hig.sePublikasjoner
Endre søk
Begrens søket
1234567 1 - 50 of 354
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard-cite-them-right
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • sv-SE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • de-DE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Abeywardana, Asela Janaka
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Solar - Biomass hybrid system for process heat supply in medium scale hotels in Sri Lanka2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at evaluating and demonstrating the feasibility of using Concentrated Solar Thermal technology combined with biomass energy technology as a hybrid renewable energy system to supply the process heat requirements in small scale industries in Sri Lanka. Particularly, the focus was to apply the concept to the expanding hotel industry, for covering the thermal energy demand of a medium scale hotel.

    Solar modules utilize the rooftop area of the building to a valuable application. Linear Fresnel type of solar concentrator is selected considering the requirement of the application and the simplicity of fabrication and installation compared to other technologies. Subsequently, a wood-fired boiler is deployed as the steam generator as well as the balancing power source to recover the effects due to the seasonal variations in solar energy. Bioenergy, so far being the largest primary energy supply in the country, has a good potential for further growth in industrial applications like small hotels. 

    When a hotel with about 200-guests capacity and annual average occupancy of 65% is considered, the total annual CO2 saving is accounted as 207 tons compared with an entirely fossil fuel (diesel) fired boiler system. The annual operational cost saving is around $ 40,000 and the simple payback period is within 3-4 years. The proposed hybrid system can generate additional 26 employment opportunities in the proximity of the site location area.  

    This solar-biomass hybrid concept mitigates the weaknesses associated with these renewable technologies when employed separately. The system has been designed in such a way that the total heat demand of hot water and process steam supply is managed by renewable energy alone. It is thus a self-sustainable, non-conventional, renewable energy system. This concept can be stretched to other critical medium temperature applications like for example absorption refrigeration. The system is applicable to many other industries in the country where space requirement is available, solar irradiance is rich and a solid biomass supply is assured.    

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    SEE_KTH_HIG_AJA1
  • 2.
    Afzali Gorouh, Hossein
    et al.
    Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran.
    Salmanzadeh, Mazyar
    Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran.
    Nasseriyan, Pouriya
    Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cabral, Diogo
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Gomes, João
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Thermal modelling and experimental evaluation of a novel concentrating photovoltaic thermal collector (CPVT) with parabolic concentrator2022Inngår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 181, s. 535-553Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, a zero-dimensional thermal model has been developed to analyze a novel low concentration photovoltaic-thermal (CPVT) collector. The model has been developed by driving heat transfer and energy balance equations for each part of the collector and then solving all the equations simultaneously. Moreover, a Monte-Carlo ray-tracing software has been used for optical stimulations of the parabolic trough solar collector. The novel CPVT collector has been experimentally tested at Gävle University (Sweden) and the model has been validated against the experimental results. The primary energy saving equivalent to the thermal-electrical power cogeneration of the CPVT collector has been determined. The effect of glass cover removal, heat transfer fluid (HTF) inlet temperature and mass flow rate on the collector performance has been investigated. The optimum HTF mass flow rates of the collector for maximum electrical yield and overall primary energy saving were determined under specified operating conditions by considering the pump consumption. The effect of mean fluid temperature on the thermal and electrical efficiencies has been studied and the characteristic equation of the thermal efficiency has been obtained. The thermal and electrical peak efficiencies of the collector have been found to be 69.6% and 6.1%, respectively.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Ali, Ali Talib
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Resilient cooling technologies: Simulation study to determine the cooling capacity in old residentialbuildings located in mid-Sweden2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Long-term changes in the climate conditions have increased the need foradequate thermal comfort systems. These alternations influence extremeevents, which their intensity and frequency have increased over the past years.Moreover, this study focuses on space cooling and parameters that the systemshould have to be considered as resilient. Literature study was done to presentthe concept of resilience as well as the different methods used to provide spacecooling. In addition, the cooling systems suggested in this study, which aredistrict cooling and absorption cooling, were presented and explained.Furthermore, the study focuses on cooling demand in a group of residentialbuildings based on different thermal characteristics, which were implementedbased on building regulations from late 1960s to early 1980s. The buildingthermal properties were used as input to obtain their cooling demand by usingbuilding energy simulation tool. Based on the acquired results, an evaluationhas been made for the cooling demand of those buildings. Further analysispresented a correlation between the cooling demand and thermal properties ofthe buildings and aided in the determination of the required cooling capacity.The selection of the capacities was based on the resilience criterion as the systemhas to be able to provide adequate performance and safety for the occupantsduring extreme events. Furthermore, an assessment was done to compare thesuggested system based on their capacities and the primary energy use.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Fulltext99
  • 4.
    Ameen, Arman
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Efficient Cooling with multiple impinging jets: Obtaining boundary condition and verification for a CFD model2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Saving energy and optimizing industrial processes are major priorities for companies around the world. In this study the cooling process (with air) of large rollers are examined. The result of these examinations are used to create a computational fluid dynamic model. These examination consists of geometry, volume flows, velocities, velocity profiles, temperature and pressure. A complication in the measurements occurred due to the nonsymmetrical installation of the nozzles in the cooling setup. The results highlights how this nonsymmetrical installation affects the cooling. Multiple methods were used to carry out this work, and some additional side project were implemented. The results in this thesis is not enough to create a CFD model and further work have to be carried out in the future.

