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  • 1.
    Adeboye, Taiyelolu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Robot Goalkeeper: A robotic goalkeeper based on machine vision and motor control2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report shows a robust and efficient implementation of a speed-optimized algorithm for object recognition, 3D real world location and tracking in real time. It details a design that was focused on detecting and following objects in flight as applied to a football in motion. An overall goal of the design was to develop a system capable of recognizing an object and its present and near future location while also actuating a robotic arm in response to the motion of the ball in flight.

    The implementation made use of image processing functions in C++, NVIDIA Jetson TX1, Sterolabs’ ZED stereoscopic camera setup in connection to an embedded system controller for the robot arm. The image processing was done with a textured background and the 3D location coordinates were applied to the correction of a Kalman filter model that was used for estimating and predicting the ball location.

    A capture and processing speed of 59.4 frames per second was obtained with good accuracy in depth detection while the ball was well tracked in the tests carried out.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Rabé
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Electronics.
    Exploring Baxter Robot and Development of Python algorithms to Execute Holding, Lifting and Positioning Tasks2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The greatest feature of using a Baxter robot among other industrial robots is the ability to train this robot conveniently. The training of the robot could be done within a few minutes and it does not need so much knowledge of programming. However, this type of training feature is limited in functionality and needs frequent updating of the software and the license from the manufactural company. As the manufacturer of Baxter Robot no longer exists due to a merger, the thesis has twofold aims, (1) Exploring different functional, installation, calibration, troubleshooting and hardware features of the Baxter robot and (2) demonstrate the functionality of Baxter to perform general tasks of holding, lifting and moving of test objects from one desired position to another position using custom-made programs in Python. Owing to this, details about different software and hardware aspects of Baxter robot is presented in this thesis. Additionally, systematic laboratory tutorials are also presented in appendices for students who want to learn and operate the robot from simple to complicated tasks. In order to keep the Baxter operational for students and researchers in future, when there is no more help available from its manufacturer, this thesis endeavour to cover all these aspects. Thus, the thesis presents a brief understanding of how to use the Baxter Robot in a simple and efficient way to perform a basic industrial task. The kinematics part will show the concepts of forward and inverse kinematics and the DH (the Denavit–Hartenberg) parameters that are important to understand the end-effector position according to the world frame that will give the knowledge of those who are interested in the kinematics part of Baxter robot. The work of the thesis will make it easier to understand how to program a Baxter robot by using Python language and using the simplest way to move the arm to certain positions. The ROS principles, kinematics and Python language programs will provide a good platform to understand the usability of Baxter robot. Furthermore, easy to use laboratory tutorials are devised and are presented in the appendices. These laboratory tutorials will improve the understanding of the readers and provide a step-by-step guide of operating Baxter robot according to the principles of Robotics. In addition to all these points above, the thesis shows useful functions that are built in ROS (Robot Operating System) that make it easier to program the robot in an untraditional way which is one of a contribution of this thesis itself. The usual way to program the robots, in general, is to study the robot kinematics and calculate the position of the end-effector or the tool according to some frame or the world coordinate frame. This calculation can be done by the forward kinematics or the inverse kinematics. The set of programming Baxter robot in this thesis is not the complex calculation of the forward or the inverse kinematics. The tf (transform)tool in ROS has made it easier to reach the joint angles and program Baxter robot using Python.

  • 3.
    Barattini, Paolo
    et al.
    kontor46, Torino, Italy.
    Virk, Gurvinder S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Mirnig, Nicole
    University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    Giannaccini, Maria Elena
    Bristol Robotics Laboratory, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Tapus, Adriana
    Robotics and Computer Vision Lab ENSTA-ParisTech, Palaiseau, Paris, France.
    Bonsignorio, Fabio
    Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganés, Madrid, Spain.
    Experimenting in HRI for priming real world set-ups, innovations and products2014In: HRI '14 Proceedings of the 2014 ACM/IEEE international conference on Human-robot interaction, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2014, p. 511-512Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robotics is moving towards real world applications, beyond the well-structured environment of industrial robotics. In the world of assistant robots and medical robots, Human-Robot Interaction is essential. Also in emerging industrial scenarios there is a need of the human to be closely included in the loop. The companies are confronted with the lack of guidelines and of standards on how the higher features of HRI may be safely incorporated. Although the scientific research is burgeoning and worthy of praise, it is clear that its results are scattered and not capable of giving a clear input to be easily taken up by companies and standardization organizations like ISO and IEC. The workshop aims at the integration of empirical findings into complex real world robot systems by focusing on three typical sectors (industrial, service and medical) to develop systematic approaches to benchmark and evaluate experimental systems so that normative results can be realized rapidly. The present workshop focuses on bringing together scientists, representative of robotics companies and of standardization working groups to foster discussion in the definition of experimental scenarios and protocols in HRI, so to be able to prime real world set-ups and help realize the robotic products of the future.

  • 4.
    Christensen, Simon
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Bai, Shaoping
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Rafique, Sajid
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Electronics.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Electronics.
    O'Sullivan, Leonard
    University of Limrick, Limerick, Ireland.
    Power, Valerie
    University of Limrick, Limerick, Ireland.
    Virk, Gurvinder Singh
    Innovative Technology and Science Limited, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    AXO-SUIT: A Modular Full-Body Exoskeleton for Physical Assistance2019In: Mechanism Design for Robotics: Proceedings of the 4th IFToMM Symposium on Mechanism Design for Robotics / [ed] Alessandro Gasparetto and Marco Ceccarelli, Cham: Springer Netherlands, 2019, Vol. 66, p. 443-450Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design of a modular full-body assistive exoskeleton (FB-AXO) for older adults which was developed with funding under the AAL funded AXO-SUIT project. Processes used to formulate a prioritized set of functional and design requirements via close-end-user involvement are outlined and used in realizing the exoskeleton. Design of the resulting mechanics and electronics details for the lower and upper-body subsystems (LB-AXO and (UB-AXO)) are described. Innovative designs of shoulder and spine mechanisms are presented. TheFB-AXO system comprises 27 degrees of freedom, of which 17 are passive and 10 active. The exoskeleton assists full-body motions such as walking, standing, bending, as well as performing lifting and carrying tasks to assist older users performing tasks of daily living.

