.0 mm during sunny and 3.7 mm during cloudy conditions. MS50 demonstrated a higher 3D-uncertainty in both weather conditions due to high uncertainty in the vertical direction. In addition, a chi-two-test carried out on the TLS showed that the calculated uncertainty in plane and height did not significantly deviate from the manufacturer's specified uncertainty when using HDS-targets during cloudy conditions. Furthermore, it was found in the F-test that there was a significant difference in plane and height between two scans with the same instrument and target type in different weather conditions. MS50 did not show any significant difference at all. The results of this study showed that there will be a significantly lower uncertainty when scanning in cloudy conditions. Our conclusion is that it is possible to apply the standard to calculate the measurement uncertainties on TLS and ISO should consider using the same standard for TLS as the total station.

  • 2.
    Ahnberg Åsenius, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Lekmöjligheter och trafiksäkerhet för barn i stadsmiljöer: Fallstudie av centrala Falun2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Small children in the age around two to ten needs space to play and move around to be able to develop, and these needs should be considered in the spatial planning practice. Unfortunely there are signs that childrens need for places to play and move around have lost in priority in spatial planning practice in Sweden the last decades. For example research shows that childrens access to public places to play at in swedish citys is reduced. Also childrens possibilities to move around freely in swedish cities are continuously reduced due to increasing traffic. It has also been noted that fewer children walk or bicycle on there own to school and bicycling in the spare time has also been declining.   

    The aim of this study has been to exmine childrens possibilities to play and move around independently in urban environment. The study is restricted to a casestudy of the city-environment Falun-Centrum. That is an area of ca 2,5 km2 predefined by Falu kommun. It contains the city-center with shops, parks, roads, residential areas, kindergardens, schools etc. Information has been collected by a postal survey sent to guardians of 100 children (about 20 % of the total number in the area) that were older than one year and younger than eleven years during 2017 living in the casestudy-area.

    The results are based on 53 answers; 39 answers to the postal survey and 14 answers to additional interwievs over telephone. The answers show that in Falun-Centrum the respondents experience that their children have quite good access to places to play at in their vicinity. Field inventory of the places showed that many of the places were spacious enough to allow vast playing and had green and varied terrain, which is good. Though, the results about the safety aspects in traffic shows that there are a lot of traffic hazards that prevent the children to move around independently in the area.

    In summary it means that the children in general have good places to play at in there vicinity (although there are exeptions), but that they can not go there on their own due to traffic hazards. The lack of traffic safety also means that the conditions for them to go to, explore and get to know new places in their surroundings are severely limited. In the long run it limits the development of their geographichal imagination of their urban surroundings. It also limits their opporunities to meet, get to know and understand other persons in the city. In the long run it inhibits the urban social sustainability.

  • 3.
    Alikhani, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    A GIS-based crowdsourcing iPhone Application to Report Necessities, Civic Issues, and Public Events2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Civic issues in a society can be reported through a crowdsourcing web application. People can download the application on their smartphones and report the issues such as a pothole or broken streetlight. The report is submitted by taking a photo of the issue and additional information is entered. At first, the reports are submitted to a call center and after analyzing they will be transferred to organizations responsible for this type of events. In such a crowdsourcing project it is very vital to motivate people to participate in the project. The reports are supplied by users and without an acceptable number of users the application would be useless. In addition, having the exact location of a report is very helpful to facilitate the process of solving civic issues. Positioning with smartphones is not very accurate as they do not have strong and accurate GPSs. Therefore, there is a need to improve the accuracy of the positioning process and consequently accuracy of the spatial data. The aim of this thesis is to investigate how to employ GIS to help reporting civic issues and how to design an interesting client interface for such an application, in order to motivate user to download and use it. The goal is also to find out shortcomings and weaknesses of the positioning with smartphones and find a way to improve its accuracy.Some of successful similar applications’ structures and their interfaces were reviewed. In addition, a survey among existing users of crowdsourcing applications has been done in order to find out how to design the application to be interesting for users. Furthermore, some techniques and methods were chosen in order to improve the GPS accuracy especially in the places with a low GPS signal strength. These methods exploit WLAN and some of embedded features in a smartphone such as microphone, camera, accelerometer, gyroscope to improve the positioning accuracy. In the end, along reporting civic issues the user is able to report and get information about cheap and appropriate necessities and public events in different geographical areas through a map-based application. Furthermore, he or she is benefited by some location-based services such as online-food or taxi. The client application’s interface was designed for iPhone.This GIS-based mobile application would be an appropriate alternative for the old reporting methods like phone call or mail. Nevertheless, reporting civic issues itself, cannot be necessarily a strong motivation to attract the user to download and use the application. Therefore, desired feedbacks of the crowd need to be found out in order to encourage them to spend their time for the application. User needs to get motivated to use the application and considered additional parts can be very helpful to reach this aim.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Färdigställande av Sveriges digitala förrättningsarkiv: Effekter av skanning av äldre gällande förrättningsakter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When the Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority, Lantmäteriet, first digitised their archived cadastral procedures into the digital archive Arken, the aim was to create a national digital archive for cadastral procedures. Lantmäteriet now have their cadastral procedures digitised in Arken. Some municipalities still have their older analogue cadastral procedures from 1972 and before archived in the office of their local authority. For the cadastral procedure, this means the land surveyor is bound to contact the local authority to reach all information needed for the procedure.

    A digitisation of the remaining older cadastral procedures may improve their availability and make todays cadastral procedure more effective and manageable for Lantmäteriet. This also applies to other users of these older archived documents. This dissertation aims to answer the following questions: 1) How may cadastral procedures become more effective and 2) become more legally certain through a digitisation of the analogue archives? 3) Which impact may a digitisation of these older archives have on the real property market and the Swedish municipalities? The research questions were answered through inventory of cadastral procedures and personal interviews with local authorities and other actors, experienced of or influenced by these matters. The inventory helped answering the amount of work remaining in digitising these archives. The interviews answered which impact a digitisation of the material would have on different users of the information. Interviews were also used together to investigate both the legal certainty of cadastral procedures and the quality of the Swedish land registry.

    The result of the dissertation shows which impact a digitisation would have on different users of the information. The most common effect of digitisation was effectiveness in different aspects, such as timesaving and cost-effectiveness along with legal certainty. Conclusions from the dissertation are: all interviewed users of the older cadastral procedures are positive to a digitisation of the material. More effort in time and finance from the different Swedish local authorities and Lantmäteriet is needed and strongly recommended.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Hedlund, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Trivsam boendemiljö för studenter: En gestaltningsstudie utifrån studenters åsikter för ett trivsamt boende2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The physical environment is a very important component for human health.  A well-functioning site enables people to recreation and social life. People who spend a lot of time outdoor are also experiencing less stress. If people doesn’t give opportunity to influence the spatial planning process there is a risk of negative attitudes and discomfort. This can create a mental illness. This study deals with how students feel about their physical environment and how they want it to be designed. The study is aimed at students who live in one of the three different student areas in Gävle: Kungsbäck, Campus Sätra and Midgård. The study is based on three methods. These were: a questionnaire, an observation study, and a physical design study in 3D.

     

    The observations showed significant problems with the site design as only movement, who take into necessary but significant activity account. The observations showed a clear lack of both elective and social activities, both of which are important for a well-functioning place. The survey showed dissatisfaction about the site design among the students. Through this study, students were given an opportunity to share their wishes about the site's future design. The proposals were designed in 3D. Three different proposals were developed: a zero option, an economical option, and an expensive option. The zero option indicates a probable development of the area if no action takes place. The economical option indicates a solution that focus on economical sustainability. The expensive option has the highest costs both in construction and maintenance. The evaluation showed that the students liked the economical proposal option most.

     

    The result showed the importance of student participation in the planning process. Student comments through the survey and evaluation, indicated that: trees, venues, water, grass and lighting should be included in future planning frameworks for student housing.

  • 6.
    Andrée, Martin
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Larsson, Karolina
    KLM; Stockholms stad.
    Nordqvist Darell, Fanny
    Stockholms stad.
    Malm, Linus
    Tyréns.
    Tullberg, Odd
    WSP.
    Wallberg, Ann
    JM.
    Norsell, Johan
    NAI Svefa.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Slutrapport för projektet Smart planering för byggande: Delprojekt 3 - BIM som informationsstöd för 3D fastighetsbildning2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällsbyggnadsprocessen behöver utvecklas och bli smartare, öppnare och mer effektiv för ett ökat bostadsbyggande. En digitalisering av samhällsbyggnadsprocessen kan ge ett effektivare samarbete mellan kommun, fastighetsägare, byggherrar, medborgare, näringsliv och myndigheter.Vid bildande av tredimensionellt avgränsade fastigheter eller fastighetsutrymmen (3D-fastigheter) behöver gränsernas läge redovisas både verbalt och i kartor och ritningar, detsamma gäller berörda rättigheter. Det är idag ofta svårt att korrekt redovisa en 3D-volym med enbart dagens pappersritningar och även svårt att läsa en registerkarta i 2D med fastigheter och rättigheter beslutade i 3D. Beslutsunderlagen i fastighetsbildnings-processen behöver bli mer enhetliga och entydiga samt fastighetsinformationen behöver bli återanvändningsbar i hela samhällsbyggnadsprocessen.I detta projekt har vi studerat informationsbehovet i de olika tidpunkterna under fastighetsbildningsprocessen för 3D-fastigheter med fokus på vem som är ansvarig för att tillhandahålla informationsunderlag för att identifiera krav på utformning av 3D-modeller (t.ex BIM) och 3D-stöd för fastighetsbildning.Internationellt finns det ett stort intresse och många frågeställningar gällande samspelet mellan BIM och Fastighetsinformation; det är däremot ganska få fall som har identifierats där man har arbetat praktiskt med BIM i relation till redovisning av 3D-fastigheter.Projektethar även tittat på behov av visualisering och tillhandahållande av fastighetsinformation i 3D, hur informationen bör utformas för att kunna tolkas korrekt samt nyttjas vidare av andra aktörer i samhällsbyggnadsprocessen.Slutsatsen i projektetär att en framtida arbetsmodell där man i samband med myndighetsutövningen för fastighetsbildning samverkar med stöd av BIM och geografisk information i ärendehandläggningen kan ge stora effekter på både myndighetens effektivitet och i ärendeutövningen och för förståelsen av fastighetbildningsbeslutet hos samtliga intressenter i processen. För att det arbete som genomförts i denna utredning skall få genomslag i den dagliga verksamheten rekommenderar vibland annatatt de statliga och kommunala lantmäterimyndigheterna arbetar vidare med att utveckla arbetsprocessen och rekommendationerna för 3D-fastighetsbildning baserat på resultatet från detta projekt och redan i dagens modell efterfrågar att man i handläggningsprocessen kan arbeta BIM-baserat även om kommande beslutshandlingar under en övergångsperiod fortfarande kommer att vara baserade på ritningsbilagor i 2D.

