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  • 1.
    Abbasi, Mahdi
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Characterization of a 5GHz Modular Radio Frontend for WLAN Based on IEEE 802.11p2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The number of vehicles has increased significantly in recent years, which causeshigh density in traffic and further problems like accidents and road congestions.A solution regarding to this problem is vehicle-to-vehicle communication, wherevehicles are able to communicate with their neighboring vehicles even in the absenceof a central base station, to provide safer and more efficient roads and toincrease passenger safety.The goal of this thesis is to investigate basic physical layer parameters of ainter-vehicle communication system, like emission power, spectral emission, errorvector magnitude, guard interval, ramp-up/down time, and third order interceptpoint. I also studied the intelligent transportation system’s channel layout inEurope, how the interference of other systems are working in co-channel and adjacentchannels, and some proposals to use the allocated frequency bands. On theother hand, the fundamentals of OFDM transmission and definitions of OFDMkey parameters in IEEE 802.11p are investigated.The focus of this work is on the measurement of transmitter frontend parametersof a new testbed designed and fabricated in order to be used at inter-vehiclecommunication based on IEEE 802.11p.

  • 2.
    Abdelrahman, Ahmed
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    Detection and Extraction of Sky Regions in Digital Images based on Color Classification2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In many applications of image processing there is a need to extract the solid background which it is usually sky for outdoor images. In our application we present this solution. We developed an automatic algorithm for detection and extraction of sky regions in the color image based on color classification. In which the input image should be in the RGB color space and the blue color is detected and classified. Then the color image is transformed to the binary form and the connected regions are extracted separately. The connected regions are then sorted in a descending order according to the biggest area and the biggest region is identified. Then we merged all objects that have similar sky properties. Experimental results showed that our proposed algorithm can produce good results compared to other existing algorithms.

  • 3.
    Abou Raas, Mhd Jihad
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Wall Compensation Algorithms for M-sequence UWB Radar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A technique for wall compensation in the ultra-wideband (UWB) through-wall imaging radar is presented. The UWB system can be utilize in high precision measurements, but due to phase distortion and amplitude attenuation caused by the wall the precision is limited, the target is displaced, and the image is defocused. 

    In order to mitigate the wall effects, two methods are applied in this project. First, the unknown wall transfer function is estimated using real data measurements to design the inverse filter. Secondly, FIR Wiener filter is designed to improve the received m-sequence. After all, each method is tested using three parameters, the signal to noise ratio (SNR), the signal to clutter ratio (SCR), and the relative position error (RPE). 

    The inverse filter can eliminate the wall effects very well; it could correct not only the position of the target but also the image defocus. The new method can give improve the image quality and that can extend the use of UWB radar in many applications. 

  • 4.
    Abrego peris, Iñaki
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Antenna with medical applications for tumour cancer: hyperthermia function2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The idea is to improve or help the treatments that exist in the market in the medical field. Treatments such as mammography or radiotherapy make use of X-rays. X-rays are electromagnetic radiation in a high frequency band, this type of electromagnetic is dangerous to health because ionizing radiation is used, ionized atoms interact with matter. For this reason, in our work we give alternative solution to these treatments without any risk to health. This project consists in the use of non-harmful frequencies such as microwave. In this way, we will make an antenna with medical applications whose frequency range will be between 300 MHz and 30 GHz, specifically between 950MHz and 2.45GHz (medical range). The first step will be the detection of the tumour and classification of this, but our work is about another technique called hyperthermia. This technique consists in increase the temperature with a value of 40-43 degrees in the tumour area. Tumour resistance decreases when heat is applied to this. When combining a treatment with oncologic hyperthermia, the effect of radiotherapy is most effective (between 1.5-5 times). The most important part is study antenna in body tissues characteristics as SAR, depth penetration and antenna size; this theory part is essential to know the best parameters and what case use this. In work development we will choose and design antennas for the different parts of the body in some specific frequencies and choose circular antennas in frequencies of 915 MHz and 1.8 GHz. Finally, we will take measurements about temperature increase with meat and say some conclusions.

  • 5.
    Adeboye, Taiyelolu
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Robot Goalkeeper: A robotic goalkeeper based on machine vision and motor control2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report shows a robust and efficient implementation of a speed-optimized algorithm for object recognition, 3D real world location and tracking in real time. It details a design that was focused on detecting and following objects in flight as applied to a football in motion. An overall goal of the design was to develop a system capable of recognizing an object and its present and near future location while also actuating a robotic arm in response to the motion of the ball in flight.

    The implementation made use of image processing functions in C++, NVIDIA Jetson TX1, Sterolabs’ ZED stereoscopic camera setup in connection to an embedded system controller for the robot arm. The image processing was done with a textured background and the 3D location coordinates were applied to the correction of a Kalman filter model that was used for estimating and predicting the ball location.

    A capture and processing speed of 59.4 frames per second was obtained with good accuracy in depth detection while the ball was well tracked in the tests carried out.

  • 6.
    Adis, Kurtalic
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Linkfire2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Planen var att konstruera en PCI-Express-till-PCI brygga för fyra MoCA radiokort. Problem uppstod då det visade sig att PLC8112 inte kunde hantera fyra PCI samtidigt som var utlovat från tillverkaren av bryggan. För att lösa problemet fick PCI6152 läggas till i designen. Det är en PCI-till-PCI brygga som också ska klara att hantera upp till fyra PCI enligt tillverkaren. Fyra MoCA radiokort förbrukar mycket ström. Två spänningsregulatorer lades till i designen för att kunna leverera de strömmar som krävs. För att säkerställa att radiokorten som ansluts till Linkfire inte blir för varma så placeras en temperatursensor under ett radiokort. Temperatursensorn har endast av/på lägen och till den ansluts två fläktar, därmed så betraktas dem som en fläkt då de inte är individuellt styrda.

  • 7.
    Afzal, Nauman
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap. tet10nal@student.hig.se.
    Udata, Ramakrishna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap. tet10rua@student.hig.se.
    Designing and measurement of routing module for transceiver system at 3.125GHz2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report intends to impart a good understanding of routing modules used in modern transceiver systems. The radar system at RadarBolaget AB needed to have a good routing module for its newly designed transceiver antenna. In this report, studies have been done related to two majorly used routing modules in modern electronics industry; Microwave Circulator and RF/Microwave Switch. First off, different characteristics of routing modules are discussed. After having discussed important design parameters, practical design considerations for two routing modules are presented in a profound way. Theoretical knowledge for both of these two devices is presented in the beginning, followed by their practical designs using standard simulation software like HFSS and ADS. The report concludes its findings in a way that at the end of this report, reader becomes acquainted with ample information to be able to choose the best option available among all of the discussed designs. An FET RF Switch is chosen at the end of this project to be used for transceiver system which should be able to satisfy specifications specified by RadarBolaget AB. This project was carried out by two students of Master Program in Electronics/Telecommunications at Högskolan i Gävle in collaboration with RadarBolaget AB, Gävle, Sweden.    