  • 5.
    Haider, Usman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. University Polytechnic Cartagena, Spain.
    Nyoman, Indrawibawa I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. University Polytechnic Cartagena, Spain.
    Coronado, Juan Lopez
    University Polytechnic Cartagena, Spain.
    Kim, Chanki
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Virk, Gurvinder S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    User-centric Harmonized Control for Single Joint Assistive Exoskeletons2016In: International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, ISSN 1729-8806, E-ISSN 1729-8814, Vol. 13, no 3, article id 115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is ageing and this poses a challenge to produce cost-effective solutions that can keep elderly people independent and active by assisting them in daily living activities. In this regard, this paper presents a new control method to provide physical assistance for any of the user joints (e.g., hip, knee, elbow, etc.) as needed by the wearer, by means of an assistive non-medical single joint exoskeleton with a "harmonized controller" capable of providing assistance in a natural way, and varying the assistance as needed by the user performing some activity. The control method is aimed at exoskeletons to provide assistance to users facing difficulty in any activity such as walking, sit-to-stand, etc., and, other than providing assistance as needed, it can also reduce the muscular effort for a completely healthy user. Harmonized control uses exoskeleton-integrated force sensors and motion sensors to identify the user's intentions and the assistance level required, generating appropriate control signals for the actuators by implementing a simple PID controller. To verify the proposed harmonized-control technique, simulations using MATLAB/SIMULINK were performed for a single joint system. An experimental test rig for a single joint was also developed using MATLAB Xpc Target for real-time control. User tests were also carried out for the knee joint and the results obtained from simulations, experimentation and user tests are reported and discussed here. The results achieved to date and reported here show harmonized control to be a promising user-centric solution for the development of single joint assistive exoskeletons for support as needed by the user in daily living activities.

  • 6.
    Hedström, Gustav
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Larsson, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    AGV-system för transport av långa borrstänger: En förstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The transportation of material at Sandvik Mining AB in Sandviken shall be optimized to avoid downtime in production cells due to too many parallel tasks. To do so, an AGV system is going to be implemented in a production cell to handle the material transports there. The aim of this paper is to increase the knowledge about AGV systems and how a system can be implemented into the cell. To implement the AGV system a literature review was written and case studies of existing AGV systems in four different departments within Sandvik Group were studied. The results of the literature review and the case studies is a suggestion of one solution for a pilot system. This pilot system is complete with solutions for trucks, material racks, technical equipment and a list of requirements that should be claimed of an AGV system. The pilot system which is presented is adapted to the products that will be transported within the plant and takes future developments of the system into account. The conclusion of this paper is that the presented solution meets the requirements of an AGV system for the environment it is to be implemented into.

  • 7.
    Helgesson, Christian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Minska risken för överbelastning av kallsaxen: En fallstudie i Ovakos finvalsverk i Boxholm2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En kallsax på Ovakos finvalsverk i Boxholm ska bytas ut. Efter bytet av kallsaxen vill man undvika att kallsaxens kapacitet överstigs, då det annars finns en risk att den nya kallsaxen går sönder. För att undvika detta utvärderades om inställningarna för stångordnaren, som förser kallsaxen med stänger, kunde automatiseras. Vid automatiseringen programmerades controller och HMI system som redan finns på Ovakos finvalsverk i Boxholm med de extra funktioner som krävdes för automatiseringen. Att använda den befintliga utrustningen för att göra automatiseringen var ett av målen vid automatiseringen. Det finns begränsningar för automationssystemet på grund av att den tekniska utrustningen i finvalsverket inte var tillräcklig. Eftersom den tekniska utrustningen inte var tillräcklig för att använda fullständig automation måste en operatör bestämma när automationen ska användas. I och med att operatören bestämmer när automationen ska användas var det av intresse att veta vilka faktorer som påverkar operatören att använda sig av eller att välja bort automationen. Faktorer som kan påverka operatörers användning av automationssystem är till exempel tilltro till automationssystemet, övertro till automationssystemet, operatörens arbetsbelastning och användarvänligheten hos automationssystemet. Genom en frågeenkät till berörda operatörer, mätdata från controller och MES-systemet har en utvärdering av hur automationssystemet fungerar med den tekniska utrustningen gjorts. Resultatet av utvärderingen pekar ut faktorer som förhindrar att automationen fungerar på ett tillfredställande sätt. Det största problemet med automationssystemet är att det felberäknar antalet stålstänger som får klippas. Andra felkällor vid användning av automationen är att automationssystemet ger en felaktig bild att det fungerar när det inte ger korrekta värden, vilket kan leda till övertro på automationssystemet. Det borde kunna motverkas genom utbildning om automationssystemet, samt att automationssystemet måste tydligare indikera när det inte fungerar, till exempel med larm och meddelanden i HMI-systemet. Resultatet av studien är att en utökning av stångordnarens automation är möjlig, men utifrån studien kan man inte dra slutsatsen om en utökad automation minskar risken för överbelastning av kallsaxen.

  • 8.
    Indrawibawa, I. Nyoman
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences, Soest, Germany.
    Virk, Gurvinder S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Exoskeleton for assisting human walking2013In: Nature-Inspired Mobile Robotics: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2013, World Scientific Publishing Co. , 2013, p. 117-124Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the ageing society's problems evolve, mobility aid requirements are beginning to gain impetus and detailed studies on humans performing their normal activities for daily living are becoming urgent. The paper presents the design of a lower-body exoskeleton, which can be easily put on and worn, and used for recording human motions. In this way, the mobility requirements for performing daily living tasks are determined. The research involves the design of a 4 degree of freedom (DOF) lower-body prototype system used in acquiring basic motion data from volunteers as they perform basic walking tasks using embedded sensors for recording the hip and knee angles and transmitting them wirelessly. Walking tests with 20 volunteers are carried out after ethical considerations have been addressed; these cover human safety, full informed consent and privacy ensured by presenting the results in an anonymous manner. 

  • 9. Jacobs, Theo
    et al.
    Virk, Gurvinder S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    ISO 13482 - The new safety standard for personal care robots2014In: Proceedings for the joint conference of ISR 2014, 45th International Symposium on Robotics and Robotik 2014, 8th German Conference on Robotics, 2 - 3 June 2014, Munich, Germany, parallel to AUTOMATICA, VDE Verlag GmbH, 2014, p. 698-703Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the future, personal care robots will work in close interaction with humans. This poses a great challenge to the manufacturers of such robots who have to ensure the safety of their systems. Up to now, only general safety standards for machines were available and the lack of a specialized safety standard with detailed requirements has resulted in uncertainty and a relatively high residual risk for manufacturers. This situation is changed with the publication of ISO 13482, a safety standard for personal care robots. This paper gives an overview about the contents of the new safety standard and the expected effects for service robot manufacturers and the way, personal care robots will be developed in the future. The scope of the standard and its application in the risk assessment process is described. Special focus lies on the aspect of intended close-interaction and contact between human and robot, and the possibility to validate that all safety requirements have been met.