  • 7.
    Ansin, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Rödin, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Exploateringsavtal: Samverkan mellan kommun, lantmäterimyndighet och exploatör2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On January 1st 2015 an amendment passed in the Planning and Building Act in order to simplify and rationalize the detailed development plan process. The amendment includes a new part for cadastral authority in the plan process and new rules for development agreement. The municipalities should adopt guidelines for these agreements. The aim of this study was to describe how the collaboration between municipality, cadastral authority and developer works when it comes to development agreement and how the amendment in the Planning and Building Act concerning the development agreement has affected these participants.

    To answer the thesis a web survey was sent to all municipalities in Sweden to get an overview of how the amendment has influenced the country. Semi-structured telephone interviews were also performed in five municipalities that have adopted guidelines for the development agreements. The interviews were performed with land development engineers, cadastral supervisors and developers to receive their perspective of the collaboration and how the amendment has affected them.

    The results of the study have shown that negotiations have started earlier between municipalities and developers after the amendment in the Planning and Building Act passed. The municipalities also need to pay compensation when they take land for public places after the amendment. The cadastral authority’s more active part has contributed to assure that ambiguities and shortcomings might be solved in the development agreement. However, it is still too early to tell what the cadastral authorities part has contributed in the development agreements. The developer has got a major opportunity to influence the development agreements. The collaboration between municipalities, cadastral authorities and developers has become clearer and improved but overall it is unchanged. There are opportunities for improvement in the long term.

  • 8.
    Arvids, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Samfälligheter: Föreningsförvaltning och Samfällighetsföreningsregistrets aktualitetsgrad2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Samfälligheter har en mycket viktig roll i Sverige för samverkan mellanfastigheter i förvaltningen av gemensamma resurser. Dessa kan förvaltas på två vis; genom föreningsförvaltning och delägarförvaltning. Föreningsförvaltninglämpar sig bäst för större samfälligheter som kräver många förvaltningsåtgärder och har många medlemmar. En sådan förening sköts genom en styrelse som är vald av medlemmarna. Styrelsens uppdrag går ut på att enligt lagstiftningen följa föreningens stadgar och stämmobeslut samt att se till att befintliga anläggningar förvaltas enligt anläggningsbeslutet och att nya anläggningar blir utförda. Detta uppdrag innebär dock vissa svårigheter; engagemanget sker på ideell grund och lagen innehåller inga närmare krav på styrelsens kompetens, vilket öppnar upp för olika former av problematik. Uppgifter om samfällighetsföreningarna står att finna i Samfällighetsföreningsregistret och Fastighetsregistret. Det förstnämnda har en bristande kvalité på sina uppgifter vilket utgör ett problem för såväl föreningarna som för utomstående.

    Med dessa förhållanden som bakgrund görs en studie på rådande lag och regelverk i området kombinerat med kvalitativa intervjuer av ordföranden vid samfällighetsföreningar. Syftet är att undersöka hur styrelsens uppdrag ser ut vid föreningsförvaltning, hur denna förvaltning fungerar i praktiken och vilka eventuella problem som står i vägen för optimalt fungerande samfällighetsföreningar, samt vilka åtgärder som kan tänkas ge Samfällighetsföreningsregistreten förbättrad registerkvalité.

    Resultatet av studien visar att det största problem området utgörs av medlemmarnas i många fall bristande engagemang samt styrelsernas avsaknad på specialkompetens. Det framkommer att de bäst lämpade åtgärderna för att avhjälpa bristen på kompetens utgörs av att upprätta dokument med lättöverskådlig information till styrelserna, men även till medlemmarna som på så vis skulle kunna ställa högre krav på styrelsens arbete och själva upptäcka fel och brister i förvaltningen. Även en del förtydligande av bestämmelserna i lagen anses vara lämpligt. För att öka medlemmarnas engagemang uppkommer inga konkreta förslag från det resonemanget som förs.

    Genom att erbjuda samfällighetsföreningarna möjligheten att registrera ändrade uppgifter på Internet samt ge dem en belöning för detta i slag av en medlemsförteckning bör styrelserna bli mer noggranna i detta avseende, vilket framkommer i studien. Den främsta orsaken till att samfällighetsföreningarna inte anmäler ändringar i tillfredsställande grad beror på bristande kunskap, vilket bör kunna avhjälpas genom att någon form av broschyr ges ut till styrelsemedlemmarna innehållande relevant information.

  • 9.
    Assefha, Sabina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Sandell, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Evaluation of digital terrain models created in post processing software for UAS-data: Focused on point clouds created through block adjustment and dense image matching2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lately Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are used more frequently in surveying. With broader use comes higher demands on the uncertainty in such measurements. The post processing software is an important factor that affects the uncertainty in the finished product. Therefore it is vital to evaluate how results differentiate in different software and how parameters contribute. In UAS-photogrammetry images are acquired with an overlap which makes it possible to generate point clouds in photogrammetric software. These point clouds are often used to create Digital Terrain Models (DTM). 

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate how the level of uncertainty differentiates when processing the same UAS-data through block adjustment and dense image matching in two different photogrammetric post processing software. The software used are UAS Master and Pix4D. The objective is also to investigate how the level of extraction in UAS Master and the setting for image scale in Pix4D affects the results when generating point clouds. Three terrain models were created in both software using the same set of data, changing only extraction level and image scale in UAS Master and Pix4D respectively. 

    26 control profiles were measured with network-RTK in the area of interest to calculate the root mean square (RMS) and mean deviation in order to verify and compare the uncertainty of the terrain models. The study shows that results vary when processing the same UAS-data in different software. 

    The study also shows that the extraction level in UAS Master and the image scale in Pix4D impacts the results differently. In UAS Master the uncertainty decreases with higher extraction level when generating terrain models. A clear pattern regarding the image scale setting in Pix4D cannot be determined. Both software were able to produce elevation models with a RMS-value of around 0,03 m. The mean deviation in all models created in this study were below 0,02 m, which is the requirement for class 1 in the technical specification SIS-TS 21144:2016. However the mean deviation for the ground type gravel in the terrain model created in UAS Master at a low extraction level exceeds the demands for class 1. This indicates all but one of the created models fulfil the requirements for class 1, which is the class containing the highest requirements.

  • 10.
    Barrefjord, Madelene
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Delin, Hanne-Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Förrättningslantmätarens hantering av stiftelser utifrån Kammarkollegiets och tillsynsmyndigheternas prövningar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudsyftet med studien var att utreda och klargöra hur förrättningslantmätaren bör handla när en stiftelse blir sakägare i en lantmäteriförrättning och hur stiftelsen ska behandlas utifrån förrättningslantmätarens undersökningsplikt. Studien hade även två delsyften där det första skulle beskriva och analysera hur stiftelsers föreskrifter kan ändras, medan de andra skulle utreda hur tillsynsmyndigheternas registrering av stiftelser genomförs. Förrättningslantmätare är en yrkesroll inom lantmäterimyndigheten och har till uppgift att handlägga samt besluta i fastighetsbildnings-ärenden. Lantmäterimyndigheten är den myndighet som har till uppgift att ansvara för att en effektiv och rättssäker fastighetsindelning genomförs. En stiftelse är en typ av juridisk person som bildas av en eller flera personer för att verka för ett bestämt ändamål. Stiftelsen ska förvalta en ekonomisk förmögenhet som har avsatts för ett bestämt ändamål, där förvaltningen ska ske över en längre tid. Förmögenheten kan bestå av fast egendom i form av fastigheter.

    Metoder som använts för att besvara studiens syften och forskningsfrågor var en litteraturstudie, en intervjustudie och en fallstudie. Litteraturstudien granskade tidigare forskning inom ämnes-området, lagstiftningen och facklitteratur för att ge en vetenskaplig grund. Intervjustudien genom-fördes för att få en grundlig förståelse för hur tillsynsmyndigheternas och Kammarkollegiets prövningar går till vid ändring av stiftelsers föreskrifter. Fallstudien granskade och jämförde tillsynsmyndigheternas och Kammarkollegiets prövningar vid ändring av stiftelsers föreskrifter, men fallstudien jämförde även vilka dokument tillsynsmyndigheterna kräver in av en stiftelse när den ska registreras. Intervjuer gjordes i fallstudien med samtliga tillsynsmyndigheter för att samla information om hur deras prövningar går till när stiftelser ska registreras i stiftelseregistren.

    Resultatet av litteraturstudien bestod av beskrivningar av förrättningslantmätarens yrkesroll, fastighets-, ägande- och stiftelsebegreppet. Resultatet av intervjustudien visade att de intervjuade tillsynsmyndigheterna och Kammarkollegiet har olika grundliga prövningar vid ändring av stiftelsers föreskrifter. Detta visade även fallstudien samt att tillsynsmyndigheternas prövningar skiljer sig åt vid registrering av en stiftelse. Slutsatsen beskriver hur förrättningslantmätaren ska handla när en stiftelse blir sakägare i en lantmäteriförrättning och hur stiftelsen ska behandlas utifrån förrättningslantmätarens undersökningsplikt. Två mallar finns i slutsatsen som innehåller riktlinjer för hur en kontroll av stiftelsens föreskrifter kan göras för att vara säker på att fastighets-bildningen inte strider mot stiftelsens föreskrifter.

  • 11. Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Berghauser Pont, M.
    Colding, Johan
    Gren, Å.
    Legeby, A.
    Marcus, L.
    DN Debatt: ”Nytt miljonprogram – unik chans att lösa flera frågor”2016In: Dagens nyheterArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Berg, Marianne
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Berglund, Helene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av möjligheten att använda UAS vid gränsmätning i skogsmiljö2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Real properties in Dalarna often consist of small lots of forest or agriculture. These lots are often elongated and consequently impractical, therefore the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority performs comprising land consolidations. These are to swap land between the owners of the properties, in order to form appropriate lots, for purpose of, inter alia, promoting investment and development opportunities in the region. In order to establish a map, a decision basis, for the valuation of the lot, the claimed proprietary right has to be surveyed. The work is performed with NRTK (network-RTK) or total station, and the maximum allowed planar deviation is 0.50 m (base level requirement). The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is a possibility of using Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) when claimed property boundaries are going to be surveyed. UAS is a system consisting of an unmanned aerial vehicle, a digital camera, a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, an Inertial Navigation System (INS) and a control station.