  • 8.
    AHMAD, FAHEEM
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    KAKKERLA, PRAMOD
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    FOCUSING OF UWB RADAR SIGNALS USING TIME REVERSAL2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing techniques and detection of targets is usually associated to defense and military use. However in recent past things have moved ahead. Now target detection using UWB radars is being done in many industries and corporations. Radarbolaget AB is one of them; one of their projects uses UWB radars to detect steel strips inside a furnace. This research solves a potential problem of detecting middle steel strip out of total three strip edges which can be seen by radar placed on the front. For better understanding of the reader, existing system and introductory UWB radar principles are discussed. As there can be many solutions to focusing of targets here (steel strip edge detection). Available focusing techniques have been discussed in detail along with the possible physical and simulation setups. Later in the document, detection methods have been proposed. UWB time reversed signal detection is a fairly new method and a very limited research has been done so far. PRBS sequence has been focused on in detection mechanism. Results section show that the pulse of the PRBS works better and produces more promising results rather than a repetitive signal. Time reversal methods for locating the target have been used to find the approximate location of the target. Manual distance calculations from target to the transmitter and receiver have been done. Comparison of actual distance from target to the transmitter is compared with simulation results. Different model simulation setups and their results have proved that using UWB Time reversed signals; a still or moving target can be detected with centimeter window precision.

  • 9.
    Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed, Mazz
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Traffic Model Based Energy Efficient Radio Access Network2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As the concerns about global energy consumption increased the matter of energy consumption in Radio Access Networks (RANs) became an important issue especially with the exponential growth in demanded traffic. This interest of developing innovative technologies to reduce the expected energy consumption by the mobile communication sector was driven by environmental concerns and cost reduction.

    The aim of this thesis is to introduce a new methodology to make the Radio Access Network (RAN) more energy efficient based on jointly the demanded throughput and a realistic traffic profile. Furthermore, to find a metric that quantifies the relation between the Energy Efficiency (EE), Spectrum Efficiency (SE) and demanded throughput.

    The proposed methodology for reducing the energy consumption in the RAN characterizes the offered throughput in order to determine the sufficient energy needed. The manner for reducing the energy consumed by the RAN is simply by switching (OFF/ON) Base Stations (BSs) based on the demanded throughput which introduces an energy efficient RAN.

    The results show a significant reduction in the energy consumption with regard to the demanded traffic. Moreover, it gives a measure of the EE with consideration to the SE which enhances the performance evaluation from an EE point of view during the RAN planning phase.

  • 10.
    Ahmed, Motasim
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap. Radarbolaget AB.
    Single-Layer Metamaterial Absorber for Radar Application2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the radar systems, the crosstalk or antenna-to-antenna interference between the radar antennas is useful in some cases. However in some application the received signal is too weak such as wall crack detection and it might affect the accuracy of the radar system. The aim of this thesis is to design, fabricate and test a single layer metamaterial absorber operates from 1 GHz to 4 GHz. The metamaterial absorber can be used as a barrier between the antennas or even in the antenna housing in order to reduce or prevent the antenna-to-antenna interference.

    The method used to fulfill the goal is to shift the frequency response of a known structure by changing the dimension to the wanted band. The software HFSS used to design and simulate the proposed structure which made of L-shaped copper placed diagonally over a substrate separating it from a continuous copper plane. The simulation results exhibit a wideband absorption response of 2.42 GHz ranging from 1.9 GHz to 4.32 GHz. The structure has been simulated over the dimension variation to investigate the flexibility and sensitivity of the designed single layer structure.

    The fabricated metamaterial absorber measured over the direct incident waves. The structure reveals a wideband absorption response of 1.69 GHz ranging from 2.23 GHz up to 3.92 GHz with more than 90% absorptivity. The structure also exposed that the response of the structure starts to create two bands within the wanted band by increasing the angle of the incident waves. 10° polarization angle gives more than 80% absorptivity response. 

  • 11.
    Al Amin, A.
    et al.
    Department of EEE, Uttara University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Islam, M.
    Department of EEE, Uttara University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Masud, M. A.
    Department of EEE, Uttara University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Khan, N. H.
    Department of EEE, Uttara University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Zavala, J. W. A.
    Characterization Engineer, Radio Semiconductor Corporation, Netherlands.
    Minhaz-Ul-Islam, Mohammed
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Design and performance analysis of 3.4 ghz rectangular microstrip patch antenna for wireless communication systems2017Inngår i: International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation, ISSN 2039-5086, E-ISSN 2039-5094, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 80-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communication provides low-cost, high-speed and flexible communication in present days. Hence antenna plays a vital role in the wireless communication sector. The main concern of this paper is therefore to design a 3.4 GHz rectangular Microstrip patch antenna. Moreover, the feed probe based rectangular patch antenna will be designed. The performance of the designed rectangular patch antenna will be evaluated by analysing the major parameters of the simulation results. Hence the radiation pattern, gain, impedance matching and reflection coefficient or return loss calculation will be executed by the HFSS software to evaluate the performance of the antenna. 

  • 12.
    Al Tanany, Ahmed
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    A Study of Switched Mode Power Amplifiers using LDMOS2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on different kinds of Switch Mode Power Amplifiers (SMPAs) using LDMOS technologies. It involves a literature study of different SMPA concepts. Choosing the suitable class that achieves the high efficiency was the base stone of this

    work. A push-pull class J power amplifier (PA) was designed with an integrated LC resonator inside the package using the bondwires and die capacitances. Analysis and motivation of the chosen class is included. Designing the suitable Input/Output printed circuit board (PCB) external circuits (i.e.; BALUN circuit, Matching network and DC

    bias network) was part of the work. This work is done by ADS simulation and showed a simulated result of about 70% drain efficiency for 34 W output power and 16 dB gain at 2.14 GHz. Study of the losses in each part of the design elements is also included.

    Another design at lower frequency (i.e.; at 0.94 GHz) was also simulated and compared to the previous design. The drain efficiency was 83% for 32 W output power and 15.4 dB Gain.

  • 13.
    Alayón Glazunov, Andrés
    et al.
    Division of Electromagnetic Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Prasad, Sathyaveer
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. Signal Processing Lab, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Händel, Peter
    ACCESS Linnaeus Centre; Signal Processing Lab, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Experimental Characterization of the Propagation Channel along aVery Large Virtual Array in a Reverberation Chamber2014Inngår i: Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, ISSN 1937-6472, E-ISSN 1937-6472, Vol. 59, s. 205-217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that the combined use of radio frequency absorbers and directive antennas can produce significant changes of the radio propagation channel properties along the positions of a virtual array inside a reverberation chamber. A multidimensional characterization of the channel was performed at 40 antenna positions with spacing of 0:233λ at 1 GHz. The average power, the Ricean K-factor, the coherence bandwidth, the r.m.s. delay spread, the mean delay, the beamforming power angle spectrum and array antenna correlation have been studied for different arrangements in the reverberation chamber. The analysis shows that the joint average over time and frequency channel behavior is, as expected, rather homogeneous along the very large array. However, individual realizations of the channel present a pronounced selective behavior in space, time and frequency with parameters varying along the positions of the virtual array suggesting that a heterogeneous behavior of the radio channels can be emulated in reverberation chambers. An important application of the presented study comprises testing of antenna array designs and algorithms in multipath environments. Further development may lead to Over The Air testing of Multiple Input Multiple Output antenna systems of various sizes, i.e., from small to very large arrays.

  • 14.
    Alfaro Zavala, Juan Wilfredo
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Improving Error Performance in Bandwidth-Limited Baseband Channels2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Channel coding has been largely used for the purpose of improving error performance on a communications system. Typical methods based on added redundancy allow for error detection and correction, this improvement however comes at a cost of bandwidth. This thesis focuses on channel coding for the bandwidth-limited channel where no bandwidth expansion is allowed.