  • 10.
    Johansson, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Integrering av styrsystem till SIMATIC PCS 7: En fördjupning i SIMATIC PCS 7/Open OS2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study will focus on how Siemens controllers that are not listed in the productlibrary of the process control system PCS 7, can be integrated. The integration willbe performed using an option for PCS 7 (SIMATIC PCS 7/Open OS). The controllers to be integrated in this work are commonly found in industries today, the Siemens controllers SIMATIC S7-300/1500. These are usually not controlled from a processcontrol system, they are more commonly controlled via an operator panel next to the machine. By integrating these controllers into the process control system, they can be controlled from larger control rooms, and the production will acquire the benefits of using modern controllers.

    Previous cases with similar components, where other integration techniques was used has been evaluated. In these cases the integration have shown that there are today standardized techniques for integrating single field devices so that they can be managed by process control systems. In another study investigated, where attempts have been made to integrate the function of a controller that is controlling several field devices, the study showed limitations in the technique used. According to Siemens AG however, SIMATIC PCS 7/Open OS will be able to integrate acontroller with its complete functionality into the process control system PCS 7.

    The result of the work shows that integration of the controllers to PCS 7 by using the option package is possible, and the controller could be fully operated from a PCS 7-HMI. In order to make the integration with the optional package more user-friendly, it is recommended that preparations be made before integrating. Such as preparing a library in both PCS 7 and in the controller to be integrated, which are containing for example function blocks in the controller side and graphic elements corresponding to these function blocks in the PCS 7-HMI side.

  • 11.
    Kamagaluh, Braisa
    et al.
    South Westphalia Univ Appl Sci, Dept Elect Engn, D-59494 Soest, Germany.
    Kumar, John Sujith
    South Westphalia Univ Appl Sci, Dept Elect Engn, D-59494 Soest, Germany.
    Virk, Gurvinder S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    DESIGN OF MULTI-TERRAIN CLIMBING ROBOT FOR PETROCHEMICAL APPLICATIONS2012In: Adaptive Mobile Robotics: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2012, 2012, p. 639-646Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-terrain climbing robot provides more flexibility while doing inspection in scenarios where the environments comprise several types of landscape such as walls, steps, ceiling, and sloped ferromagnetic surfaces. This paper presents the development of a walking and climbing robot named Winspecbot which uses legs with magnetic padded feet to climb on steel pipes and is planned to have a hand gripper to perform inspection tasks. The robot is designed to carry about 1 kg inspection tools while it is climbing. With the use of Wi-Fi communications, the user is able to monitor the operational conditions of the robot when it is working in complex environments.

  • 12.
    Kolluri, Sowjanya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Automation of depowdering step in binder-jet additive manufacturing: Commissioning of KUKA robot2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to automate the depowdering step in binder-jet additive manufacturing using KUKA kr6 robot.

    The major tasks involved in this thesis work are commissioning of the KUKA kr6 robot, plan the actions required for automation process of binder jet considering the scaling factor of green bodies. For this purpose KUKA robot with a standard KUKA compact controller (KRC4) and KUKA system software 8.3 (KSS) has been used. In Peter Corke Matlab toolbox (Matlab toolbox), KUKA kr6 robot model has been simulated to understand forward kinematics problem which shows the study the motion of end effector of robot in space for picking process. These transformations between the Joint coordinate systems and Cartesian coordinate systems give the forward and inverse kinematics.

    Firstly, a KUKA kr6 robot has been programmed in a KUKA Robot Language (KRL) using an algebraic approach with geometric operator to automate the picking process of green bodies. These are fragile bodies thereby many number of tests have been conducted to improve the program. Also additional effort has been placed to test the customized gripper used for the layered pick and place of the components, customized vacuum cleaner for the vacuum cleaning in between the layers and to consider the scaling factor during the sintering step of the binder jet.

    Finally, KUKA kr6 robot model has been simulated in Matlab toolbox. The picking point in the space has been simulated to study the forward kinematics and to understand how the robot reaches a position and orientation in space. Cartesian trajectory has been simulated. Also, the Jacobian matrix, its rank and determinant are studied to understand the singularities in KUKA kr6 robot, basing on which the thesis work can be continued and enhanced further.

  • 13.
    Kozłowski, K.
    et al.
    Poznan University of Technology, Poland.
    Tokhi, M. O.
    University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Virk, Gurvinder Singh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Mobile service robotics2014 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in control of climbing and walking robots has remarkably increased over the years. Novel solutions of complex mechanical systems such as climbing, walking, flying and running robots with different kinds of locomotion and the technologies that support them and their applications are the evidence of significant progress in the area of robotics. Supporting technologies include the means by which robots use to sense, model, and navigate through their environments and, of course, actuation and control technologies. Human interaction including exoskeletons, prostheses and orthoses, as well as service robots, are increasingly active important pertinent areas of research. In addition, legged machines and tracked platforms with software architecture seem to be currently the research idea of most interest to the robotics community.

  • 14.
    Krishnan, Rakesh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Electronics. Robotics, Perception and Learning, School of Computer Science and Communication, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; BioMEx Center, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björsell, Niclas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Electronics.
    Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena
    KTH Engineering Sciences, Mechanics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden; BioMEx Center, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden .
    Smith, Christian
    Robotics, Perception and Learning, School of Computer Science and Communication, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; BioMEx Center, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    A survey of human shoulder functional kinematic representations2019In: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, ISSN 0140-0118, E-ISSN 1741-0444, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 339-367Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this survey, we review the field of human shoulder functional kinematic representations. The central question of this review is to evaluate whether the current approaches in shoulder kinematics can meet the high-reliability computational challenge. This challenge is posed by applications such as robot-assisted rehabilitation. Currently, the role of kinematic representations in such applications has been mostly overlooked. Therefore, we have systematically searched and summarised the existing literature on shoulder kinematics. The shoulder is an important functional joint, and its large range of motion (ROM) poses several mathematical and practical challenges. Frequently, in kinematic analysis, the role of the shoulder articulation is approximated to a ball-and-socket joint. Following the high-reliability computational challenge, our review challenges this inappropriate use of reductionism. Therefore, we propose that this challenge could be met by kinematic representations, that are redundant, that use an active interpretation and that emphasise on functional understanding.