    In a delimitated area of about 24 ha in Norra Åbyggeby, north of Gävle, black and white and white markers, with the size of 0.40x0.40 m, were positioned in the terrain and then surveyed as ground control points or boundary points with network RTK. Mean planimetric coordinates have been calculated for the control points, which have been used as reference coordinates. These have been compared with the coordinates measured in an orthophotomosaic produced from flights with UAS at an altitude of 100 and 180 m. To get a further comparison, the coordinates were determined by a block adjustment in the software PhotoScan from Agisoft. The object identification of the markers, placed in different environments, and from different altitudes has been studied.

    The digitalization in the orthophotomosaic resulted in a Root Mean Square error (RMS-value) of 0.083 m at an altitude of 100 m and a value of 0.049 m at an altitude of 180 m. Corresponding RMS values were 0.071 m at an altitude of 100 m and 0.077 m at an altitude of 180 m when computed in PhotoScan. F-test has been calculated using the four RMS values, the result of the F-test showed that coordinates obtained in an orthophotomosaic, in ArcMap, are equivalent to coordinates obtained by block adjustment, in PhotoScan. The F-test also showed that the coordinates are equivalent from altitudes 100 and 180 m by block adjustment, but they are not equivalent when they are obtained in an orthophotomosaic from altitudes 100 and 180 m. If we disregard the systematic error at three of the points (orthophotomosaic 100 m) the F-test did not show any statistically significant difference between the two altitudes.

    All deviations were below the base level requirement. The largest planar deviation was 0.181 m at an altitude of 100 m and 0.083 m at an altitude of 180 m. Corresponding values for PhotoScan were 0.155 m and 0.148 m. How dense the forest was where the marker was placed and the impact of the sun, in terms of shadows and brightness, have affected the composition of the mosaic, and consequently the deviations. UAS can be used for surveying of claimed property boundaries, but there is no guarantee that all signalized boundary points can be surveyed directly in the orthophotomosaic. One recommendation is to use a less accurate method for the measurement of the ground control points (needed for the georeferencing of the point cloud/orthophotomosaic) than the method used in this thesis. The higher altitude is preferable because the time requirement of the flight will be shorter, and a smaller number of aerial photos need to be processed. Choose the method that the user is used to, manual digitizing in an orthophotomosaic or automatic calculation in a block adjustment.

  • 13.
    Berggren, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Förnyelselagen, möjlighet eller hot?: Förnyelse av äldre inskrivna avtalsrättigheter, Gävle kommuns hantering av förnyelsekravet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the so-called ”förnyelselagen”, the Renewal Act, all title registration of contractual rights registered before 1 July 1968 will be de-registered from the Real Property Register, unless renewal is applied for the right no later than 31 December 2018. The aim of the degree project is to pay attention to the renewal requirement. The objective is partly to investigate how the municipality of Gävle will handle the renewal requirement, and partly to facilitate the municipality to determine for which registered rights renewal needs to be sought.

    Unnecessary registered rights cause additional work and costs at cadastral procedures and the Renewal Act is considered to be an effective tool to de-register unnecessary registered rights. At the same time, concerns have been expressed that right holders will apply for renewal for all registered rights that are affected, without investigate which of them are unnecessary. In addition, there is also a concern that the renewal requirement may be overlooked by right holders for rights that are still relevant, which can lead to legal loss.

    Three methods were used in the study. Juridical method was used to investigate the legal situation regarding what happens with registered rights that are de-registered from the Real Property Register. To study how a major right holder acts, an investigation of registered rights was made in the Real Property Register regarding the municipality of Gävle. Furthermore, interviews were conducted with representatives of the municipality concerning the work with the renewal requirement.

    A result of the juridical method is that there are four different situations when an unregistered right may end. The result of the inventory in the Real Property Register, shows that there are about 1 400 registered rights that affect the properties of the municipality. The interviews resulted in that the municipality is informed about the renewal requirement and the municipality in most cases will investigate which registered rights should be renewed.

    The first conclusion is that unregistered contractual rights currently remain valid in the same manner as registered rights, but they may end in four situations if they are not monitored by the right holder. Such protection of unregistered rights is found to be practically impossible in most cases regarding the municipality of Gävle. The other conclusion is that the municipality will investigate which registered rights that need to be renewed, therefore the risk of legal loss can be assessed as low. Finally, it can be concluded that the Renewal Act is an opportunity rather than a threat for the municipality of Gävle.

  • 14.
    Berglund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Karlsson, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Den juridiska odlingsgränsen och dess inverkan på förvärv av statlig mark: En studie av markförvärv i samband med samhällsomvandlingen i Kiruna2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two urban transformations are in progress in northern Sweden today, in Kiruna and in Malmberget, due to expanding mining operations. The relocation of the two cities requires land acquisition. In Kiruna there are specific conditions due to certain protection provided by the so called cultivation border. The purpose of the study is to give a wide perspective on this unique cultivation border and indicate its association with land acquisition. In order to achieve the purpose of the study the history of the cultivation border, the urban transformations and national interests were investigated, as well as the process of land acquisition and how it can be improved. A literature study, qualitative interviews and visits at Kiruna and Malmberget was used to gain knowledge within the topic.As early as in the 1500s, the Swedish government started to take control of the northern parts of the country and encouraged its colonization. The cultivation border was created in the late 1800s to protect the Sami people and their industry from the settlers. The urban transformations are very extensive and have major impacts on the environment. Involved participants want to construct new areas before deconstructing the old ones. There are several different national interests in Kiruna and in Malmberget areas that have to be taken into account in the planning process. Two of those interests are the reindeer and mining industries. The mining industry takes precedence due to its economic benefits to the whole country. The State owns lots of land in Kiruna and in order to acquire it, the government has to give its approval. An application for such an acquirement must be adjudicated by the Swedish Board of Agriculture, the County Administrative Board, affected Sami villages and the National Property Board of Sweden. The high amount of authorities involved makes the process of aquisition long and an improvement to shorten it is to increase the competence of the involved parties and their intercommunication. The purpose of the cultivation border is still considered to be valid, although today for example the tourism is more important than the agriculturing to protect the Sami people.

  • 15.
    Bergström, Eric
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Användning av LiDAR och ArcGIS inom skogsbruk i Sverige2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) has in the past decade developed a lot and is used as a data collection method for inventory of forest. The Swedish National Land Survey is between 2009 and 2015 carrying out a nationwide airborne laser scanning throughout Sweden, and this laser scanning process will lead to a new national elevation model called NNH. Data generated from this height model can be used by the forest industry to make forest inventories. The software developer ESRI Inc. has developed a support for handling LiDAR data in their new version of ArcGIS, ArcGIS 10.1. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the forest industry in Sweden are using LiDAR data, identifying gaps and needs, how ArcGIS is used and how ArcGIS can be developed to match the forest industry. This study was founded by comparing the new version of ArcGIS with the previous version and by interviewing six relevant people who are active in the industry. People from several stakeholders were interviewed: foresters, researchers and technical consultants.The results of the comparison between ArcGIS 10.0 and ArcGIS 10.1 show the potential of LiDAR data and how easy it is to deal with LiDAR data in the new version of ArcGIS. The results of the interviews show that the data available from the NNH are fully sufficient for forest inventory at stand level. It is however not sufficient for analysis of individual trees. Some of those interviewed experienced ArcGIS as an advanced and time-consuming program to learn while others emphasize that it will be interesting with support for managing LiDAR data. The interviewed consultants mostly use software that they have developed by themselves for managing LiDAR data, while other interviewees use ArcGIS as the main program. ESRI Sweden was not sure of the quality of the NNH and how much the forest industry uses NNH, before this study. But it turned out that the NNH data are widely used already, and that quality is adequate. ArcGIS is sometimes perceived as an advanced program and it has often to do with time constraints. If time is available the problem often can be fixed. LiDAR, and NNH is good and useful now, but the question is what will happen when it's time for the forest companies to make their next inventory?

  • 16.
    Bergström, Louise
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Hjälsten, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Förutsättningar för avgränsning av bilfri zon: Exemplifierat i Gävle stad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Car-free zones are a planning strategy that strives for a sustainable urban environment, focusing on reducing car use in people's everyday lives. The purpose of this study has been to investigate what preconditions that have been taken into account when defining car-free zones, to find out how car-free zones are to be delimited in Swedish cities. The aim of the study was to identify which preconditions that are important when designing a car-free zone. Then the preconditions were applied in Gävle to exemplify where a car-free zone is possible and optimal for the municipality of Gävle.

    The study was carried out with two methods to determine the conditions for the delimitations of car-free zones. First, a qualitative content analysis of four existing and planned car-free zones was carried out through an inductive approach to planning documents, reports, scientific articles, books and organizations' websites. The existing and planned car-free zones were the pedestrian street Ströget, Helsinki, Oslo and the district Vauban. Thereafter four semi-structured interviews were conducted. The interviewees were traffic planners from Gävle Municipality, Sundsvall Municipality, Umeå Municipality and Eskilstuna Municipality. Preconditions emerging from the content analysis and interviews were shown in themed tables to compare the preconditions emerged from the two methods. A comparison between the content analysis and the interviews identified nine preconditions. These nine preconditions are density, trade, public buildings, green spaces, meeting places, cycle paths, public transport, walk paths and multistory car parks. The preconditions were applied to an orthophoto of Gävle in ArcMap 10.6 to illustrate where a car-free zone is possible and most optimal to implement in Gävle city. The application of the preconditions resulted in an area that centered in central Gävle

  • 17.
    Bergvall, Therese
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Upphävande av onyttiga officialservitut vid bildande av gemensamhetsanläggningar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Officialservitut är en rättighet där en fastighet får nyttja annans fastighet för ett speciellt behov. Sådana servitut bildas genom beslut av lantmäterimyndigheten eller domstolen. När ett servitut inte längre behövs eller används för en fastighet förfaller det inte automatiskt. Om servitutet inte upphävs blir det onyttigt. Idag finns det många onyttiga servitut som belastar fastighetsregistret och på så sätt även förrättningsverksamheten.

    Syftet med det här arbetet är att öka kunskapen om onyttiga officialservitut samt att bidra till att på sikt minska förekomsten av belastande officialservitut. Eftersom det bildas relativt många gemensamhetsanläggningar idag kan många servitut komma att bli onyttiga när en anläggning bildas och servitut inte upphävs. Därför är det intressant att analysera varför servitut inte alltid upphävs i en sådan situation samt om någon förändring skulle kunna göras för att minska antalet onyttiga servitut. Genom en minskning av dessa skulle förrättningar bli effektivare och kostnaderna mindre.

    De metoder som har använts i arbetet är: (1) en litteraturstudie där tidigare forskning, svensk lagstiftning och propositioner studerats; (2) en granskning av förrättningsakter för att analysera hur förrättningslantmätare har hanterat vägservitut som blivit onyttiga vid bildandet av gemensamhetsanläggningar; (3) en intervjustudie för att analysera hur lantmätare idag behandlar onyttiga servitut när de påträffas vid bildandet av gemensamhetsanläggningar.