    We first discuss the idea of coding for the bandwidth-limited channel as seen from the signal space point of view where the purpose of coding is to maximize the Euclidian distance between constellation points without increasing the total signal power and under the condition that no extra bits can be added. We then see the problem from another angle and identify the tradeoffs related to bandwidth and error performance.

    This thesis intends to find a simple way of achieving an improvement in error performance for the bandwidth-limited channel without the use of lattice codes or trellis-coded modulation.

    The proposed system is based on convolutional coding followed by multilevel transmission. It achieved a coding gain of 2 dB on Eb/No or equivalently, a coding gain of approximately 2.7 dB on SNRnorm without increase in bandwidth. This coding gain is better than that obtained by a more sophisticated lattice code Gosset E8 at the same error rate.

  • 15.
    Ali, Rony
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektroteknik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Värmeåtervinning - styrning för frånluftsvärmepump i flerbostadshus2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 16.
    Ali, ZAKI
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektroteknik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Självbalansering av MinSeg2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 17.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH, Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Characterisation, Modelling and Digital Pre-Distortion Techniques for RF Transmitters in Wireless Systems2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless systems have become an inevitable part of modern technologies serving humankind. The rapid growth towards large dimensional systems, e.g. 5th generation (5G) technologies, incurs needs for improving the performance of the systems and considering aspects to make them as far as possible environmentally friendly in terms of power efficiency, cost, and so on. One of the key parts of every wireless communication system is the radio frequency (RF) power amplifier (PA), which consumes the largest percentage of the total energy. Hence, accurate models of RF PAs can be used to optimize their design and to compensate for signal distortions. This thesis starts with two methods for frequency-domain characterisation to analyse the dynamic behaviour of PAs in 3rd-order non-linear systems. Firstly, two-tone signals superimposed on large-signals are used to analyse the frequency-domain symmetry properties of inter-modulation (IM) distortions and Volterra kernels in different dynamic regions of RF PAs in a single-input single-output (SISO) system. Secondly, three-tone signals are used to characterise the 3rd-order self- and cross-Volterra kernels of RF PAs in a 3 × 3 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system. The main block structures of the models are determined by analysing the frequency-domain symmetry properties of the Volterra kernels in different three-dimensional (3D) frequency spaces. This approach significantly simplifies the structure of the 3rd-order non-linear MIMO model.

    The following parts of the thesis investigate techniques for behavioural modelling and linearising RF PAs. A piece-wise modelling technique is proposed to characterise the dynamic behaviour and to mitigate the impairments of non-linear RF PAs at different operating points (regions). A set of thresholds decompose the input signal into several sub-signals that drive the RF PAs at different operating points. At each operating point, the PAs are modelled by one sub-model, and hence, the complete model consists of several sub-models. The proposed technique reduces the model errors compared to conventional piece-wise modelling techniques.

    A block structure modelling technique is proposed for RF PAs in a MIMO system based on the results of the three-tone characterisation technique. The main structures of the 3rd- and higher-order systems are formulated based on the frequency dependence of each block. Hence, the model can describe more relevant interconnections between the inputs and outputs than conventional polynomial-type models.

    This thesis studies the behavioural modelling and compensation techniques in both the time and the frequency domains for RF PAs in a 3 × 3MIMO system. The 3D time-domain technique is an extension of conventional 2D generalised memory polynomial (GMP) techniques. To reduce the computational complexity, a frequency-domain technique is proposed that is efficient and feasible for systems with long memory effects. In this technique, the parameters of the model are estimated within narrow sub-bands. Each sub-band requires only a few parameters, and hence the size of the model for each sub-band is reduced.

  • 18.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Amin, Shoaib
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Measurement and analysis of frequency-domain Volterra kernels of nonlinear dynamic 3x3 MIMO systems2017Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 66, nr 7, s. 1893-1905Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) frequency-domain Volterra kernels of nonlinear order 3 are experimentally determined in bandwidth-limited frequency regions. How the effect of higher nonlinear orders can be reduced and how this affects the estimated errors are discussed. The magnitude and phase of the kernels areKramers-Kronig consistent. The self- and cross-kernels have different symmetries and the kernels are therefore determined and analyzed in different regions in the 3D frequency space. By analyzing the properties along certain paths in the 3D frequency space, the block structures for the respective kernels are determined. These block structures contain the significant blocks of the general block structures for third-order kernels. The device under test is a MIMO transmitter for radio frequency signals.

  • 19.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH, Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Basis Function Decomposition Approach in Piece-Wise Modeling for RF Power Amplifiers2018Inngår i: 6th Telecommunications forum TELFOR 2018, Belgrade: Telecommunications society , 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a new approach is proposed to decompose the basis functions in a piece-wise modeling technique for nonlinear radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers. The proposed technique treats the discontinuity problem of the model output at the joint points between different operating points, whereas preserves the linear and nonlinear properties of the original model within each region. Experimental results show that the proposed technique outperforms the conventional piece-wise model in terms of model errors.

  • 20.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektroteknik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH, Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektroteknik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Behavioral modeling and digital pre-distortion techniques for RF PAs in a 3 × 3 MIMO system2019Inngår i: International journal of microwave and wireless technologies, ISSN 1759-0795, E-ISSN 1759-0787Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern telecommunications are moving towards (massive) multi-input multi-output systems in 5th generation (5G) technology, increasing the dimensionality of the system dramatically. In this paper, the impairments of radio frequency (RF)power amplifiers (PAs) in a 3x3 MIMO system are compensated in both time and frequency domains. A three-dimensional(3D) time-domain memory polynomial-type model is proposed as an extension of conventional 2D models. Furthermore, a 3D frequency-domain technique is formulated based on the proposed time-domain model to reduce the dimensionality of the model, while preserving the performance in terms of model errors. In the 3D frequency-domain technique, the bandwidth of a system is split into several narrow sub-bands, and the parameters of the system are estimated for each subband. This approach requires less computational complexity, and also the procedure of the parameters estimation for each sub-band can be implemented independently. The device-under-test (DUT) consists of three RF PAs including input and output cross-talk channels. The proposed techniques are evaluated in both behavioural modelling and digital pre-distortion(DPD) perspectives. The results show that the proposed DPD technique can compensate the errors of non-linearity and memory effects by about 23.5 dB and 7 dB in terms of the normalized mean square error and adjacent channel leakage ratio, respectively.

  • 21.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. Department of Signal Processing, ACCESS Linnaeus Center, The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    A two-tone test for characterizing nonlinear dynamic effects of radio frequency amplifiers in different amplitude regions2016Inngår i: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 89, s. 273-279Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new two-tone test method for radio frequency power amplifiers is presented. The test signal is a two-tone probing-signal superimposed on large-signals of different amplitude. The amplifier is, thus, excited in different amplitude regions. The amplitude and phase of the 3rd order intermodulation (IM) products are measured vs. frequency spacing and probing-signal amplitude in each region. The IM magnitude is a measure of the nonlinearity, while the frequency dependence and asymmetry are measures of the memory effects in the different regions. A Doherty and a class-AB amplifier were tested. For both amplifiers the IM magnitude increased by ∼15 dB from the lowest to the highest amplitude region. For the Doherty amplifier the behavior of the IM products vs. frequency spacing was similar in all regions, indicating similar memory effects. For the class-AB amplifier the IM vs. frequency spacing was significantly different in the different regions, which indicates different memory effects.