  • 15.
    Krishnan, Rakesh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Robotics, Perception and Learning, School of Computer Science and Communication, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Björsell, Niclas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Smith, Christian
    Robotics, Perception and Learning, School of Computer Science and Communication, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    How do we plan movements?: A geometric answer2016In: School and symposium on advanced neurorehabilitation (SSNR2016): Proceedings, 2016, , p. 2p. 16-17Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human movement is essentially a complex phenomenon. When humans work closely with robots, understanding human motion using robot’s sensors is a very challenging problem. This is partially due to the lack of proper consensus among researchers on which representation to use in such situations. This extended abstract presents a novel kinematic framework to study human intention using hybrid twists. Thisis important as the functional aspects of the human shoulder are evaluated using the information embedded in thoraco-humeral kinematics. We successfully demonstrate that our approach is singularity free. We also demonstrate that how the twis tparameters vary according to the movement being performed.

  • 16.
    Krishnan, Rakesh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Robotics, Perception and Learning, School of Computer Science and Communication, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björsell, Niclas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Smith, Christian
    Robotics, Perception and Learning, School of Computer Science and Communication, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Human shoulder functional kinematics: Are we ready for the high-reliability computational challenge?2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In  this  preview  talk,  I  will  present  a  short  summary  of  our  ongoing  work  related  to  human shoulder functional kinematics.  Robot-assisted rehabilitation needs functional understanding of human kinematics in design, operation and evaluation of this technology. Human shoulder is an important  functional  joint  that  enables  fine  motor  skills  for  human  upper  arm  manipulation. Due  to  several  mathematical  and  practical  challenges,  the  shoulder  kinematics  is  often oversimplified. Moreover, there is a lack of agreement among different research communities on  the  suitable  kinematic  representation  when  connecting  humans  to  robots.  Currently,  it  is expected  that  this  computational  structure  used  in  such  applications  have  high-reliability. Therefore,  we  pose  the  question:  Are  we  ready  for  the  high-reliability  computational challenge?

  • 17.
    Krishnan, Rakesh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Computer Vision and Active Perception Lab, School of Computer Science and Communication, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björsell, Niclas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Smith, Christian
    Computer Vision and Active Perception Lab, School of Computer Science and Communication, KTH- Royal Institute of Technology.
    Invariant Spatial Parametrization of Human Thoracohumeral Kinematics: A Feasibility Study2016In: 2016 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, 2016, p. 4469-4476, article id 7759658Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a novel kinematic framework using hybrid twists, that has the potential to improve the reliability of estimated human shoulderkinematics. This is important as the functional aspects ofthe human shoulder are evaluated using the information embedded in thoracohumeral kinematics. We successfully demonstrate in our results, that our approach is invariant of the body-fixed coordinate definition, is singularity free and has high repeatability; thus resulting in a flexible user-specific kinematic tracking not restricted to bony landmarks.

  • 18.
    Krishnan, Rakesh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Robotics, Perception and Learning, School of Computer Science and Communication, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björsell, Niclas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Smith, Christian
    Robotics, Perception and Learning, School of Computer Science and Communication, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Segmenting humeral submovements using invariant geometric signatures2017In: 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (Iros) / [ed] Bicchi, A., Okamura, A., IEEE, 2017, p. 6951-6958, article id 8206619Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrete submovements are the building blocks of any complex movement. When robots collaborate with humans, extraction of such submovements can bevery helpful in applications such as robot-assisted rehabilitation. Our work aims to segment these submovements based on the invariant geometric information embedded in segment kinematics. Moreover, this segmentation is achieved without any explicit kinematic representation.Our work demonstrates the usefulness of this invariant framework in segmenting a variety of humeral movements, which are performed at different speeds across different subjects. Our results indicate that this invariant framework has high computational reliability despite the inherent variability in human motion.

  • 19.
    Krishnan, Rakesh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Cruciani, Silvia
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björsell, Niclas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Smith, Christian
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reliably Segmenting Motion Reversals of a Rigid-IMU Cluster Using Screw-Based Invariants2019In: 2018 IEEE-RAS 18TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMANOID ROBOTS (HUMANOIDS), 2019, p. 88-95, article id 8624969Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is moving towards the human-robot synchronization challenge. In robots like exoskeletons, this challenge translates to the reliable motion segmentation problem using wearable devices. Therefore, our paper explores the possibility of segmenting the motion reversals of a rigid-IMU cluster using screw-based invariants. Moreover, we evaluate the reliability of this framework with regard to the sensor placement, speed and type of motion. Overall, our results show that the screw-based invariants can reliably segment the motion reversals of a rigid-IMU cluster.

  • 20.
    Masud, Nauman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Department of Robotics, Perception and Learning, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Smith, Christian
    Department of Robotics, Perception and Learning, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Disturbance observer based dynamic load torque compensator for assistive exoskeletons2018In: Mechatronics (Oxford), ISSN 0957-4158, E-ISSN 1873-4006, Vol. 54, p. 78-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In assistive robotics applications, the human limb is attached intimately to the robotic exoskeleton. The coupled dynamics of the human-exoskeleton system are highly nonlinear and uncertain, and effectively appear as uncertain load-torques at the joint actuators of the exoskeleton. This uncertainty makes the application of standard computed torque techniques quite challenging. Furthermore, the need for safe human interaction severely limits the gear ratio of the actuators. With small gear ratios, the uncertain joint load-torques cannot be ignored and need to be effectively compensated. A novel disturbance observer based dynamic load-torque compensator is hereby proposed and analysed for the current controlled DC-drive actuators of the exoskeleton, to effectively compensate the said uncertain load-torques at the joint level. The feedforward dynamic load-torque compensator is proposed based on the higher order dynamic model of the current controlled DC-drive. The dynamic load-torque compensator based current controlled DC-drive is then combined with a tailored feedback disturbance observer to further improve the compensation performance in the presence of drive parametric uncertainty. The proposed compensator structure is shown both theoretically and practically to give significantly improved performance w.r.t disturbance observer compensator alone and classical static load-torque compensator, for rated load-torque frequencies up to 1.6 Hz, which is a typical joint frequency bound for normal daily activities for elderly. It is also shown theoretically that the proposed compensator achieves the improved performance with comparable reference current requirement for the current controlled DC-drive.