    Resultatet visar bland annat att förrättningslantmätare inte kan ta officialinitiativ för att upphäva onyttiga servitut vid en anläggningsförrättning. För ett upphävande krävs en ansökan, överenskommelse eller ett yrkande. Det har också framkommit att fokus kanske inte ligger på att upphäva onyttiga servitut när en gemensamhetsanläggning bildas. Slutsatsen av vad som har störst påverkan på att onyttiga servitut inte alltid upphävs är enligt studien, tid och kostnad. För att på sikt minska förekomsten av onyttiga officialservitut skulle en ”pott” av anslagspengar kunna skapas som lantmätare kan nyttja för att upphäva sådana servitut. Ytterligare ett förslag kan vara att införa en ny paragraf som ger lantmätare rätt att ta eget initiativ till att upphäva servitut som blir uppenbart onödiga vid bildandet av gemensamhetsanläggningar. De berörda fastighetsägarna borde inte bli missnöjda eftersom anläggningen ska tillgodose samma rätt som servitutet gjorde.

  • 18.
    Björinder, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Ekegårdh, Adeline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Förebyggande åtgärder för att försäkra en god luftkvalitet i samband med exploatering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Luftföroreningar är ett växande problem i urbana miljöer på grund av förändrad markanvändning och förtätning av städer. Den huvudsakliga utsläppskällan till luftföroreningar i stadsmiljö är biltrafiken, som bland annat bidrar till höjda halter av luftburna partiklar och kvävedioxid (NO2) i luften. Dessa två luftföroreningar har stor påverkan på människors hälsa. För att reducera överskridande miljökvalitetsnormer, kan kommuner tvingas ta fram åtgärdsprogram. Syftet med denna studie var att påvisa effektiviteten av att införa så kallade förebyggande åtgärder i samband med exploateringsprojekt, oavsett om ett område riskerar att överskrida miljökvalitetsnormerna eller inte, för att på så sätt skapa en bättre luftkvalitet. För att visa på hur förebyggande åtgärder kan se ut i en tätort har exempelområdet Bomhus i Gävle använts där Gävle kommun har för avsikt att utveckla ett område med bostäder och vägar (se figur 1 för det avgränsade området).

    Metoden för denna studie har varit en litteraturstudie och två framtida scenarioanalyser, vilka inkluderar gestaltningsförslag. Litteraturstudien grundar sig i vetenskapliga artiklar, åtgärdsprogram, examensarbeten och myndighetsrapporter, där åtgärder för att reducera halter av partiklar och kvävedioxid undersöktes. Vi har sedan baserat antaganden av framtida scenarioanalyser på litteraturstudien. Åtgärderna har analyserats och kvantifierats för att sedan redovisa konkreta, realistiska och kostnadseffektiva förebyggande åtgärder i exempelområdet Bomhus. Framtagandet av kvantifieringar på luftkvalitetsvärden och åtgärder har legat till grund för att beräkna de samhällsekonomiska kostnaderna i samband med exploatering. För att visualisera förslag på förebyggande åtgärder skapades ett gestaltningsförslag.

    Resultatet visade på att införande av förebyggande åtgärder i exempelområdet Bomhus i Gävle kan bidra till en förbättrad luftkvalitet. Alla åtgärder kunde inte kvantifieras, men litteraturstudiens resultat visade på att tidigare framtagna åtgärder har gett en minskning av luftföroreningar, vilket antas göra detsamma även i Bomhus. Utifrån resultatet anser vi att analysen av införandet av förebyggande åtgärder utgör stor vikt i planeringsprocessen och bör tas fram av kommuner och byggherrar i ett tidigt skede i stadsplaneringen, eftersom att kostnader kan bli stora om luftföroreningarna ökar, oavsett halt. Kommuner ska med hjälp av kostnadsanalyser kunna bedöma om förebyggande åtgärder är samhällsekonomiskt effektiva att tillämpa i en tätort.

  • 19.
    Björklund, Emil
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Uppdatering av den svenska nationella höjdmodellen: Förutsättningar för att använda mobil laserskanning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the prerequisites for using data collected using mobile laser scanning are investigated for updating the Swedish national elevation model. In 2016, the Swedish Transport Administration started a project where information from the road network is collected with mobile laser scanning. The National Land Survey of Sweden has gained access to data from this project and wants to investigate the possibilities of using data from mobile laser scanning to update the national elevation model.

    The prerequisites for using data from mobile laser scanning to update the national elevation model is investigated by examining the deviation against measured control points, comparing height deviation between data from the national elevation model and mobile scanned laser data, as well as studying the distribution and completeness of data from the mobile laser scan is compared to the changed areas it is supposed to replace.

    The result shows a low deviation in height to the control points of 1.2 centimeter in mean deviation. The grid comparison also shows a low deviation in height, mean deviation -2.4 cm. The classification of the point cloud from mobile laser scanning shows problems in dense vegetation where there are no returns from the ground, which, along with restrictions on the spread of mobile laser scanning, impose restrictions on areas that can be updated. It is primarily the lack of ground points in the point cloud and that the point cloud does not fully cover the changed areas that limit the ability to use data from mobile laser scanning to update the National Elevation Model.

  • 20.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Kumlin, Anders
    Anders Kumlin AB.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Bengt Dahlgren AB.
    Local Determination of the Building Envelope Air Leakage2018In: Indoor Air 2018 / [ed] Michael Waring and Brent Stephens, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to determine the rate of local transport into the indoor air of a substance originating from the construction frame of a building has been devised and tested. In particular we demonstrate that a tracer located outside the air and vapour barrier in the construction frame of an office building can be detected in varying concentrations in the office indoor air. The tracer may either diffuse directly or follow with outside air leaking through the barrier. Cor-recting for the local air change rate yields an apparent emission rate as an estimate of the rate of local transport from the construction frame to the indoor air. Our interpretation is that high-er apparent emission rates predominantly reflect higher local air leakage rates through the air and vapor barrier. This information could be useful for interpreting office worker complaints and for decisions on renovation options. The tracer techniques used in the study are also more generally applicable to convert measured concentrations of indoor substances into apparent emission rates. Emission rates are more indicative of the location of pollution sources and may therefore be useful in other investigations of polluted buildings.

  • 21.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Akander, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Infiltration of Air into two World Heritage Farmhouses in Sweden during Winter Conditions2018In: Roomvent & Ventilation 2018: Excellent Indoor Climate and High Performing Ventilation / [ed] Risto Kosonen, Mervi Ahola, Jarkko Narvanne, Helsinki, Finland, 2018, p. 1079-1084Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a part of an ongoing study, we report measurements of air infiltration during winter conditions into two Decorated Farmhouses of Hälsingland designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. In winter these two-storied farmhouses are rarely heated, except for special occasions. In this measurement one farmhouse  was  unheated,  whereas  one  room  was  heated  for  a  brief  period  in  the  other  one.  The observed local mean ages of air measured with tracer gas techniques generally increase with height, both  locally  within  each  room  and  between  floors.  The  average  temperature  and  humidity  also increases from the first to the second floor. The indoor temperature follows the outdoor temperature with a time lag. The differences in water content between inside and outside air correlate with changes of the indoor relative humidity. The correlation is stronger for humidity increase than for humidity decrease, possibly due to moisture absorption by interior text.

  • 22.
    Björn, Cornelia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Sjöström, Elina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Fastighetsvärdering i Sverige och i Spanien: En jämförande studie om fastighetsvärdering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Property valuation is executed by real estate brokers or property valuaters before selling, mortgage, inheritance, divorce, etc. Different methods can be used when determing a market value depending on what kind of object it is. When valuating houses, the most common method in Sweden is called “ortsprismetoden”, which compares similar objects to the object that’s being valuated. The most important valuation factor is the location, and has to be considered when deciding the properties value. Other important factors are the properties condition, standard, orientation and if it’s close to water. These factors that enhance the value, the metods that conclude the value and the laws attached to properties could be different in Sweden and in Spain.

    This study manage how the valuation process is executed in Sweden and in Spain. The countries were chosen based on that it historically have been very popular for Swedes to invest in properties, mainly vacation homes, in Spain. The knowledge about how a market value developes, how the selling/buying process works in Spain is rather limited, therefore this study is important for people who wants to invest in a Spanish property. Without the understandig of the property market, the dream of a perfect vacation home could result in a bad purchase. This study could contribute to a successful purchase by contributing knowledge about the property valuating process, how a market value is determend and what factors increse the value.

    nterviews were executed with real estate brokers and property valuaters in both Sweden and Spain to provide valuable answers to the questions asked in this study. This resulted in both expected and unexpected answers. In some aspects the valuation process were very similar between the countries, but in other aspects there were some major differences that could be discussed. The biggest difference were if the real estate brokers needed a licens to value property or not. In Sweden the broker needs education to get a licens, while in Spain the licens could be bought. Other differences were the selling/buying aspects and what the most important valuation factors were.

  • 23.
    Blomberg, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av mätosäkerheten vid georeferering med UAS och Post Processed Kinematic-GNSS2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    UAS has been become a very popular tool in surveying and evaluation of the systems measurement uncertainties are necessary. The most common method for georeferencing UAS data is to use ground control points (GCP) in order to use them in block adjustment. In recent years’ new techniques for direct georeferencing with UAS have been presented, which in theory means that the position of the UAS can be determined accurately enough and therefore GCP’s can be excluded. This study evaluates  uncertainties of the UAS Freya from SmartPlanes that don’t need GCP’s for georeferencing. The technique applied in the evaluation is based on Post Processed Kinematic (PPK) for coordinate determination of the UAS, which means that the collected GNSS data can be post processed using a reference station.   The test area was a 280 x 320 m block in the north end of Gävle airport, Sweden. Each flight is conducted in two orthogonal blocks and evaluated in three different ways against the 16 GCP. The altitude was about 90 m for all flights. The uncertainty of the PPK-technique is tested and evaluated with three different methods to ensure both accuracy and potential use. In total five flights were assessed and evaluated with Agisoft PhotoScan against 16 GCP spread over the area. The position of each GCP’s was determined with four independent network RTK measurements.  The results show that the georeferencing with the PPK-technique and block adjustment has potential to meet the uncertainties in level with indirect georeferencing using GCP. The results show very similar planimetric uncertainties, around 0,020 m in RMS, for all evaluations with the PPK-technique. The results of the uncertainty in height is more scattered where the two lowest results in a RMS under 0,015 m and the highest over 0,100 m for the difference against the 16 GCP.  It is possible to achieve low uncertainties with the method without the use of GCP. For areas where establishment of GCP is not possible, using UAS equipped with PPKtechnology provides a very suitable alternative to use. The results show relatively large differences between the evaluations and in order to determine the exact cause of them, further studies are required.