  • 22.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Händel, Peter
    Department of information science and engineering Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Characterization of Volterra Kernels for RF Power Amplifiers Using a Two-Tone Signal and a Large-Signal2018Inngår i: 2018 International Conference on Communications, COMM 2018 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, Vol. 1, s. 351-356Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The 3rd-order Volterra kernels of a radio frequency (RF) power amplifier (PA) are characterized using a large-signal and a two-tone probing-signal. In this technique, the magnitude and phase asymmetries of the kernels of the PA excited by the probing-signal are analyzed in different amplitude regions of the large-signal. The device under test is a class-AB PA operating at 2.14 GHz. The maximum sweeping frequency space of the probing-signal is 20 MHz. The results indicate that the Volterra kernels of the PA show different behaviors (frequency dependency and asymmetry) in different regions.

  • 23.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    A new Block-Structure Modeling Technique for RF Power Amplifiers in a 2x2 MIMO System2017Inngår i: 13th International Conference on Advanced Technologies, Systems and Services in Telecommunications (TELSIKS) / [ed] Milovanovic, B. D.; Doncov, N. S.; Stankovic, Z. Z.; Dimitrijevic, T. Z., IEEE , 2017, s. 224-227Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new block-structure behavioral model is proposed for radio frequency power amplifiers in a 2x2 multiple-input multiple-output system including input cross-talk. The proposed model forms kernels of blocks of different nonlinear order that correspond to the significant frequency response of measured frequency domain Volterra kernels. The model can therefore well describe the input-output relationships of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of PAs. The proposed model outperforms conventional models in terms of model errors.

  • 24.
    Almgren, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Dynamic load modulation2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this master thesis was to study if the drain efficiency of power amplifiers can be maintained at power back off using a technique called load modulation.

    The amplifier classes studied are E, F and D-1. The target figure was to obtain a 10 to 12 dB dynamic range of amplitude with reasonable efficiency. Studies of power amplifiers have been made to understand how power is generated. Several different load modulation networks have been evaluated. Attempts to derive design equations for the modulation networks have also been done.

    The thesis work was carried out with simulations in ADS 2006. As active devices commercially available bare-die transistor models have been used. The power rating of the dies are 15 W.

    A dynamic range of amplitude of over 15 dB has been achieved with drain efficiency greater than 60 percent. The peak output power is in the 40 – 45 dBm range.

  • 25.
    Almingol, Oscar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Construction of a C-PV prototype2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The following Master Thesis will talk about a C-PV prototype using bifacial PV technology, based on the Solarus Collector. The Solarus Collector consists in two PV cells built on a metallic receiver, where there are some water channels flowing through it, allowing to cool down the PV cells, thus increasing their efficiency. The collector also presents a reflector to provide irradiance to the back part of the receiver, where the other PV cells are located. The new prototype will present bifacial PV cells but not a metallic receiver. This construction aims to reduce the price of the receiver, but will not have a system to cool down the solar cells. This Master Thesis will be developed in the Solarus facilities, in collaboration with the Solarus members.

    In order to grasp an idea of this prototype, two main procedures will be done. Regarding the bifacial technology, a bifacial PV module will be measured under different conditions, depending on which sides can be illuminated or shaded. On the other hand, a thermodynamic simulation will be carried out on different geometries of the reflector and receiver, in order to figure out the evolution of the temperatures on the new prototype. This simulation will be done with a finite element method, widely known in this applications.

    The results will show several problems concerning this prototype. Although the measurements of the bifacial PV module will result beneficial and informative, the problem with the temperature will tend to back down this prototype. The lack of some system to cool down the bifacial cells will imply that the receiver could reach unacceptable temperatures. This hypothesis will be drawn under some specific conditions, so they will not be completely devastating to the idea of using bifacial cells, but perhaps a different approach should be used in case it is desired to continue this work. 

  • 26.
    Al-Tahir, Hibah
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Multidimensional Measurements: on RF Power Amplifiers2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    In this thesis, a measurement system was set to perform comprehensive measurements on RF power amplifiers. Data obtained from the measurements is then processed mathematically to obtain three dimensional graphs of the basic parameters affected or generated by nonlinearities of the amplifier i.e. gain, efficiency and distortion. Using a class AB amplifier as the DUT, two sets of signals – both swept in power level and frequency - were generated to validate the method, a two-tone signal and a WCDMA signal. The three dimensional plot gives a thorough representation of the behavior of the amplifier in any arbitrary range of spectrum and input level. Sweet spots are consequently easy to detect and analyze. The measurement setup can also yield other three dimensional plots of variations of gain, efficiency or distortion versus frequencies and input levels. Moreover, the measurement tool can be used to plot traditional two dimensional plots such as, input versus gain, frequency versus efficiency etc, making the setup a practical tool for RF amplifiers designers.

    The test signals were generated by computer then sent to a vector signal generator that generates the actual signals fed to the amplifier. The output of the amplifier is fed to a vector signal analyzer then collected by computer to be handled. MATLAB® was used throughout the entire process.

    The distortion considered in the case of the two-tone signals is the third order intermodulation distortion (IM3) whereas Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACPR) was considered in the case of WCDMA.

  • 27.
    Amaya, Jorge
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Pedalkraft system: Stödsystem för elproduktion i småskalighet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete vänder sig till personer som är intresserade att använda nya miljövänligametoderna för elproduktion eller personer som redan använder små vindkraftverk ochsolpaneler med behovet av en extra energikälla i små stugor eller avlägsna platser där tillgångentill elnät är omöjligt. Syften i detta arbete är först och främst att bygga ett system förelproduktion med hjälp av en cykel. Sedan bestämma mängden av elektrisk energi en personkan alstra med systemet. Slutligen svara om detta system skulle kunna använda som ettstödsystem för elproduktion i småskalighet.

    Den första målsättningen är att utforma ett system med användning av kraftelektronik där denkraften som genereras matar lasterna. Den mekaniska delen kommer att konstrueras som en delav energikällan, därefter kommer det att utformas en kontroll för att styra effekten viaelektroniska komponenter, de elektriska belastningarna matas av systemet, kommer attsimuleras. För att veta den alstrade effekten till styrkrets kommer det att installeras en mätareoch en seriekommunikationsenhet för kommunikation med en dator.

    Det utfördes en forskning av andra system och produkter i svenska marknaden, för att svara omdetta system kan vara en reserv system för elproduktion i småskalighet.

    Uppförandet av ett pedalkraftssystem uppnås med användning av en tolv volt likströmsmotormed permanent magnet som energikälla. System har förmåga att visa i en LCD-skärm och sändagenom serieportarna, värde av den alstrade effekten. System kan vägleda denna effekt tillbelastningarna med hjälp av en mikrokontroll. Effekt som genereras i systemet visades att detär signifikant för att beaktas som en ytterligare energikälla, fristående eller integrerad till andra system.

  • 28.
    Amin, A.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap. Teleconnect GmbH, Dresden, Germany; University of Applied Sciences Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Bluschke, A.
    Teleconnect GmbH, Dresden, Germany.
    Emery, S.
    Innodul AG, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Krüger, F.
    Teleconnect GmbH, Dresden, Germany; University of Applied Sciences Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Matthews, M.
    Teleconnect GmbH, Dresden, Germany.
    Rietzsch, P.
    Teleconnect GmbH, Dresden, Germany.
    Steglich, R.
    Contec Steuerungstechnik and Automation GmbH, Ebbs, Austria.
    Multi-carrier transmission over si-pof2011Inngår i: POF 2011: 20th International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers - Conference Proceeding, 2011, s. 81-86Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-carrier modulation (MCM) is today’s method of choice for communication systems. This is also true for SI-POF. The basics of MCM and special characteristics for the optical transmission using SI-POF are explained within this paper. Current approaches for MCM over SI-POF are described: Teleconnect’s G.hn based solution for home networking and Innodul’s DMT-based Gigabit solution.