  • 21.
    Mattsson, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Electronics.
    Zachariah, Dave
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Björsell, Niclas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Electronics.
    Flexible Models for Smart Maintenance2019In: Proceedings 2019 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), IEEE, 2019, p. 1772-1777Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart maintenance strategies are becoming increasingly important in the industry, and can contribute to environmentally and economically sustainable production. In this paper a recently developed latent variable framework for nonlinear-system identification is considered for use in smart maintenance. A model is first identified using data from a system operating under normal conditions. Then the identified model is used to detect when the system begins to deviate from normal behavior. Furthermore, for systems that operate on separate batches (units), we develop a new method that identifies individual models for each batch. This can be used both to detect anomalous batches and changes in the system behavior. Finally, the two methods are evaluated on two different industrial case studies. In the first, the purpose is to detect fouling in a heat exchanger. In the second, the goal is to detect when the tool in a wood moulder machine should be changed.

  • 22.
    Moon, Seungbin
    et al.
    Department of Computer Engineering, Sejong University, South Korea .
    Rhim, Sungsoo
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, South Korea.
    Cho, Young-Jo
    Robot/Cognitive System Research Department, Electronics and Telecommunication Research Institute, South Korea .
    Park, Kwang-Ho
    Machinery and Construction Standards Division, Korea Agency for Technology and Standards, Gwacheon, South Korea .
    Virk, Gurvinder S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. CLAWAR Association Ltd, United Kingdom.
    Summary of recent standardization activities in the field of robotics2013In: Robotica (Cambridge. Print), ISSN 0263-5747, E-ISSN 1469-8668, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 217-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the recent standardization activities in the field of robotics by ISO (International Organization for Standardization), IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission), OMG (Object Management Group), and other organizations. While the standards in industrial robots have been mainly developed by ISO, the standards on the emerging service robots are initiated by many organizations. One of the goals of this paper is to coordinate the efforts among these groups so that more effective standardization activity can be executed. Standardization in the emerging service robots will eventually promote the proliferation of service robot markets in the near future.

  • 23.
    Mulumbwa, Sebe Stanley
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Humanoid Arm Geometric Model2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world is slowly moving into increased human-robot interaction where both humans and robots can co-exist in the same domain. For the robot to be able to operate effectively in a man’s designed environment, it becomes necessary to model the robot with human capabilities as humans are seen as more capable. Replicating human becomes a huge challenge due to numerous degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) that human possess resulting into too many variables and nonlinear equations. Other challenges do occur like singularities.

     

    In this thesis, the singularity challenge of a redundant humanoid arm is explored while maintaining a simple 7 DOF serial chain structure. As opposed to the 30 DOF human arm, a simpler 7 DOF humanoid arm is adopted and studied to eliminate the singularity challenges. The singularity problem mainly comes from the elbow and the spherical joints at the shoulder and wrist. A step-by-step review of available inverse kinematics techniques is made with more focus on the iterative Jacobian-based methods. A step-by-step approach is adopted so as to identify the source of singularities while using the iterative Jacobian-based techniques that are able to handle the nonlinearities of the equations.

     

    The Singular Value Filtering (SVF) technique coupled with Selectively Damped Least Squares (SDLS) is employed. Without any restrictions to the stretch of the arm or end-effector pose, the method demonstrates, in conjunction with Euler angle singularity avoidance method, the elimination of singularity problems. This is achieved with no adjustment to kinematic model of the manipulator.

     

  • 24.
    Persson, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Uppgradering av en hylskaps styrsystem: Med fokus på användarvänlighet2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BillerudKorsnäs in Gävle is a paper mill that manufactures liquid-packaging board as well as white top liner (WTL). A week-long manufacturing stop is carried out each autumn so that repairs, maintenances, and installations can be accomplished. One of the projects that are going to be commissioned this autumn is about upgrading the control system of the core cutter associated with board machine 4. It is necessary that every component is prepared optimally so that the installation and commissioning runs effectively. This report describes the preparatory work that has been done to the control system, an operator panel, and a servo drive. The objective was to prepare every component in the best possible way so that the results of the upgrade would be significant improvements of the core cutter. The operator panel was considered important in the development and a lot of work was therefore put into creating a user-friendly interface. However, the method that was used to develop the interface could have been improved to make it more time efficient.

    A small case study was conducted to grasp an understanding of the core cutter functions. Interviews were done with the operators to understand better their ideas about enhancing certain features. The user interface and its design were also discussed during the interviews, resulting in a layout that the operators were pleased with.

    The control system program was based on the old control program in which new functions were added into, e.g., the servo drive and a calibration function. Various devices and their programs were also tested throughout the whole project using a test rig. The test rig contained a control system, an operator panel, and a servo drive with a motor. The result was successful. It was possible to control the servo drive with the operator panel. Hopefully the upgrade leads to a major improvement of the core cutter control. The flexibility of the new operator panel created new possibilities to streamline the functions better than before and thus simplifies further development.

  • 25.
    Poblacion Salvatierra, Itxaso
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Simulation software for automation industry: Factory I/O and KUKASim software2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has two aims, both related with simulation programs. The first one is to analyze the viability of using Factory I/O as a tool at the University of Gävle for teaching and understanding the PLCs and the ladder programing. The second one is do a 3D model of the robotics laboratory to use it with the KUKASim and after that find a method to transfer code from KUKASim to the actual robots.Factory I/O has been install and use with a Siemens PLC, which was programed in Siemens TIA Portal. The evaluation of the software as a teaching tool has been done according to a supposition of how much time could it take to an average bachelor degree student in automation to create a functional project. In order to determine that, a demo has been done, which consist on a process in where a box enters by a conveyor. There are two ruts for the box to exit, straight or to the left, and the direction is choose by moving a switcher in the PLC. After analyzing finishing the demo, it has been determinate that it could take around 4 hours to complete a functional project.For the KUKASim part, KUKASim was already installed. However, during the development of this project it was updated from 2.2 to 3.0.4 which caused a minor issues; the SketchUp model could not be imported to 2.2 version and by the time that the upgrade was made the 3D environment of the robotic laboratory was already made in KUKASim.On the other hand, the Office Lite software was needed to be installed in order to transfer the code from KUKASim to the real robots, but due to some license issues, the installation was done at the end period of the project. The connection of both software was not possible to make, still, during the time that Office Lite was not available, an alternative method to transfer the code was found. The program files were download from KUKASim and transfer to the robot with WorkVisual.The conclusion of the thesis is that Factory I/O could be used as a learning and teaching tool because is an easy program to work with. All the same, KUKASim is a multifunctional software, which has make it possible to achieve both of the purposes for corresponding part of the project.