  • 24.
    Blomdahl, Kajsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Nyman, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Gatukostnadsersättning som värdeåterförande medel: Kommuners tillämpning och tillkommande effekter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Real property values rises when increased building rights and subdivision is enabled through land development. New infrastructure enables greater accessibility which also leads to increased real property values. Development of the land implies that the municipality has a duty to build public places. The municipality has the possibility of compensation for the expenses if the developer or real property owner is deemed to have benefits of the construction. Street expenses can be used to capture the increased land value when land is developed. The aim of this study was to describe how municipalities employed the street expenses as a value capturing instrument and the effects that arose. As a method semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with experts in land development from seven municipalities in the region of Stockholm. The results showed that municipalities employed streets expenses through development agreement or land use agreements to a greater extent than street expense investigations. Agreements were easier to use than street expense investigations. Street expenses were used to capture an increased value. The compensation must be related to the use of the street. Charges for street expenses were relatively similar for all instruments. Arising effects was that the process was long and costly and there was a financial risk for the municipality. Street expenses led to a good economy for the municipalities and satisfied inhabitants.

  • 25.
    Bolin, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Hellström, Kristin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Nedlagda järnvägar: Intresse och avveckling för annan markanvändning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Railways are of major importance in today´s society and it also affects land usebecause land needs to be claimed to form property for railways. In Swedenthere is currently several disused railways that no one manages. This since thebusiness that once was active is no longer existing. The Swedish Transportadministration has the opinion that railways that not are in use today are achallenge to society because maintenance and care is overlooked. The purposeof the study is to investigate whether there is an interest in using the landwhere disused railways are located for other purpose. The study will alsoshow how land use can be changed in the most efficient way. The aim of thestudy is that it will result in new knowledge in the subject and thus contributeto sustainable social development.A literature study has been made to see what was previously written about thesubject. Some of the scientific papers studied indicate that these disusedrailways are not just a challenge in Sweden, there are also a challenge inseveral other countries in the world. As previous literature on the subject islimited, this study is important for contributing new knowledge on thesubject.To find out if there is an interest in using the land and how to change land useeffectively, a research method has been carefully chosen. Qualitativeinterviews have been conducted with experts in the subject, municipalities, anon-profit organization as well as landowners that are affected or have beenaffected by disused railways.The result of the study shows that there is an interest in using disusedrailways, both from a general and an individual point of view. The result hasalso shown that land use change among other things, most effective throughpurchase, property regulation or the formation of a community facilitydepending on land use. The laws applicable are, Land code, Real property lawand construction law.

  • 26.
    Bomark, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Berg, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    En marknadsjämförelse mellan logistik och andra industrifastigheter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to do a market comparison between logistic and other industrial property from the perspective of investment risk, mortgage rate, yield, leases and the importance of location. Interviews were carried out with representatives from six segments which are logistic property owning logistic companies/investors, companies owning property of industrial- warehouse or production, assessment institutes/banks, property brokers, logistic companies and logistic development organization/property developers. The interviews were conducted between the 17 of April and the 8 of May 2015. Logistic property is in general seen as a better and safer investment than other industrial property in the banks point of view. Other industrial property can be many other kinds of property such as tire storage, sawmill, industrial production which can be high risk investment and have worse alternative usage than logistic property, although logistic property and industrial warehouses does not differ very much compared to industrial production property. The mortgage rate is lower for industrial property than it is for logistic property and the yield is higher which suggests that the general risk is higher for industrial property compared to logistic property. The general opinion of companies who own property for industrial warehouses and production and property brokers is that the banks have high requirements on equity. The banks do not want to mortgage more than 60 % of the property value and often not more than 50 %. The banks do not mortgage to same mortgage rate that they used to do for 7-8 years ago. The market for logistic property is otherwise hot and there are many players who want to enter the market and get logistic property in good locations. Logistic property are now being built on speculation, which combined with low interest rates making it advantageous to invest in property that may lead to increased competition. Due to logistic property is being built on speculation there is a risk of too high rate of establishment in some places in Sweden. The most value-influencing factors of logistics property is location, the lease, and cash flow.

  • 27.
    Borén, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Lämplighetsbedömning vid 3D-fastighetsbildning: Hur bedömningen av lämpliga förvaltningsobjekt görs med hänsyn till storlek och andra påverkande faktorer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays it can be seen that smaller and smaller 3D-property units are formed. To form 3D-property units the property formation procedure must have undergone an assessment of suitability where the general suitability conditions in the third chapter of the Property Formation Act should be taken into account. The legislative history and the commentary of the Property Formation Act speak of that the 3D-property units formed should be suitable management objects and be of palpable size. The size perspective on the 3D-property units has, in some cases, been proven challenging to assess for the cadastral authority.

    This study examines how the assessment of suitable management objects is performed and how the assessment can be affected by other factors. To achieve this, a survey, interviews and a study of property information procedure dossiers have been done. The study of dossiers shows that it is difficult to see reasons to why the 3D-property unit has been considered suitable. The survey and interviews show that the assessment is done with the 3D-property unit’s purpose and independence in mind. The independence is dependent on that the 3D-property unit can operate without too many rights, be economically stable and function alone from a management perspective. The size is only of small significance when it comes to the assessment.

    Conclusion is that the suitability for each management object, the 3D-property units, is done according to the general suitability conditions of the third chapter of the Property Formation Act, where the size doesn’t have an impending significance. However, other factors can affect the assessment; factors that are taken into account individually in each 3D-case.

  • 28.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Lim, Nancy Joy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Importance of river bank and floodplain slopes on the accuracy of flood inundation mapping2012In: River Flow 2012: Volume 2 / [ed] Rafael Murillo Muñoz, Leiden, The Netherlands: CRC Press / Balkema (Taylor & Francis) , 2012, p. 1015-1020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective flood assessment and management depend on accurate models of flood events, which in turn are strongly affected by the quality of digital elevation models (DEMs). In this study, HEC-RAS was used to route one specificwater discharge through the main channel of the Eskilstuna River, Sweden. DEMs with various resolutions and accuracies were used to model the inundation. The results showed a strong positive relationship between the quality of theDEMand the extent of the inundation. However, evenDEMswith the highest resolution produced inaccuracies. In another case study, the Testebo River, the model settings could be calibrated, thanks to a surveyed old inundation event. However, even with the calibration efforts, the resulting inundation extents showed varying degrees of deviation from the surveyed flood boundaries. Therefore, it becomes clear that not only does the resolution of the DEM impact the quality of the results; also, the floodplain slope perpendicular to the river flow will impact the modelling accuracy. Flatter areas exhibited the greatest predictive uncertainties regardless of the DEM’s resolution. For perfectly flat areas, uncertainty becomes infinite.

  • 29.
    Brandt, Sven Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Modeling and visualizing uncertainties of flood boundary delineation: algorithm for slope and DEM resolution dependencies of 1D hydraulic models2016In: Stochastic environmental research and risk assessment (Print), ISSN 1436-3240, E-ISSN 1436-3259, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 1677-1690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As flood inundation risk maps have become a central piece of information for both urban and risk management planning, also a need to assess the accuracies and uncertainties of these maps has emerged. Most maps show the inundation boundaries as crisp lines on visually appealing maps, whereby many planners and decision makers, among others, automatically believe the boundaries are both accurate and reliable. However, as this study shows, probably all such maps, even those that are based on high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), have immanent uncertainties which can be directly related to both DEM resolution and the steepness of terrain slopes perpendicular to the river flow direction. Based on a number of degenerated DEMs, covering areas along the Eskilstuna River, Sweden, these uncertainties have been quantified into an empirically-derived disparity distance equation, yielding values of distance between true and modeled inundation boundary location. Using the inundation polygon, the DEM, a value representing the DEM resolution, and the desired level of confidence as inputs in a new-developed algorithm that utilizes the disparity distance equation, the slope and DEM dependent uncertainties can be directly visualized on a map. The implications of this strategy should benefit planning and help reduce high costs of floods where infrastructure, etc., have been placed in flood-prone areas without enough consideration of map uncertainties.

  • 30.
    Börjesson, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Johansson, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Jane's walk som strategi för involvering av allmänheten i planeringsprocessen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 31.
    Calance, Marius Alexandru
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energy Losses Study on District Cooling Pipes: Steady-state Modeling and Simulation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution losses are a very important factor in district energy systems. By optimizing the losses in such a system, both economical and environmental aspects can be fulfilled. Unfortunately, there is few information regarding losses for district cooling systems. This study focuses on losses in district cooling networks by using both R-network and FEM simulation models. A R-network model composed of thermal conductances has been developed through analytical equations and simulations have been performed for validation. Afterwards, an in-progress construction project of a district cooling network from the city of Gävle, Sweden, is analyzed. The assessment consists of 15 pipe diameters in three configurations (two symmetric cases and one asymmetric), at three ground laying depths (0.8, 2 and 4 meters) for a duration of 7 months (April to October). A particular case in which the main distribution pipes from and to the plant are submerged in the city’s river for a distance of 1 km is investigated in order to estimate the temperature increase of the supply water. A maximum cooling loss below 2% of the total delivered energy during the season for any network configuration resulted from the calculation. Finally, the mixed pipes array seems to be a feasible investment both economically and technically but it cannot be used for the entire network spread since a part of the network has been already built with the non-insulated plastic pipes. The R-network model proved to be effective and reliable in the analysis which provides confidence that it can serve as a solid foundation for a calculation tool - primarily for design purposes and also for estimating energy loss. 