  • 29.
    AMIN, AHMED
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Implementation and Investigation of VDSL2 Signal Modulation/Demodulation Functions for FDM Solution via POF Channel2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    For higher data rate and attractive price level internet service Very High Data rate Subscriber Line 2 (VDSL2) is a perfect option. VDSL2 is a great achievement in Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) technology. It has a good impact in modern triple play (Voice, Data and Video) Internet service but for modern world applications required more data rate than the VDSL2 system can provide but it should be inexpensive and easy to install. So the desired goal of this thesis work is to achieve higher bitrates for VDSL2 system, by transmitting multiple VDSL2 signal using Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) channel instead of copper channel. POF channel is a suitable solution for high data rate application. Moreover POF is very rugged and suitable for high data rate application because of optical based transmission and it’s also very easy to implement into the interior networking. Moreover POF doesn’t have any impact of Electro Magnetic Interference because of optical transmission. So several VDSL2 signals are amplitude modulated to allocate specific frequency band and combined together which can be called as frequency division multiplexing and POF is used as channel to carry the combined signal which provide much higher bit rate than single signal and efficiently utilize the bandwidth of the channel. Then at the receiver end the combined signals are split and amplitude demodulate at the respective receiver to recover the expected frequency band for the receiver.       

  • 30.
    Amin, Shoaib
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Characterization and Linearization of Multi-band Multi-channel RF Power Amplifiers2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The World today is deeply transformed by the advancement in wireless technology. The envision of a smart society where interactions between physical and virtual dimensions of life are intertwined and where human interaction is mediated by machines, e.g., smart phones, demands increasingly more data traffic. This continual increase in data traffic requires re-designing of the wireless technologies for increased system capacity and flexibility. In this thesis, aspects related to behavioral modeling, characterization, and linearization of multi-channel/band power amplifiers (PAs) are discussed.

    When building a model of any system, it is advantageous to take into account the knowledge of the physics of the system and include into the model. This approach could help to improve the model performance. In this context, three novel behavioral models and DPD schemes for nonlinear MIMO transmitters are proposed.

    To model and compensate distortions in GaN based RF PAs in presence of long-term memory effects, novel models for SISO and concurrent dual-band PAs are proposed. These models are based on a fixed pole expansion technique and have infinite impulse response. They show substantial performance improvement. A behavioral model based on the physical knowledge of the concurrent dual-band PA is derived, and its performance is investigated both for behavioral modeling and compensation of nonlinear distortions.

    Two-tone characterization is a fingerprint method for the characterization of memory effects in dynamic nonlinear systems. In this context, two novel techniques are proposed. The first technique is a dual two-tone characterization technique to characterize the memory effects of self- and cross-modulation products in concurrent dual-band transmitter. The second technique is for the characterization and analysis of self- and cross-Volterra kernels of nonlinear 3x3 MIMO systems using three-tone signals.

  • 31.
    Amin, Shoaib
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Characterization and Linearization of Multi-channel RF Power Amplifiers2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands for high data rates and broadband wireless access requirethe development of wireless systems that can support wide and multi-bandsignals. To deploy these signals, new radio frequency (RF) front-ends are requiredwhich impose new challenges in terms of power consumption efficiencyand sources of distortion e.g., nonlinearity. These challenges are more pronouncedin power amplifiers (PAs) that degrade the overall performance ofthe RF transmitter.Since it is difficult to optimize the linearity and efficiency characteristicsof a PA simultaneously, a trade-off is needed. At high input power, a PAexhibits high efficiency at the expense of linearity. On the other hand, atlow input power, a PA is linear at the expense of the efficiency. To achievelinearity and efficiency at the same time, digital pre-distortion (DPD) is oftenused to compensate for the PA nonlinearity at high input power. In case ofmulti-channel PAs, input and output signals of different channels interactwith each other due to cross-talk. Therefore, these PAs exhibit differentnonlinear behavior than the single-input single-output (SISO) PAs. The DPDtechniques developed for SISO PAs do not result in adequate performancewhen used for multi-channel PAs. Hence, an accurate behavioral modeling isessential for the development of DPD for multi-channel RF PAs.In this thesis, we propose three novel behavioral models and DPD schemesfor nonlinear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmitters in presenceof cross-talk. A study of the source of cross-talk in MIMO transmittershave been investigated to derive simple and powerful modeling schemes.These models are extensions of a SISO generalized memory polynomial model.A comparative study with a previously published MIMO model is also presented.The effect of coherent and partially non-coherent signal generationon DPD performance is also highlighted. It is shown experimentally thatwith partially non-coherent signal generation, the performance of the DPDdegrades compared to coherent signal generation.In context of multi-channel RF transmitters, PA behavioral models andDPD schemes suffer from a large number of model parameters with the increasein nonlinear order and memory depth. This growth leads to highcomplexity model identification and implementation. We have designed aDPD scheme for MIMO PAs using a sparse estimation technique for reducingmodel complexity. This technique also increases the numerical stability whenlinear least square estimation model identification is used.A method to characterize the memory effects in a nonlinear concurrentdual-band PAs is also presented. Compared to the SISO PAs, concurrentdual-band PAs are not only affected by intermodulation distortions but alsoby cross-modulation distortions. The characterization of memory effects inconcurrent dual-band transmitter is performed by injecting a two-tone testsignal in each input channel of the transmitter. Asymmetric energy surfacesare introduced for the intermodulation and cross-modulation products, whichcan be used to identify the power and frequency regions where the memory effects are dominant.

  • 32.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. Dept of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Händel, Peter
    Dept of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Characterization and modeling of RF amplifiers with multiple input signals2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A characterization technique for RF PAs excited with multiple signals is presented. The technique can be used for characterization of memory effects in IM/CM products. The extracted information can in return be of use for modifying behavioral models to better capture memory in IM/CM products.

  • 33.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. Department of Signal Processing, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH.
    Händel, Peter
    Department of Signal Processing, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Digital Predistortion of Single and Concurrent Dual Band Radio Frequency GaN Amplifiers with Strong Nonlinear Memory Effects2017Inngår i: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 65, nr 7, s. 2453-2464, artikkel-id 7855827Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical anomalies due to trapping effects in Gallium Nitride (GaN) power amplifiers (PAs)give rise to long-term or strong memory effects. We propose novel models based on infinite impulse response (IIR) fixed pole expansion techniques for the behavioural modeling and digital pre-distortion of single-input-single-output (SISO) and concurrent dual-bandGaN PAs. Experimental results show that the proposed models outperform the corresponding finite impulse response (FIR) models by up to 17 dB for the same number of model parameters. For the linearization of a SISO GaN PA the proposed models give adjacent channel power ratios (ACPRs) that are 7 to 17 dBlower than the FIR models. For the concurrent dual-band case, the proposed models give ACPRs that are 9to 14 dB lower than the FIR models.