  • 26. Raut, Sushil
    et al.
    Kota, Solomon Raju
    Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, New Dehli, India.
    Virk, Gurvinder Singh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Design and motion planning of quadruped robotic platform2014In: Mobile Service Robotics: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, World Scientific, 2014, p. 207-214Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 8 DOF quadruped robotic platform is designed and constructed for ground surveillance purpose. Designed model is simulated in physics environment by considering various physical parameters like weight of the robotic platform, torque of actuators, effect of collision. This paper also explains motion planning of a quadruped robotic platform by means of various walking patterns. Walking patterns are tested on different virtual terrains which helps to achieve reliable algorithm and modify robot as per dynamics. The agility and sustainability of robot is employed by biomimetic locomotion. Lateral leg insect is imitated by two DOF leg configuration, which enables basic motion of lifting and shifting. The basic prototype is realized by using eight servo actuators and it is tested on various surfaces having avoidable obstacles.

  • 27.
    Runesson, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Förprojektering inför byte av styrsystem2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A switchgear used to power 58 motors is supposed to be exchanged to a new one at Stora Enso. The switchgear is currently controlled by an ABB 800XA and the new switchgear is supposed to be controlled by a Siemens S7-400. The DCS system is also going to be renewed to a Honeywell C300 controller.

    This dissertation contains planning for the implementation of the new switchgear which mainly consists of programming the PLC and C300 controller. The operator images were adapted with new symbols to be able to control the motors with the new controllers. The purpose with this dissertation was to plan as much as possible for the future switchgear to minimize the downtime caused by the change. A result can be presented without testing the program in the real environment. The simulation of the PLC and HMI indicates a functioning program.

    The previous program in ABB was used in the procedure of creating the new program. Drawings and sequence descriptions has been used and inspections of the current switchgear has been carried out to get a sense of the system structure. The dissertation contains a description of the system structure and how the programming has been executed.

    A part of these investments consists of using PROFINET instead of I/O for the data transmission between the controller and the field units. This creates a need for a science study to compare the two technologies. This dissertation contains the theoretical foundation needed for the transfer to PROFINET. The purpose with this study is to investigate consequences and the value of the switch from I/O to PROFINET. The result of this work is that there is a value in using PROFINET. A consequence of PROFINET is a reduced number of wires resulting in a simplified maintenance and makes it easier to expand the system. 

  • 28.
    Selhammer, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Studie av autonoma fordons navigering: i en dynamiskt osäker värld2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fokus i examensarbetet har varit att konstruera och programmera en självstyrande bil med avgränsningar till regelverket i tävlingen Freescale cup. Då studien befinner sig i en tävlingsdomän, blir precision och hastighet två huvudfaktorer för linjeföljning och navigering.

    För att bemöta de ovanstående problem, fokuseras studien i denna rapport på utvecklandet av en ljusbehandlar-algoritm. Detta för hantera och standardisera linjeavkodningen och linjeidentifieringen. Detta kombinerat med en primärreglering som hanterar styrningen med avseende på linjeidentifieringen med tidsförskjutning för sekundärreglering vid behov.

    För att mäta precision utfördes tester genom tre olika metoder på linjeavläsningen: (1) avläsning av sensordata utan filtrering,(2) avläsning av sensordata via Kalmanfilter samt (3) avläsning av sensordata med en adaptiv ljusalgoritm för de olika fälten och ljusförhållanden. Dessa i kombination med väl injusterad PID-styralgoritm borgade för god precision och linjeföljning under dåliga förhållanden.

     

    Studien påvisar att med den adaptiva ljusalgoritmen i kombination med linjeföljaralgoritmen och sekundärreglering via look ahead-algoritmen kan hastigheter som tangerar optimala förhållanden även uppnås under mer kaotiska och dåliga förhållanden. Bilen finner sin väg trots ljusförhållanden så låga som 20 lux. Studien styrker även fördelarna med den adaptiva ljusalgoritmen i kombination med linjeföljaralgoritmen och look ahead-algoritmen som primärreglering under optimala driftförhållanden.

     

    Effektiviteten av studien och de algoritmer de mynnades ut i kvantifierades och jämfördes genom varvtider och dess linjeföljarförmåga under olika ljusförhållanden och olika gynnsamma underlag. Som ytterligare ett led för att få upp snitthastigheten med aktiv chassidynamik, nyttjades styrvinkeln som en funktion till differentialdriften av motorerna för att bibehålla sitt väggrepp genom kurvorna och hastigheten med aktiv hastighetskontroll.

     

     

  • 29.
    Sonbas, Buket
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Signal Processing for Sensor Based Navigation of Mobile Robot2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A self-navigating, path following and obstacle avoiding mobile robot is difficult to realize especially when its sensors are strongly effected by noise. This MSc thesis is aimed at investigating a realistic scenario of an autonomous mobile robot simulated in the MatLab environment. The robot system is able to follow a given reference path by utilizing its onboard sensors and decision making capabilities to avoid collisions with arbitrarily placed obstacles along its path. A novel navigational algorithm based on modifying the robot’s way-points using the run-time sensory data is developed and used to go around obstacles and then rejoin the original travel path as needed. The thesis work explores the impact of varying noise in the sensory data and ways of improving the navigational accuracy via signal processing. The study is done in two major sections, the first focusing on the navigational aspects of the mobile robot and the second exploring the sensory data analyses issues.