  • 32.
    Carlsson, Carl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Norén, Carl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Omfattning och differenser av gränshävder kontra registerkartan i Boda, Skellefteå kommun2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The cadastral index map is a great benefit to the surveying and governments. The map's main purpose is to show how the overall cadastral division looks in Sweden. The lack of quality of the cadastral index map dose not allows property-owners to know where to draw the boundary between their and others' property. In order to know where to find the boundaries between two properties, is it up to the property-owners themselves (self or in company by the other property-owner) to construct various usucaption at the boundaries. The main objective of the study is to verify the existence and extent of usucaption on forest properties in Bodan, a village outside Skellefteå. A subsidiary aim of the study was intended to investigate the problems that can occur when measuring with GNSS in a forest environment. Another subsidiary aim were to describe what legal protection the boundary conditions has been and find out how usucaption today is handled by the Cadastral Authority. Measurements of all usucaptions have been performed. This process of measurement was performed with GNSS instruments and network RTK as the measurement method. In order to answer how usucaption is currently handled an interview study was conducted, in which 7 people were interviewed. The results of previous studies resulted in forest density has the greatest impact on GNSS survey in the forest environment. After processing the data, the results concluded that differences in tree height are the most common usucaption in Bodan. Then an estimate of the deviation between all usucaptions and the cadastral index map was made. This resulted in the largest maximum deviation between usucaption and cadastral index map was 11,463 m and the average deviation of all usucaption against the cadastral index map was 2.074 m. The conclusion drawn after the course of the work was that the longer boundary lines, the greater the distance between claimed border and the cadastral index map. By interpreting and describing the text of § 18 JP, 14 Ch. 5 § FBL and immemorial custom has the legal situation of usucaption been answered.  The result was that usucaption today has a relatively weak legal protection, it is only when the boundaries are not legally defined the Cadastral Authority is using a usucaption to determining a boundary. By using laws principles § 18 JP, 14 Ch. 5 § FBL and immemorial custom, a boundary is moved if there is an agreement, however, requires a very high degree of proof for this to be implemented. From the interviews, the result was that usucaptions is not often used to decide a new boundary. The usucaptions is instead used to show the property owners where the approximate boundary is. An agreement between the property-owners is the most common solution on how usucaptions are handled. 

  • 33.
    Chen, Lan
    et al.
    School of Atmospheric Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, PR China.
    Hang, Jian
    School of Atmospheric Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, PR China; Institute of Earth Climate and Environment System, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, PR China.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Claesson, Leif
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, BMG laboratory.
    Di Sabatino, Silvana
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Wigö, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    The impacts of building height variations and building packing densities on flow adjustment and city breathability in idealized urban models2017In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 118, p. 344-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving city breathability has been confirmed as one feasible measure to improve pollutant dilution in the urban canopy layer (UCL). Building height variability enhances vertical mixing, but its impacts remain not completely explored. Therefore, both wind tunnel experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are used to investigate the effect of building height variations (six height standard deviations σH = 0%–77.8%) associated to building packing densities namely λp/λf = 0.25/0.375 (medium-density) and 0.44/0.67 (compact) on city breathability. Two bulk variables (i.e. the in-canopy velocity (UC) and exchange velocity (UE)) are adopted to quantify the horizontal and vertical city breathability respectively, which are normalized by the reference velocity (Uref) in the free flow, typically set at z = 2.5H0 where H0 is the mean building height. Both flow quantities and city breathability experience a flow adjustment process, then reach a balance. The adjustment distance is at least three times longer than four rows documented in previous literature. The medium-density arrays experience much larger UC and UE than the compact ones. UE is found mainly induced by vertical turbulent fluxes, instead of vertical mean flows. In height-variation cases, taller buildings experience larger drag force and city breathability than lower buildings and those in uniform-height cases. For medium-density and compact models with uniform height, the balanced UC/Uref are 0.124 and 0.105 respectively, moreover the balanced UE/Uref are 0.0078 and 0.0065. In contrast, the average UC/Uref in height-variation cases are larger (115.3%–139.5% and 125.7%–141.9% of uniform-height cases) but UE/Uref are smaller (74.4%–79.5% and 61.5%–86.2% of uniform-height cases) for medium-density and compact models. 

  • 34.
    Chith, Hussein
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering. Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Den tillgängliga stationen: Gestaltning av en stationsmiljö på basis av tillgänglighet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is about accessibility in a station environment. Studies have been made about how an accessible building should be designed. Accessibility is an important issue when striving for a society with equality as the foundation. Sweden is one of the most accessible countries when speaking about the built environment. A result of prosperity and a well-managed democracy. In spite of this there’s still a lot to do and in some areas the politics for disabled persons has major deficiencies. By continuing to strive against improvements Sweden could actually develop into one of the countries that sets the standard for the rest. Clearer directives from the European Union and the Swedish government during the last years has lead into several new laws and regulations about the design of the built environment. In this report studies have been done about how to attain an accessible surrounding with the focus on the environment in station-buildings. The station that has been studied is Nils Ericsson terminal in Gothenburg, Sweden. The aim has been to highlight good solutions for accessibility and to detect areas where it could be done in a different or perhaps better way. This type of studies is hard to do for a person without any disabilities since there, most often, is an obvious lack of personal relations to the issues. Therefore studies about different types of disabilities and a deeper understanding for the exposed people has been very important for the progression of the work. It has also laid the foundation for understanding the laws and the regulations around accessibility. The results showed that the studied terminal obviously had been designed with a wide thought about making it accessible. There were several solutions for helping the ones in need, for example distinctly marked patterns on the floor. Also, the actions for accessing the terminal had been done with great notice to the surrounding architecture since very few things stood out in contrast. The discussion is mostly about how the different solutions actually worked and fulfilled their purpose.

  • 35.
    Comendador Maramara, Marlou
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Sandström, Jacob
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Kvalitetskontroll av en fasmätande terrester laserskanner FARO Focus3D2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en ISO-standard (ISO-17123) som anger hur de flesta geodetiska mätinstrument ska kontrolleras. Denna standard omfattar dock inte terrester laserskanners (TLS). Detta trots att sådana instrument har funnits ute på marknaden ett tag. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) i USA har utvecklat en amerikansk standard för detta ändamål. Den är möjlig att använda i väntan på att en ISO-standard för TLS fastställts.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka en fasmätande laserskanner FARO Focus3D, som tillhör avdelningen för mätnings- & kartteknik på Tyréns AB i Stockholm. Närmare bestämt har vi riktat in oss på ”osäkerheten i avståndsmätning, och hur denna påverkas av avstånd och infallsvinkel”. Ett ytterligare syfte är att undersöka huruvida en metod, utvecklad av Fédération Internationale des Géomètres (FIG), för bestämning av nollpunktsfelet för totalstationer kan appliceras på TLS. Undersökningen har ägt rum under våren 2012 i och utanför den ca 50 m långa mäthallen i hus 45 vid Högskolan i Gävle. Avstånden som studerades inomhus var 10 – 40 m med intervall om 10 m, samt med både sfäriska och platta svartvita signaler. De sista med infallsvinkeln 0°, 30° och 45°. Även bestämningen av nollpunktsfelet utfördes inomhus med ett avstånd på 30 m med ett intervall på 10 m. Avstånden som undersöktes utomhus var 20 – 120 m med intervall om 20 m med samma signaler. Avstånden vi bestämde oss för att studera valdes pga. att specifikationerna angav att FARO Focus3D skulle klara av att registrera returer från dessa avstånd, där 120 m var det maximala avståndet som angavs.

    Vid kontroll av avvikelserna mot ett referensavstånd vid avstånden 10 – 40 m inomhus uppfyllde endast mätningarna mot två signaler laserskannerns specifikationer. De två signalerna var sfärerna vid 20- och 40 m avstånd från instrumentet. Vid kontroll av avståndsbruset uppfyllde inga mätningar mot signaler vid något avstånd laserskannerns specifikationer. Dock är avståndsbruset nästan hela tiden ganska lågt, förutom vid 40 m och infallsvinklarna 30° och 45°. Här var ökningen av bruset väldigt kraftig. Vid mätningarna utomhus gick det inte att registrera några signaler. Punkttätheten var för gles och antalet laserreturer alldeles för få.

    Gemensamt för alla mätningar mot svartvita signaler, oberoende av infallsvinkel, är att de har den minsta avvikelsen från referensavståndet vid det längsta testade avståndet, dvs. 40 m från instrumentet. Mätningarna mot sfärerna har vid alla avstånd en lägre avvikelse mot referensavståndet än vad de svartvita signalerna har. Emellertid har skanningarna mot sfärerna en högre standardosäkerhet än mot de svartvita måltavlorna, som endast var högre vid det längsta avståndet, 40 m. Vi anser att metoden för bestämning av nollpunktsfel är lätt och relativt snabb att arbeta enligt, samt att den är användbar för TLS. Vår slutsats är att längre avstånd från instrumentet inte nödvändigtvis behöver ge större avvikelser mot ett referensavstånd. I stället kan det resultera i mindre avvikelser.

  • 36.
    Cooper, Ed W
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Etheridge, David W
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology.
    Wigö, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology.
    Measurement of the adventitious leakage of churches with a novel pulse technique2011In: Proc. Roomvent 2011: 12th International conference on air distribution in rooms / [ed] Hans Martin Mathisen, Trondheim, Norge: Tapir Akademisk Forlag , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The University of Gavle is currently involved in a project on saving energy in historic buildings (churches). An important factor in the determination of the natural ventilation rate is the adventitious leakage of the envelope. Measurement of leakage is therefore a key feature of the investigations. It was decided to adopt a new technique developed at the University of Nottingham (UNott). It is a pulse technique compared to the conventional steady technique.

    The conventional technique consists of generating a steady and high pressure difference (50 Pa) across the envelope by means of a fan. Such pressures are rarely encountered in ventilation and this leads to errors in the low-pressure leakage. Furthermore the use of the conventional blower door technique in churches is difficult due to their large volume and the need to replace the doors.

    The underlying principle of the UNott technique is described and examples of results are given. The most important advantage of the Unott technique is that the leakage is determined at the low pressure differences that are encountered with ventilation e.g. 4 Pa. This is made possible primarily by the fact that the effects of wind and buoyancy at the time of the test are eliminated by taking account of the pressure variation before and after the pulse.

    For measurements in large buildings, a number of identical piston/cylinder units have to be operated simultaneously. The University of Gävle has developed a system whereby up to seven units can be used. Such a number is required for a leaky church and this is the first time this has been done.

  • 37.
    Dahl, Stellan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av vinkelmätningsosäkerheten hos terrester laserskanner FARO Focus3D2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande studie har en metod för utvärdering av vinkelmätningsosäkerheten hos en terrester laserskanner (TLS) tagits fram. Metoden för mätning och beräkning av vinkelmätningsosäkerheten är till stor del baserad på både ISO:s standard för test av en teodolit och en doktorsavhandling där vinkelmätningen hos en TLS undersöks. FARO Focus3D är en TLS som ägs och brukas av konsultföretaget Tyréns AB. Syftet med detta examensarbete är att utvärdera vinkelmätningsosäkerheten hos Tyréns TLS. Det finns inget skrivet i specifikationerna för FARO Focus3D om vinkelmätningsosäkerheten och eftersom vinkelmätningen har stor påverkan på resultatet så är det viktigt att utvärdera dess osäkerhet. TLS är det enda geodetiska mätinstrument som saknar ISO-standard för kontroll. Vinkelmätningsosäkerheten har analyserats i förhållande till medelvärde och referensvärde. Referensvärdena bestämdes med en totalstation. Två olika mätsituationer med TLS utfördes. I den första skannades fyra koordinatbestämda sfärer som låg på ungefär samma höjd som TLS och placerade jämt spridda runt instrumentet i horisontalled. I den andra situationen skannades fyra svartvita signaler placerade på en vägg med en vertikal spridning på ca 30°. Centrumpunkterna på sfärer och svartvita signaler bestämdes med programvaran Scene och dess koordinater bestämdes i TLS koordinatsystem. Både horisontella riktningar och vertikala vinklar beräknades från koordinaterna, och utifrån dem beräknades vinkelmätningsosäkerheten. Standardosäkerheten för de horisontella riktningarna beräknades till 0.002° och för de vertikala vinklarna 0.001°. I förhållande till referensvärde beräknades osäkerheten i de horisontella riktningarna till 0.015° och i de vertikala vinklarna beräknades osäkerheten till 0.026°. Vid beräkning av osäkerheten i förhållande till referensvärdena så visade det sig att det finns systematiska fel i skannern som antagligen beror på att kompensatorn inte fungerar korrekt. Den metod som använts i studien har visat sig fungera bra för utvärdering av vinkelmätningsosäkerheten hos en TLS, och den är dessutom relativt okomplicerad att utföra. 