  • 34.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Khan, Zain Ahmed
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Händel, Peter
    ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Concurrent dual-band power amplifier model modification using dual two-tone test2016Inngår i: 46th Europena Microwave Conference (EUMC) 2016, 2016, s. 186-189Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A dual two-tone technique for the characterization of memory effects in concurrent dual-band transmitters is revisited to modify a 2D-DPD model for the linearization of concurrent dual-band transmitters. By taking into account the individual nonlinear memory effects of the self- and cross-kernels, a new2D modified digital pre-distortion (2D-MDPD) model is proposed,which not only supersedes the linearization performance but also reduces the computational complexity compared to the 2DDPDmodel in terms of a number of floating point operations(FLOPs). Experimental results show an improvement of 1.7 dBin normalized mean square error (NMSE) and a 58% reduction in the number of FLOPs.

  • 35.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH.
    Landin, Per
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Händel, Peter
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Signal Processing Lab, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Behavioral Modeling and Linearization of Crosstalk and Memory Effects in RF MIMO Transmitters2014Inngår i: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 62, nr 4, s. 810-823Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes three novel models for behavioral modeling and digital pre-distortion (DPD) of nonlinear 2$,times,$ 2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmitters in the presence of crosstalk. The proposed models are extensions of the single-input single-output generalized memory polynomial model. Three types of crosstalk effects were studied and characterized as linear, nonlinear, and nonlinear & linear crosstalk. A comparative study was performed with previously published models for the linearization of crosstalk in a nonlinear 2 $,times,$2 MIMO transmitter. The experiments indicate that, depending on the type of crosstalk, the selection of the correct model in the transmitter is necessary for behavioral modeling and sufficient DPD performance. The effects of coherent and partially noncoherent signal generation on the performance of DPD were also studied. For crosstalk levels of ${-}{hbox{30}}$ dB, the difference in the normalized mean square error and adjacent channel power ratio was found to be 3–4 dB between coherent and partially noncoherent signal generation.

  • 36.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH, Signalbehandling.
    Landin, Per N.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Signalbehandling.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    2D Extended envelope memory polynomial model for concurrent dual-band RF transmitters2017Inngår i: International journal of microwave and wireless technologies, ISSN 1759-0795, E-ISSN 1759-0787, Vol. 9, nr 8, s. 1619-1627Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a 2D extended envelope memory polynomial (2D-EEMP) model for concurrent dual-band radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers (PAs). The model is derived based on the physical knowledge of a dual-band RF PA. The derived model contains cross-modulation terms not included in previously published models; these terms are found to be of importance for both behavioral modeling and digital pre-distortion (DPD). The performance of the derived model is evaluated both as the behavioral model and DPD, and the performance is compared with state-of-the-art2D-DPD and dual-band generalized memory polynomial (DB-GMP) models. Experimental result shows that the proposed model resulted in normalized mean square error (NMSE) of -51.7/-51.6dB and adjacent channel error power ratio (ACEPR) of -63.1/-63.4 dB, for channel 1/2, whereas the 2D-DPD resulted in the largest model error and DB-GMP resulted in model parameters that are 3 times more than those resulted with the proposed model with the same performance. As pre-distorter, the proposed model resulted in adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) of -55.8/ -54.6 dB for channel 1/2 and is 7-10 dB lower than those resulted with the 2D-DPD model and2-4 dB lower compared to the DB-GMP model.

  • 37.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik. KTH, Signalbehandling.
    Van Moer, Wendy
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Händel, Peter
    Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Characterization of concurrent dual-band power amplifiers using a dual two-tone excitation signal2015Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 64, nr 10, s. 2781-2791, artikkel-id 7104121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to characterize the memory effects in a nonlinear concurrent dual-band transmitter is presented. It is an extension of the conventional two tone test for power amplifiers to concurrent dual band transmitters. The output signal of a concurrent dual-band transmitter is affected not only by intermodulation products but also by cross-modulation products. In one frequency band, the transmitter is excited by a two tone signal which frequency separation is swept. In the second band the transmitter is concurrently excited by an other two tone signal with slightly wider frequency separation. The frequency difference of the two signals is fixed during the frequency sweep. The two tone test is made at different power levels. The upper and lower third-order inter- and cross-modulation products are measured. The asymmetry between the upper and lower third-order inter- and cross-modulation products are measures of the transmitter's memory effects. The measurement results show that the memory effects are more dominant in the third-order intermodulation products than in the cross modulation products. An error analysis and system calibration was performed and measurement results for two different devices are presented.

  • 38.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Van Moer, Wendy
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Händel, Peter
    Department of Information Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Rebuttal to "On Dual-Band Amplifications Using Dual Two-Tones Clarifications and Discussions"2017Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 66, nr 10, s. 2795-2797Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This rebuttal is to "€œOn dual-band amplifications using dual two-tone: Clarifications and discussion". In the following, we provide our reply.

  • 39.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Landin, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Händel, Peter
    ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Signal Processing Lab, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Noise Impact on the Identification of DigitalPredistorter Parameters in the Indirect LearningArchitecture2012Inngår i: 2012 Swedish Communication Technologies Workshop (Swe-CTW), IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, s. 36-39Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The indirect learning architecture (ILA) is the mostused methodology for the identification of Digital Pre-distorter(DPD) functions for nonlinear systems, particularly for highpower amplifiers. The ILA principle works in black box modelingrelying on the inversion of input and output signals of thenonlinear system, such that the inverse is estimated. This paperpresents the impact of disturbances, such as noise in the DPDidentification. Experiments were performed with a state-of-artDoherty power amplifier intended for base station operationin current telecommunication wireless networks. As expected,a degradation in the performance of the DPD (measured innormalized mean square error (NMSE)) is found in our experiments.However, adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) canbe a misleading figure of merit showing improvement in theperformance for wrongly estimated DPD functions.

  • 40.
    Andersen, Olav
    et al.
    Ericsson.
    Björsell, Niclas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik. Högskolan i Gävle, Radio Center Gävle.
    Keskitalo, Niclas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Radio Center Gävle. Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    A Test-Bed Designed to Utilize Zhu’s General Sampling Theorem to Characterize Power Amplifiers2009Inngår i: Instrumentation and measurement technology conference 2009 I2MTC '09 IEEE, Singapore, 2009, s. 201-204Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterizing power amplifiers require test set-ups with performance superior to the power amplifiers. A commonly used method is to use an IQ-demodulator. However, problem arises due to imperfections in the demodulator such as IQ-imbalance; an alternative method is to use a direct down converter to intermediate frequency. The drawback then is the limited bandwidth. However, the required bandwidth of the ADC does not need to be exceptional. According to Zhu’s general sampling theorem is it enough to sample the output signal at the Nyquist rate of the input. However, even though the required sampling rate is reduced the demands on the analog bandwidth remains. Unfortunately, commercially available instruments such as vector signal analyzers can not be used for this purpose since their analog bandwidth is too small. In this paper a test-bed is designed to utilize the Zhu’s general sampling theorem. The RF front-end has frequency range of 500 MHz – 2.7 GHz and a bandwidth of 1 GHz. All performance data are verified with measurements.

  • 41.
    Andersen, Olav
    et al.
    Ericsson AB, Gävle Sweden.
    Wisell, David
    Ericsson AB, Gävle, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, Niclas
    Ericsson AB, Gävle, Sweden.
    Stenvard, Patrik
    Ericsson AB, Gävle, Sweden.
    Cost effective high performance modular instrumentation, signal generation and signal analysis for future mobile communication systems2007Inngår i: 2007 IEEE Autotestcon: proceedings. Vol. 1 AND 2, 2007, s. 660-668Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A decrease in life cycle cost is a key issue for testing of mobile communication systems. The rapid development and edge technology requires high performance instruments and state of the art measurement technology. It is desired to use virtual/synthetic instruments and put the measurement technology in software independent of hardware, i.e. software driven measurements. Increased flexibility and modularization, both in hardware and software, are requirements to support the cost decrease. The hardware basis is signal generation and signal analysis.