    The robot considered has a triangular shape with two differentially driven wheels at the rear left and rear right corners for skid steering control and one castor wheel in the front corner for balance purposes. The sensing system of the mobile robot includes infrared range finders with viewing angles of 180 degrees placed on the corners of the robot, which are able to detect obstacles all around the robot allowing effective path planning to be carried out via the special-purpose developed navigational algorithms. A reference path in an obstacle cluttered environment is assumed to be available for the robot to follow while avoiding randomly placed obstacles as the two wheels are driven to navigate the robot along the path using the robot kinematics. For making the navigation mobility of the robot as realistic as possible, practical infrared sensors have been studied experimentally to determine their noise characteristics to include in the simulation studies and the noise levels easily varied to simulate low and high noise levels and assess their effects on the overall navigational precision. Signal processing methods are used to show that improvements in the navigational performance can be achieved when the noise levels are high.

  • 30.
    Srinivas, Samvrit
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, RNS, Institute of Technology, Bangalore, India.
    Virk, Gurvinder Singh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Haider, Usman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Multipurpose supernumerary robotic limbs for industrial and domestic applications2015In: 2015 20th International Conference on Methods and Models in Automation and Robotics (MMAR), IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 289-293Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robotic exoskeleton arms have been around for a long time and they have successfully evolved from research prototypes to commercial products. Multipurpose supernumerary robotic limbs (MSRLs) have been recently introduced as new types of aids which do not directly replace missing limbs, but they are additional mechanical arms with changeable end-effectors which can be worn by the user to provide needed functionalities. This paper presents the mechanical design and kinematics modelling and control of a MSRL system. The MSRL presented could have good application in industrial and domestic situations.

  • 31.
    Ullah, S. M. Arman
    et al.
    South Westphalia Univ Appl Sci, Iserlohn, Germany.
    Virk, Gurvinder S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Mobile robot navigation via olfaction2012In: Adaptive Mobile Robotics: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2012, 2012, p. 97-104Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile robot navigation via olfaction has been receiving considerable interest over recent years to assist in the development of advanced cognitive robots which are able to operate in natural environments. With the related advances in electronic noses, it is now possible to detect and recognize and locate a range of different odours for a variety of applications. This paper involves designing and building a chemical sensing mobile robot that is able to navigate using these latest olfactory sensors. A smart robot equipped with olfactory sensors is designed for performing various search tasks in chemical fields; these search tasks include locating point sources, following chemical trails and plume following and investigating how the search efficiencies can be enhanced.

  • 32.
    Villaronga, Eduard Fosch
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain .
    Virk, Gurvinder S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Robot, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Legal issues for mobile servant robots2017In: Advances in Robot Design and Intelligent Control / [ed] A. Rodić, T. Borangiu, Springer, 2017, p. 605-612Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper identifies key legal issues which are emerging for Mobile Servant Robots (MSRs), a sub-type of Personal Care Robots (PCR) defined in ISO 13482. New cases are likely to be introduced in the market soon even though appropriate and specific binding legal regulations regarding MSRs are missing and several questions need to be carefully considered. The main issues of concern are the need for a concrete and holistic definition of MSR, clarification on the confusion among new emerging ISO/IEC robot categories (especially between boundaries and gaps in machinery with medical device regulations), unclear liability scenarios (avoiding harm, prospective liability, butterfly effect), defining and regulating human-robot collaborations and relationships, ethical issues (mass surveillance, post-monitoring personal data), autonomy (from the robot but also from the user perspective), isolation scenarios, etc. Despite the recent technical advances, there is still a long way ahead and further research is needed to overcome a variety of associated legal and ethical issues which are emerging. 

  • 33.
    Virk, Gurvinder S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. CLAWAR Assoc Ltd, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.
    INTERNATIONAL ROBOT SAFETY STANDARDISATION2012In: Adaptive Mobile Robotics: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2012, 2012, p. 841-848Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents results of international standardization work items within ISO and IEC to develop safety requirements for new types of non-industrial robots, namely, personal care robots, and for medical robots. The key requirements for the three defined types of personal care robots focus on how the intended close robot-human interactions can be facilitated without causing harm. For medical robots, the key issue is how the degree of autonomy that is included in the new definition of a robot can be handled in medical electrical equipment to ensure basic safety and essential performance. The standardization work is continuing, and the paper describes the current thinking within the work groups and summarises the results that have been achieved.

  • 34.
    Virk, Gurvinder S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Robot ethics2012In: Industrial robot, ISSN 0143-991X, E-ISSN 1758-5791, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 224-225Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Virk, Gurvinder S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Moon, Seungbin
    Department of Computer Science, Sejong University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Safety for emerging service robots2012In: Field Robotics - Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2011, 2012, p. 956-963Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an update on the international standardization activities in emerging areas of service robotics; two areas of activity are described, namely, safety of personal care robots, and medical robot safety and essential performance. The personal care robot safety work has reached the DIS balloting stage, and the standard considers issues that must be addressed by robot designers and manufacturers to reduce risk; these include hazards due to robot shape, robot motion, incorrect autonomous actions, etc. The medical robot standardization work focuses on existing safety regulations for medical electrical equipment, and how these may be extended to cover robots intended to perform surgery, rehabilitation, medical diagnosis and treatment. The key issues that medical robots bring to the medical electrical equipment area are their autonomous capabilities which make the task of formulating basic safety and essential performance requirements quite unique and challenging.

  • 36.
    Virk, Gurvinder S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Zandian, Reza
    Univ Appl Sci South Westphalia, D-59494 Soest, Germany.
    "Uniball" a novel method of movement for pipe climbing robots2012In: Adaptive Mobile Robotics - Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2012, 2012, p. 305-312Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the proposed robots for pipe inspection are slow and include many mechanical parts leading to complex and unreliable operation. In this paper a novel moving robot for pipe applications, so called "UNIBALL" is proposed which overcomes these problems. Here, instead of wheels, just one ball coupled with electromagnets is used and all the movements are performed by driving the ball beneath the robot. The paper presents the robot design procedure and its detailed structure together with initial experimental test results.

  • 37.
    Virk, Gurvinder Singh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    CLAWAR to service robots2014In: Mobile service robotics / [ed] Krzysztof Kozłowski, Mohammad O Tokhi, Gurvinder S Virk, Singapore: World Scientific, 2014, p. 40-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960’s, robotics has focused on manufacturing robots for use in industrial applications to perform operations such as handling, joining, inspection, machining, spot welding, assembling, etc. In order for the robots to perform their required tasks in these classical applications, the “workpiece” has had to be brought to the robots. Since the mid-1980s, interest has grown in developing new robots for applications where tasks need to be performed in-situ locations demanding that problems of localisation and locomotion are also important. In these scenarios, robot mobility is the key capability, and this can be realised in a variety of ways, e.g., via wheels, tracks, legs, etc. In some applications, the mobile robots also need a climbing capability due to their working environments and tasks to be performed (e.g., inspecting the external walls of tall buildings); these requirements present interesting challenges as seen in the area of climbing and walking robots focussed on by the EC funded Network of Excellence CLAWAR (climbing and walking robots) coordinated by Professor Virk during 1996-2005. Researchers have used CLAWAR to discuss climbing AND walking AND running robots but in fact any form of robot mobility is relevant and presents interesting challenges for robotics.