  • 38.
    Dalheimer, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Transformation av geodetiska höjdnät med flygburen laserskanning: En inledande genomförbarhetsstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When the requirements on accuracy and precision are high for geodetic measurements you need geodetic reference systems realized with geodetic control networks of high quality. Today, establishment and transformation to higher order reference systems for height usually uses terrestrial methods like levelling. While highly accurate these result in time consuming work. There have been a couple attempts at using other methods for this task, for example GNSS, but another possibility might be usage of point clouds from airborne laser scanning.

    As a starting point for further studies this study attempts to use point clouds to transform a geodetic height network in Sandviken municipality, Sweden. The network consists of around 500 benchmarks and has been transformed to the national reference system for height, RH2000, by the Swedish national geodetic survey (Lantmäteriet) in 2010. The point cloud used is also produced by Lantmäteriet and is said to have a mean error of 0,05 m. This is relatively high since the requirements usually are in the millimeter range when determining transformation parameters, but if the transformation only consist of a single height shift calculated as a mean from several height shifts derived from the point cloud any random errors in the point cloud should be reduced.

    By measuring the height difference between benchmarks and points on the ground, that through different methods are given heights according to the point cloud, heights of the benchmarks have been determined according according to the point cloud. These can be compared to heights in RH2000 according to the transformation performed by Lantmäteriet to see their deviation from the assumed true value. Further comparisons against the older local heights of the benchmarks give a height shift that can be used as a simple transformation. By calculating a mean and uncertainty an estimation of the suitability of the method can be achieved.

    The all height shifts deviated a few millimeters from the result Lantmäteriet got, with uncertainties around 3 mm for the overall best method. Even if the uncertainty of the shift and therefore the transformation ended up somewhat high compared to what Lantmäteriet achieved it is still believed that point clouds may be or become a viable alternative. Especially in more remote regions without good connections to the higher order network. There are many parameters that have not yet been explored though, as well as some potential systematic errors that should be further investigated.

  • 39.
    Dimopooulou, Efi
    et al.
    School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou, Greece.
    Karki, Sudarshan
    Queensland Government, Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Brisbane, Australia.
    Roić, Miodrag
    Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagred, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Duarte de Almeida, José-Paulo
    Geomatic Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science & Technology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Griffith-Charles, Charisse
    epartment of Geomatics Engineering and Land Management, Faculty of Engineering, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
    Thompson, Rod
    Department OTB, Section GIS - technology, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.
    Ying, Shen
    School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Oosterom, Peter van
    Department OTB, GIS Technology Section, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands .
    Chapter 2. Initial Registration of 3D Parcels2018In: Best Practices 3D Cadastres - Extended version / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Copenhagen, Denmark: International Federation of Surveyors , 2018, p. 67-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Registering the rights of a 3D parcel should provide certainty of ownership, protection of rights and unambiguous spatial location. While not all cadastral jurisdictions in the world maintain a digital cadastral database, the concepts of such registration hold true regardless of whether it is a paper-based cadastre or a digital one. Similarly, the motivations and purpose for the creation of a 2D cadastre for individual jurisdictions applies to3D cadastre as well. It provides security of ownership for3D parcels, protects the rights of the owners, and provides valuable financial instruments such as mortgage, collateral, valuation and taxation. The current life cycle of the development of a land parcel includes processes startfrom outside the cadastral registration sphere, such as zoning plans and permits, but has a direct impact on how a certain development application is processed. Thus, in considering the changes required to allow a jurisdiction to register 3D, it is important to note the sphere of influence that could have an impact on 3D registration. These include planners, notaries, surveyors, data managers and registrars; however for the purpose of this paper, the research is focused on the core 3D aspects that are institutional, legal and technical. This paper explores approaches and solutions towards the implementation of initial 3D cadastral registration, as derivedby current procedures of registration of 3D parcels in various countries worldwide. To this end, the paper analyses the categorisations and approaches of3D spatial units and examines the validation requirements (constraints) on a cadastral database, at various levels of maturity. In this view, 3D data storage and visualization issues are examined in relation to the level of complexity of various jurisdictions, as provided by the results of the country inventory combined with a worldwide survey in 2010 and updated in 2014 (Van Oosterom, et al., 2014). It appearsthat significant progress has been achieved in providing legal provisions for the registration of 3D cadastres in many countries and several have started to show 3D information on cadastral plans such as isometric views, vertical profiles or text environment to facilitate such data capture and registration. Moreover, as jurisdictions progress towards an implementation of 3D cadastre, much 3D data collected in other areas (BIM, IFC CityGML files, IndoorGML, InfraGML and LandXML) open up the possibility of creating 3D cadastral database and combining with the existing datasets.The usability, compatibility and portability of these datasets is a low cost solution to one of the costliest phases of the implementation of 3D cadastres, which is the initial 3D data capture.

  • 40.
    Eby Palm, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Gentrifiering i förtätningsdiskursen: En kritisk diskursanalys av plandokument och mötesprotokoll från Gävle kommun2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urban densification has become a prevalent strategy of city planning in Sweden. Urban intensification is also a strategy which, according to Bunce (2018), Rådberg (2014) and the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (2016a, 2016b) runs the risk of resulting in gentrification. The Swedish National Board advices that gentrification should be considered when urban densification is implemented in central areas (Boverket, 2016a, 2016b). In what way do Swedish municipalities address the issue in their city planning? This Bachelors Degree essay is an attempt at beginning to answer that question. The study applies discourse analysis and takes the form of a case study of the municipality of Gävle. It focuses on central urban densification for housing purposes, and studies excerpts from planning documents on different geographical scales, combined with protocol from municipal policy meetings. All materials used are within the public domain. The study uses three different definitions of gentrification (Hamnett, 2003; Marcuse, 2015; Boverket 2016a, 2016b). Combining different methods of discourse analysis, the study pinpoints any discussion regarding gentrification or its synonyms, as well as the overall themes and values present within the text. The study finds that gentrification is sparingly mentioned within the material, and in addition notes that social consequences are predominantly described as being positive. The findings are compared to definitions of silence (Huckin, 2002; Kurzon, 2007), and to Huckin’s (2002) criteria for manipulative silence. The study concludes that the absence of gentrification and of negative social impact within the discourse qualifies as silence, and that this silence fits the criteria for manipulative silence. It is speculated that the silence may be caused by a combination of urban planning ideals, pressure to prepare for a large number of dwellings, and demands made by the laws that regulate urban planning. Further study is recommended to broaden the studied discourse and to examine the cause of the silence found in this study.

  • 41.
    Edlund, Isabelle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Kommunal markpolicy: Ett medel i kommunens hantering av markärenden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur marken ska användas och av vem är aktuella frågor i dagens samhälle till följd av att många tätorter i Sverige är i en expansiv fas. Kommuner är till största del de viktigaste markägarna av exploaterbar mark. Det har påträffats att endast några kommuner har publicerade dokument som visar den vilja och de riktlinjer kommunen har med det kommunala markinnehavet, kommande markförvärv och i markärenden med privata aktörer utanför den kommunala verksamheten. Till följd av det är syftet med studien att uppmärksamma och öka kunskapen om kommunal markpolicy. 

    En markpolicy är ett styrdokument som beskriver en kommuns vilja och riktlinjer för det kommunala markinnehavet. Policyn ska utgöra ett beslutsunderlag och vara vägledande för kommunens hantering av markärenden. Syftet med studien är även att bidra till en effektivare markpolitik och mer enhetlig handläggning av markärenden samt en mer transparent kontakt mellan kommun och privata aktörer. Målet med studien är att ge svar på om en dokumenterad markpolicy kan vara ett bra underlag i kommunala markärenden, samt vad en markpolicy bör innehålla för att den ska uppfylla sitt syfte.

    I studien har två metoder använts, en granskning av befintliga markpolicyer och intervjuer. Granskningen av markpolicyer genomfördes med syftet att studera policyns syfte och innehåll. Intervjuer genomfördes med både kommuner som har en dokumenterad markpolicy och med kommuner som inte har en sådan samt intervjuer med bygg- och fastighetsutvecklingsföretag. 

    Resultatet av granskningen visade att visst innehåll är mer vanligt förekommande i kommunernas markpolicyer. Intervjuerna visade att det finns delade meningar om en markpolicys betydelse, vad den bör innehålla samt om privata aktörer är hjälpta av en sådan. Främst används markpolicyn internt av kommunen och är ett verktyg för att förankra markpolitiken, detta skapar en samlad bild utåt mot privata aktörer. 

    De slutsatser som kan tas av studien är att en markpolicy kan vara till hjälp för kommuner, dels för att förankra markpolitiken och för att skapa en mer enhetlig handläggning av markärenden inom kommunen. En markpolicy kan även leda till ökad transparens mellan kommuner och privata aktörer. 

  • 42.
    Egebrand, Alva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Höglund, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Analys av grönområdens värde: En metod för mätning av kvalitetsaspekter i Gävle2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many cities are trying to create more compact urban environments. However, as cities become more compact, valuable green areas are threatened by development. Green areas are important for the well-being and health of people. Green areas attract visitors for recreation, leisure and social activities. Green areas can provide a feeling of freedom and a place to escape everyday stress. The character of city green areas affects people’s experience of the urban environment.

    The purpose of our study is to develop a new method for assessing the quality of green areas. The study has two main goals. The first aim was to do a test study over green areas in central Gävle and assess the quality of their physical components. The second aim is to develop a method that can be used for future municipality planning.

    The study uses a normative analysis strategy. To start, literature studies, interviews with experts and onsite inspections were used to identify 16 qualities and 3 major dimensions of green areas. Primary field data and secondary data from the municipality of Gävle were combined in a GIS (Geographic information system). A multi-criteria analysis was subsequently performed to assess the according to selected quality aspects. The results show notable similarities and differences across the quality criteria. 