    In this paper state of the art signal generation and signal analysis capabilities are demonstrated in a modular and flexible architecture. A direct IF synthesis is used to generate 1 WideBand Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) carrier with more than 72 dB Adjacent Carrier Leakage Ratio (ACLR) 2 carrier with more than 68 dBc ACLR over a total bandwidth of 100 MHz. The signal analysis capabilities, ACLR performance, for a WCDMA carrier is better than -70 dBc and for a continuous wave better than -85 dBc over a bandwidth of 42.5 MHz. The critical down converter in the set up doesn’t degrade the performance.

  • 42.
    Andersen, Olav
    et al.
    Ericsson Telecom AB, Gävle, Sweden.
    Wisell, David
    Ericsson Telecom AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Staenvard, Patrik
    Ericsson Telecom AB, Gävle, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, Niclas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik. Högskolan i Gävle, Radio Center Gävle.
    Extending the Bandwidth and Dynamic Range of Old RF Instruments to Meet State-of-the-Art Performance, Using a Synthetic Instrument Approach2009Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 58, nr 2, s. 248-254Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A decrease in life cycle cost is a key issue for testing mobile communication systems. The rapid development and edge technology requires high-performance instruments and state-of-the-art measurement technology. New investments are expensive, but even older generation instruments are capable of extending their bandwidth and dynamic range to meet even the latest Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) cellular measurement requirements by the addition of external hardware using a synthetic instrument approach. The novelty of this paper is the high performance on the most crucial parameters, i.e., the dynamic range and bandwidth achieved by only replacing some parts of the legacy instrument. Moreover, the demonstrated direct IF synthesis has a high degree of novelty at wide modulation bandwidths. It is desired to use virtual/synthetic instruments and make the signal processing in the software independent of the hardware, i.e., software-defined measurements (SDMs). In this paper, a state-of-the-art experimental setup for signal generation and signal analysis is demonstrated. A direct IF synthesis is used to generate a wideband code-division multiple-access (WCDMA) carrier with more than 72-dB adjacent carrier leakage ratio (ACLR) up to 12 parallel carriers with more than 68-dBc ACLR over a total bandwidth of 100 MHz. The signal analysis capabilities (e.g., ACLR performance) for a WCDMA carrier is better than -70 dBc and for a continuous wave better than -85 dBc over a bandwidth of 42.5 MHz. The critical RF downconverter in the setup is carefully designed not to degrade the dynamic range performance.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    Radarbolaget.
    Björsell, Niclas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Ottoson, Patrik
    Radarbolaget.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Radar Images of Leaks in Building Elements2015Inngår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 78, s. 1726-1731Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Through leakage in the building envelope there is a penetration of air, water vapor and particles. The degree of leakage of air can be quantified by existing methods. However, the location of adventitious openings is often not known. In order to overcome the limitations in existing methods, a non-contact and non-destructive method based on ultra-wide bandwidth radar technology is suggested. A test-bed is designed that can measure with different polarization to be able to detect flaws in different directions. Initial measurements shows promising results for further development of the method of using radar images to find leaks in building elements.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    Radarbolaget, Gävle.
    Wallin, Kjell
    Radarbolaget, Gävle.
    Javashvili, Otar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Beckman, Claes
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    M-Sequence UWB Radar for Industrial Applications2010Inngår i: Program of GigaHertz Symposium 2010, March 9-10, at Lund University, 2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultra Wideband Radar has the potential of dramatically improving the control and surveillance of industrial processes in confined areas. An example is the application of UWB radar for surveillance of furnaces for heath treatment of steel billets developed by Radarbolaget in Gävle.

    In our installation at AB Sandvik Materials Technology, we have shown that by using a non-destructive UWB Radar technique it is possible to visualize in real-time the ongoing process inside the furnace behind a 0.5 m thick ceramic wall. Since the operating temperature inside the furnace is 1200 °C, there is today no other known method capable of visualizing the process for the operator of the furnace. The system is therefore designed to sustain high temperatures and powerful electromagnetic disturbances while performing measurement with wide dynamics and high stability.

    The design of this radar is based on the idea of transmitting a continuous m-sequence and then detecting the correlated impulse response (see figure below). The wide bandwidth is a requirement for obtaining high spatial accuracy and resolution but puts further requirements on the design of the antennas and the electronics. Our results show that with this technique it is possible to determine the deformation of the steel billets inside the furnace with an accuracy of less than 5 mm. The radar system is also able to detect deformations in the furnace wall

    The m-sequence radar has many advantages over other UWB radar technologies since it e.g. does not require many analogue components. Its performance is a result of the choice of code length, sampling rate and averaging. However, the resolution is still limited by the impulse response of the analogue antenna (ringing).

    In this paper system parameters that affect the overall performance of an m-sequence radar are reviewed and means of enhancing its performance are discussed.

  • 45.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    Utveckling av GIS-applikation för effektivisering av planeringsarbeten för infrastruktur2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Planeringsarbeten för infrastruktur sker ofta med hjälp av speciella programvaror som CAD för att skapa ritningar på kartor över områden där tänkta infrastrukturer skall utvecklas. Som en effektivisering för dessa arbeten handlar denna studie om implementering av en GIS-applikation för att motivera fördelar med GIS och sättet för hantering samt visualisering av geografisk information. En webbapplikation som hanterar baskartor samt överliggande vektorlager för infrastruktur utvecklas, samt även att samma kartdata över infrastrukturen kopplas till en mobilapplikation för att effektivisera eventuella inventeringsarbeten av infrastrukur med hjälp av GPS för att kunna positionera infrastruktur på ett bra sätt. Tekniken bakom utvecklingen bygger på HTML, CSS och JavaScript samt molntjänstlagrin av infrastruktursdata i en geodatabas . GIS-applikationen sammanställer svar på frågor som bevisar hur GIS på ett tillfredställande sätt mycket väl skulle kunna implementeras och användas praktiskt i ett utvecklingsarbete för infrastruktur i dagens morderna samhälle. 