  • 38.
    Virk, Gurvinder Singh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Haider, Usman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Indrawibawa, I. Nyoman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Thekkeparanipumadom, Rakesh Krishnan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Masud, Nauman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Exo-legs for elderly persons2014In: Mobile service robotics / [ed] Krzysztof Kozłowski, Mohammad O. Tokhi, Gurvinder S. Virk, Singapore: World Scientific, 2014, p. 85-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a research update on the AAL Call 4 EXO-LEGS project aimed at developing lower-body mobility exoskeletons to assist elderly persons to stay independent in their normal daily living activities for as long as possible. The important movement functionalities and key design issues to be included in the process are identified via specifically developed questionnaires and responses from a pan-European end user group set up as part of the project. The user requirements are used together with the recently published ISO safety requirements for personal care robots to perform targeted technical research in the areas of human gait analysis, modelling and simulation, mechanical engineering, embedded system design, and ergonomic user interfacing.

  • 39.
    Virk, Gurvinder Singh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Haider, Usman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Nyoman, Indrawibawa I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Masud, Nauman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Mamaev, I.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Hopfgarten, P.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Hein, B.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Design of EXO-LEGS exoskeletons2016In: Assistive Robotics: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2015, 2016, p. 59-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes the design details for realising the EXO-LEGS assistive exoskeletons for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications based on modelling and simulation studies performed for key mobility functionalities in activities for daily living such as stable standing in open space and straight walking. The results provide the basis for selecting sensors and actuators to develop the needed assistive exoskeletons to help the elderly to stay active and independent for as long as possible.

  • 40.
    Virk, Gurvinder Singh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. CLAWAR Association Ltd, United Kingdom.
    Herman, Carol
    Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, USA.
    Bostelman, Roger
    National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Haidegger, Tamas
    Óbuda University, Hungary.
    Challenges of the changing robot markets2013In: Nature-Inspired Mobile Robotics: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2013, Singapore: World Scientific, 2013, 1, p. 833-840Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service robots are becoming an integral part of daily life, entering even the most complex scenarios, yet at a slower pace than previously anticipated. This paper presents an overview of the changing area of robotics and the new challenges being faced. The case is made for all stakeholders to focus on the bottlenecks preventing the realization of the mass markets in robotics expected since the late 1990s. Some of the key issues are discussed and possible strategies analysed to allow the emerging service robotics sector to reach its full potential. The goal is to create a unified vision and good working relationships with the key players throughout the world, active in both robotics R&D and robotics standardization. This paper presents an overview of these activities and provides suggestions for future plans. Along these lines, example cases of industrial, personal service, and medical robots are presented to highlight the desired development directions.

  • 41. Virk, Gurvinder
    et al.
    Sjöström, Christer
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Trinius, Wolfram
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Standards and/or ethics for service robots?2006In: Ethics of Human Interaction with Robotic, Bionic, and AI Systems: concepts and policies, 2006, p. 69-75Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Waldron, Kenneth J.
    et al.
    Stanford & University of Technology Sydney, Australia.
    Tokhi, Mohammad O.University of Sheffield, UK.Virk, Gurvinder SinghUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Nature-inspired mobile robotics: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 20132013Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proceedings provide state-of-the-art scientific and engineering research findings and developments in the area of mobile robotics and assistive technologies. The proceedings collected together peer reviewed articles presented at the CLAWAR 2013 conference. It contains a strong showing of articles on legged locomotion with numbers of legs from two onwards. There is also a good collection of articles on systems that walls climbing, poles balancing, and other more complex structures following the traditional of CLAWAR themes. In addition, the proceedings also cover the subject of robot-human interaction, which focus on a more “human” way of communicating with humanoid robots. As for human assistive devices, proceedings also cover exoskeletal and prosthetic devices, robots for personal and nursing cares to address the issues of ageing population in our society. Finally, the issue of the deployment of robots in society, it social and ethically consideration are also addressed in the proceedings. © 2013 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Waldron, Kenneth J.
    et al.
    Stanford & University of Technology Sydney, Australia.
    Tokhi, Mohammad O.
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Virk, Gurvinder Singh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Preface2013Other (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Wang, Zimu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    A MODEL OF LINE FOLLOWING ROBOT USING PID CONTROLLER: An Educational Platform Based on LEGO Mindstorms NXT Kit2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    PID controllers are widely used in industrial control systems since it could significantly improve the performance of the systems. It is a basic and important tool for an engineering student.An educational PID controller model using LEGO Mindstorms NXT kit as a line following robot was presented in this thesis. This robot could be controlled by a PC via Bluetooth. MATLAB was used for analyzing data and controlling the robot. A MATLAB Toolbox named “RWTH—Mindstorms NXT Toolbox” was utilized for remote controlling and gathering the feedback data from the robot in real-time via Bluetooth.The algorithm and tuning methods of PID controllers were studied in this thesis. Moreover, the effectiveness of each parameter would be studied by comparing the result of P, PI and PID control type.

  • 45.
    Yang, Canjun
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.
    Virk, Gurvinder SinghUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.Yang, HuayongZhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.
    Wearable Sensors and Robots: Proceedings of International Conference on Wearable Sensors and Robots 20152017Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    These proceedings present the latest information on regulations and standards for medical and non-medical devices, including wearable robots for gait training and support, design of exoskeletons for the elderly, innovations in assistive robotics, and analysis of human–machine interactions taking into account ergonomic considerations. The rapid development of key mechatronics technologies in recent years has shown that human living standards have significantly improved, and the International Conference on Wearable Sensor and Robot was held in Hangzhou, China from October 16 to 18, 2015, to present research mainly focused on personal-care robots and medical devices. The aim of the conference was to bring together academics, researchers, engineers and students from across the world to discuss state-of-the-art technologies related to various aspects of wearable sensors and robots.  

1 - 45 of 45
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