    While all green areas require at least some remedial action, the study indicates that quality of Gävle´s central green areas differ considerably.

  • 43.
    Ek Hessel, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Enerhall, Lovisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Grönområden i urbana miljöer: En jämförelse av kvalitetsprioriteringar inom stadsplanering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The population in Sweden is rapidly increasing and expanding possibilities of residential housing is highly topical. In light of this, other matters arise such as where the new residential buildings are to be located and how this affects existing green areas. This study focuses on Gävle municipality and its vision of developing 10 500 residential housings, by the year of 2030. From a sustainability perspective, it is inappropriate to build on green areas in cities. Regardless of the sustainability aspects, Gävle municipality plans to construct residential housings in the inner city parks of the city, as debated in media. The purpose of this study was to examine how employees within the department of Urban planning at Gävle municipality prioritize and account for the qualities of green areas. The study was carried out utilizing a survey and the results were compared to answers obtained from employees within the Urban planning department at the municipalities of Sandviken, Tierp, Älvkarleby and Bollnäs. The results did not show any significant differences between neither municipality, workgroup belonging, nor were any substantial differences between practice and literature identified. 

  • 44.
    Ekelund, Hugo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Gustavar, Joakim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Lutning och Buktningskontroll av horisontell yta med geodetiska mätinstrument2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Performing controls of different types of objects in the construction phase of buildings are of great importance to avoid unnecessary costs and delays. Concrete floors are one type of object that has defined tolerances regarding levelness and flatness. In Sweden, the tolerance for levelness and flatness can be found in the national guideline AMA-Hus. Flatness is controlled within two different diameters of 0.25 m and 2 m respectively, in this study referred to as local and global flatness.The aim of this study was to identify the optimal method to control levelness and flatness of a horizontal surface and to determine the effect from the angle of incidence using reflectorless measurements. Grid scanning with different point density performed with a multi station and laser scans from multi station and laser scanner were used to collect the data. Before measurements artificial elevated curvatures where placed on the concrete floor. Data from the measurements where interpolated in Surfer software, and height maps were created. The interpolation method used was Kriging. Software containing an algorithm for objective flatness detection was developed in cooperation with a civil engineer in computer science.Analysis of the grid scanning data revealed that point density over 12.5 cm is not sufficient to detect significant elevation differences when controlling flatness. Grid scanning at 12.5 cm or thicker also cannot be deemed optimal since the time required to perform the measurements are disproportionately long. Laser scanning using the multi station proved, in the conditions of this study, to be the optimal method for levelness and flatness control in respect to time consumption.Steeper angle of incidence from measurements further from the instrument showed no systematical deviations of the measurements in this study. However, the increased point density found close to the instrument caused something that could be considered as noise in the point cloud as well as increased time consumption.

  • 45.
    Ekenstaf, Joar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Jonsson, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Tomtplatsavgränsning för strandskyddsdispens vid fastighetsbildning i Gävleborgs län2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To live close to shores have always attracted people. Beaches and shores are also natural recreations sites. The Swedish shore protection law exists to ensure that the shores of Sweden are accessible to the public also in the future. This essay primarily concerns theregistration of property in shore protected areas and how the property borders follow the plot restriction borders.

     

    The overall purpose of the study is to improve the access to the shores and beaches without restricting the individual’s property rights too extensively. The aimis to givesuggestionswhich can facilitatethe workwith plot restriction and registration of property.

     

    Six municipalities and a couple of national land surveyor in Gävleborg have been interviewed and a study of public documents regarding the regulation has been carried out as method for this essay.

     

    The interviews gave answers to how the municipalities and Lantmäteriet (Swedish National Land Survey) worked with the question in hand. The study showed that the plot restriction border often is marked unclear in the regulation document, sometimes even missing.

     

    A recurring problem is the lack of knowledge of registration of properties in the municipalities. They should therefore be given more education in that subject. Another proposal would be that Lanmäteriet took over the administration of plot restriction. It would also be of great gain if the public were to learn the difference between plot and real estate.

  • 46.
    Eketorp, Samuel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Sundin Bromhed, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Tidpunkten för marköverlåtelser som styrinstrument vid kommunala markanvisningar: En jämförelse av förfaranden som tillämpas i Örebro och Gävle2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been conducted to investigate how municipalities, developers and banks perceive the effects of having to commence construction as a prerequisite for vesting of the real estate to be developed, within the scope of municipal land allocations. The municipality of Gävle suggested the study as they sought to establish if the time of vestment, as an activity in the land developing process, could be used as an instrument to ensure the correct results of such a process.

     

    The study was conducted as a comparison between the municipalities of Gävle and Örebro and how stakeholders in the respective areas perceive the effects. In the municipality of Örebro real estate is vested to the developer once construction work on the property has commenced. In the municipality of Gävle the real estate is normally vested prior to commencement of construction work. In some cases, however, full ownership rights are delayed by means of contractual conditions requiring the developer to commence construction work for the contract to become fully valid, and thus allowing the developer to receive the title deed.

     

    To understand how the stakeholders municipality, developers and banks perceive the effects, (1) semi-structured qualitative telephone interviews have been conducted across the mentioned stakeholder groups in both locations. (2) Contracts of land allocation have been studied to understand how the time of vesting is regulated by both municipalities.

     

    The results show that the time of vesting of the real estate to be developed can be used as an instrument to prevent speculation with publicly owned property. The results also show that small scale land developers require more funds to cope with increased costs that result from the inability to receive building loans using the real estate as security for such funding. Interview answers from banks imply that the time of vesting the real estate to be developed is of no importance to them as long as sufficient security can be offered towards building loan funding. Apart from liens in real estate, parent company guarantees were mentioned as a possible alternative.

     

    As a means to prevent land speculation, contract clauses delaying the title deed to be transferred until commencement of construction, may be used. In this case the vesting process is initiated prior to commencement of construction using a valid contract, and a lien in the real estate to be developed can be offered to the bank with the permission of the municipality as the title deed holder. The aim of the municipality to ensure the correct results of the development process appears to be more dependent on how the council boards interact and how the land development process is carried out in its entirety.

  • 47.
    Eklund, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Olofsson, Elias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Galileos påverkan på snabb statisk mätning vid korta baslinjer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a global system for satellite positioning and navigation and consists, amongst other, of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS). Currently, these systems are the only fully global operative satellite systems for positioning. Galileo is an upcoming satellite system and offers at the present time 14 active satellites, but will consist of 30 satellites once it is fully operational by 2020.

    The survey method with GNSS that has lowest uncertainties is static survey. It is a relative method which means that a minimum of two receivers observe simultaneously, usually for several hours. Rapid static surveying is a further development of static surveying and offers much shorter observation times, but it imposes a restriction of the baseline length.

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate Galileo’s contribution on rapid static surveying and see whether Galileo can decrease uncertainties, deviations and observation times in different constellations with GPS and GLONASS.

    Measurements were conducted during two days for two and four hours respectively. Two baselines were measured; the first baseline had a length of 0.4 km and the second nearly 2 km. Later in a software, each constellation was divided in ten time windows (epochs) and each time window was then divided in three sessions (1, 5 and 10 minutes). Four types of constellations were tried: GPS, GPS and GLONASS, GPS and Galileo and lastly all three combined.

    Results show that low uncertainties are obtained when more than one constellation is used. Lowest uncertainties can be obtained with all constellations active. Surveying with only GPS gives the highest uncertainties in all cases, but this is especially true for the shortest session (1 minute). Similarities in uncertainties between the short and long baseline is clear, but uncertainties are higher for the long baseline. Deviations are lower with all constellations active, but the baseline length is in almost all cases too short.

    The conclusion from the study is that Galileo can be used to lower observation time and uncertainties. However this is negligible when used with GPS and GLONASS, at least for the two baselines in this test. Low uncertainties can be achieved with multi constellation or longer observation time.

  • 48.
    Enebjörk, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Tillgänglighetsstrategi för kommunala planerare: Ett arbetssätt för att identifiera och planera åtgärder av enkelt avhjälpta hinder2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many barriers and obstacles that need to be removed to make the urban environment more accessible for people with disabilities. There are currently no adequate tools for urban planners to assess and address these obstacles. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) provide powerful methods for the visualization and analysis of spatial data, including the kind of data important in studies of accessibility. This study suggests a method urban planners can use to identify accessibility obstacles and to propose future actions to fix them.

    A literature review was conducted to find out what has been done and what is new regarding the accessibility issues. Different methods were evaluated which in turn led to the construction of a multi-step analytical strategy. The proposed method identifies how urban planners can best work with accessibility issues given existing tools and where there is potential for even further improvement in areas such as data collection.

    Data only has value when it is used and if it is kept up-to-date. Web services or mobile applications would help municipalities receive and share information about obstacles with local residents, especially the disabled. 

  • 49.
    Engblom, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Planläggning av cirkulationsplatser ur ett säkerhetsperspektiv: En fallstudie av cirkulationsplatser i Gävle2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Planning of roundabouts have become a common feature in various cities around the world to resolve dangerous situations that may occur in traditional four-way intersections. This is because the motorists’ speed is lower in a roundabout compared to a standard four-way intersection, which leads to less severe accidents. Are vulnerable road users safety benefits at a roundabout as clear?

    The purpose of the study is to examine the design of traffic environments, with a focus on pedestrian and cyclists’ safety in connection to roundabouts. I have seen on the safety aspects that should be taken into consideration for pedestrians and cyclists.

    The research questions in my study are:

    - What are the advantages and disadvantages of vulnerable road users with planning and construction of roundabouts?

    - Which safety aspects are taken into consideration in roundabouts?

    The research is based on a qualitative approach. Data collection methods used are observation, interview and qualitative text analysis. The study included three planners from Gävle, Eskilstuna and Västerås. The highlighted safety aspects, advantages and disadvantages presented by the surveyed municipalities proceed from with planning of roundabouts and pedestrian crossings.

    In the result it can be stated that with fast and relatively simple methods and steps are possible to improve pedestrian and cyclist safety on crossings at roundabouts.

  • 50.
    Engström, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    ATTRAKTIVT BOENDE I HOFORS KOMMUN: Förslag och förbättringar till hyresrätter inom Hoforshus AB2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The little steel industrial community Hofors is situated in Gästrikland on the border to Dalarna and its population is decreasing every year. The biggest housing operator is in a place where they must tear down a lot of buildings because they do not have enough tenants. But what do people really want in an apartment and in the surroundings? What is needed to make it attractive? That is something that this study will discuss and in the end it will lead to a proposal of an area that is suitable for a new housing and a few proposals to make the existing apartments more attractive.

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