  • 46.
    Andersson, Rabé
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektroteknik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Exploring Baxter Robot and Development of Python algorithms to Execute Holding, Lifting and Positioning Tasks2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The greatest feature of using a Baxter robot among other industrial robots is the ability to train this robot conveniently. The training of the robot could be done within a few minutes and it does not need so much knowledge of programming. However, this type of training feature is limited in functionality and needs frequent updating of the software and the license from the manufactural company. As the manufacturer of Baxter Robot no longer exists due to a merger, the thesis has twofold aims, (1) Exploring different functional, installation, calibration, troubleshooting and hardware features of the Baxter robot and (2) demonstrate the functionality of Baxter to perform general tasks of holding, lifting and moving of test objects from one desired position to another position using custom-made programs in Python. Owing to this, details about different software and hardware aspects of Baxter robot is presented in this thesis. Additionally, systematic laboratory tutorials are also presented in appendices for students who want to learn and operate the robot from simple to complicated tasks. In order to keep the Baxter operational for students and researchers in future, when there is no more help available from its manufacturer, this thesis endeavour to cover all these aspects. Thus, the thesis presents a brief understanding of how to use the Baxter Robot in a simple and efficient way to perform a basic industrial task. The kinematics part will show the concepts of forward and inverse kinematics and the DH (the Denavit–Hartenberg) parameters that are important to understand the end-effector position according to the world frame that will give the knowledge of those who are interested in the kinematics part of Baxter robot. The work of the thesis will make it easier to understand how to program a Baxter robot by using Python language and using the simplest way to move the arm to certain positions. The ROS principles, kinematics and Python language programs will provide a good platform to understand the usability of Baxter robot. Furthermore, easy to use laboratory tutorials are devised and are presented in the appendices. These laboratory tutorials will improve the understanding of the readers and provide a step-by-step guide of operating Baxter robot according to the principles of Robotics. In addition to all these points above, the thesis shows useful functions that are built in ROS (Robot Operating System) that make it easier to program the robot in an untraditional way which is one of a contribution of this thesis itself. The usual way to program the robots, in general, is to study the robot kinematics and calculate the position of the end-effector or the tool according to some frame or the world coordinate frame. This calculation can be done by the forward kinematics or the inverse kinematics. The set of programming Baxter robot in this thesis is not the complex calculation of the forward or the inverse kinematics. The tf (transform)tool in ROS has made it easier to reach the joint angles and program Baxter robot using Python.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Tommy
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik. Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Algilany, Gazwan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik. Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Konstruktion Signalgenerator2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    SAAB Aerotech division FGR in Arboga builds and develops equipment and components used in both military and civilian applications. To build a test system for a specific project that SAAB is responsible for requires a simple signal generator that can provide a pulse modulated signal. The need to buy a new advanced signal generator for example from Agilent is not as profitable as the instrument is expensive and contains features that SAAB does not require in their applications and test systems. That was the reason why SAAB offers two students a thesis where the goal is to construct a signal generator in accordance with what SAAB requests.

    This thesis contains several different phases. The first step was a meeting with our supervisor Mats Bergman and by reading the data sheets for components to be used in the project, with these information and specifications that we have received from SAAB we started to construct the signal generator.

    What we did during the construction work was to simulate and draw a schematic to be able to design the circuit board. Simulation was done both in software and on laboration board. The card is then ordered from a circuit board manufacturer in Bulgaria. On the finished card the components will be fitted. Then the card will plugged in into a rack and then presented finished as a signal generator that can be used in a test system.

    The final results of all phases are satisfactory in the part of design and laboratory work. The finished mother board was tested and test results corresponded well with the theory. The final results will be presented with a spoken presentation at the University of Gävle and at SAAB Aerotech in Arboga division FGR

  • 48.
    Antón, Raul
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik. Department of Mechanical Engineering, TECNUN, University of Navarra, Navarra, Spain; Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, KTH Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik. Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, KTH Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Detailed CFD Modelling of EMC Screens for Radio Base Stations: A Parametric Study2009Inngår i: IEEE transactions on components and packaging technologies (Print), ISSN 1521-3331, E-ISSN 1557-9972, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 145-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to make a parametric study of the hydraulic resistance and flow pattern of the flow after an electromagnetic compatibility screen and between two printed circuit boards (PCBs) in a model of a 90 degrees subrack cooling architecture. The parametric study is carried out using a detailed 3-D model of a PCB slot. The detailed model was experimentally validated in a previous paper by the authors. Seven parameters were investigated: velocity, inlet height, screen porosity, PCB thickness, distance between two PCBs, inlet-screen gap and screen thickness. A correlation for the static and dynamic pressure drop, the percentage of dimensionless wetted area, A(omega)*, and the RMS* factor (a function of the How uniformity along the PCB) after the screen is reported as a function of six geometrical dimensionless parameters and the Reynolds number. The correlations, that are based on 174 three dimensional simulations, yield good results for the total pressure drop, in which the values are predicted within the interval of +/- 15%. For the, A(omega)*, all the predicted values are within the interval of +/- 22% of the observed values. Finally, for the RMS* factor, the majority of the values also have a disagreement of less than 20% of the observed values. These last two parameters are believed to provide a correct insight about the flow pattern after the screen.

  • 49.
    Apicella Fernandez, Sergio
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Surface energy modification of metal oxide to enhance electron injection in light-emitting devices: charge balance in hybrid OLEDs and OLETs2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Organic semiconductors (OSCs) present an electron mobility lower by several orders of magnitude than the hole mobility, giving rise to an electron-hole charge imbalance in organic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic light-emitting transistors (OLETs). In this thesis project, I tried to achieve an efficient electron transport and injection properties in opto-electronic devices, using inorganic n-type metal oxides (MOs) instead of organic n-type materials and a polyethyleneimine ethoxylated (PEIE) thin layer as electron transport (ETLs) and injection layers (EILs), respectively. In the first part of this thesis, inverted OLEDs were fabricated in order to study the effect of the PEIE layer in-between ZnO and two different emissive layers (EMLs): poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) polymer (F8BT) and tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum small molecule (Alq3), based on a solution and thermal evaporation processes, respectively. Different concentrations (0.80 %, 0.40 %) of PEIE layers were used to further study electron injection capability in OLEDs. After a series of optimizations in the fabrication process, the opto-electrical characterization showed high-performance of devices. The inverted OLEDs reported a maximum luminance over 104 cd m-2 and a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) around 1.11 %. The results were attributed to the additional PEIE layer which provided a good electron injection from MOs into EMLs. In the last part of the thesis, OLETs were fabricated and discussed by directly transferring the energy modification layer from OLEDs to OLETs. As metal oxide layer, ZnO:N was employed for OLETs since ZnO:N-based thin film transistors (TFTs) showed better performance than ZnO-based TFTs. Finally, due to their short life-time, OLETs were characterized electrically but not optically.

  • 50.
    Apicella Fernández, Sergio
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    MEASUREMENT OF DIELECTRIC CONSTANT FOR WATER AND ITS TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE AT 0 AND 86ºC2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The dielectric properties determine the electrical characteristics of materials. These properties are important for understanding the behavior of materials and how they can interact with each other. Engineers and scientists need to measure these parameters as accurately as possible, and thus be able to integrate them in their designs in a reliably way.

     

    Examples of application are dielectrics used in capacitors that have the function of reducing the applied electric field and increase the capacitors´ capacitance. The later can be increased by using dielectrics with high permittivity (dielectric constant) as water which has a dielectric constant of 80 at room temperature (25ºC). Unfortunately water cannot be used alone as dielectric due its capacity to be conductive and has to be combined with other materials.

    However, this study will focus only on measuring the dielectric properties of water and its temperature dependence. Temperatures chosen for measurements are 0 and 86ºC.

     

    Several methods have been studied over the years to measure the dielectric properties of materials, but there are only three possible measurement methods for liquids: coaxial probe, parallel plates and free space method. Comparing the three methods, in our case the free-space method is better because it allows to perform measurements at high temperatures and in hostile environments. These two features are very important, since the water should be measured at 86 ºC and measurements are performed in a RF (Radio Frequency) lab, where interferences due to the electronic devices can affect accuracy in free-space measurements.

     

    Hence, the following thesis is based exclusively on analyzing the free-space measurement method for measuring the reflection parameters in dB by using two horn antennas. Both antennas are connected to the Vector Network Analyzer (VNA): one as transmitter and the other as receiver. Reflection parameters are also calculated by introducing the reflection formula for lossless material and a finite length in Matlab. Then, the dielectric constant is extracted by comparing both reflections in dB. 

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