  • 5.
    Ameen, Arman
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Bahrami, Alireza
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    El Tayara, Khaled
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Energy Performance Evaluation of Historical Building2022Inngår i: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 12, nr 10, artikkel-id 1667Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Retrofitting measures in old buildings aimed at reducing energy usage have become important procedures meant to counteract the effects of climate change and greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study is to evaluate energy usage, thermal comfort, and CO2 emissions of an old building by changing parameters such as building orientation, shading systems, location, low energy film application, and alternative energy supply in the form of a geothermal heat pump. When evaluating the buildings in terms of geographical location with or without applying the low energy film, the results show that the city of Gävle in Sweden requires the most heating energy, 150.3 kWh/m2∙year (B0) compared to Jakarta (L0), which requires 23.8 kWh/m2∙year. When examining the thermal comfort, cases B4 and L4 demonstrate the best results in their respective categories (B0–B4 are cases without low energy film and L0–L4 are cases with applied low energy film). The results for the CO2 emissions levels for B0–B4 and L0–L4 indicate that B4 has the highest value, 400 kg CO2 eq/year higher than B0, and L1 has the lowest value, 731 kg CO2 eq/year lower than B0. The economic feasibility study illustrates that the installation of a geothermal heat pump with at least a coefficient of performance of 4.0 leads to a shorter payback period than solely applying LEF.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Ameen, Arman
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Reducing energy usage in multi-family housing2019Inngår i: 2019 9th International Conference on Future Environment and Energy 9–11 January 2019, Osaka, Japan, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019, Vol. 257, artikkel-id 012030Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy usage in residential sector have been around 22% of the total energy use in the world and increasing due to the population growth and higher living standards. The energy sources for this are made up primarily of non-renewable energy resources which generates a large amount of global greenhouse gases. A lot of countries have implemented various regulations and rules to reduce the energy usage in buildings and promoting the use of renewable energy technologies. This paper presents a parametric study of a typical multi-family building in its pre-design stage. The climate location used is Sweden (Gothenburg) and Japan (Osaka). The aim of the study is to compare various configurations and to examine how they affect the energy use. The most interesting configurations are the use of heat pump and solar cells. Other configurations that are examined are infiltration levels, pressure coefficients, wind impact, ventilation with heat recovery, ventilation scheduling, building orientation and finally changing U-values in the building material. Results of this study show that the energy saving, by utilizing a heat pump and solar panels, can reduce the total energy use by 34.9% for Gothenburg and 32% for Osaka. The results also show that the difference in total energy use between the two cities reduce substantially (3% difference) when utilizing a heat pump in combination with solar panels.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Ameen, Arman
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Larsson, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Experimental investigation of ventilation performance of different air distribution systems in an office environment – cooling mode2019Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 7, artikkel-id 1354Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a newly designed corner impinging jet air distribution method with an equilateral triangle cross section was evaluated experimentally and compared to that of two more traditional methods (mixing and displacement ventilation). At nine evenly chosen positions with four standard vertical points, air velocity, turbulence intensity, temperature, and tracer gas decay measurements were conducted for all systems. The results show that the new method behaves as a displacement ventilation system, with high air change effectiveness and stratified flow pattern and temperature field. Both local air change effectiveness and air exchange effectiveness of the corner impinging jet showed high quality and promising results, which is a good indicator of ventilation effectiveness. The results also indicate that there is a possibility to slightly lower the airflow rates for the new air distribution system, while still meeting the requirements for thermal comfort and indoor air quality, thereby reducing fan energy usage. The draught rate was also lower for corner impinging jet compared to the other tested air distribution methods. The findings of this research show that the corner impinging jet method can be used for office ventilation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Ameen, Arman
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Yamasawa, Haruna
    Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan..
    Kobayashi, Tomohiro
    Osaka University, Osaka, Japan..
    Numerical Evaluation of the Flow Field of An Isothermal Dual-Corner Impinging Jet for Building Ventilation2022Inngår i: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 12, nr 10, artikkel-id 1767Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The corner impinging jet ventilation is a new air distribution system for use in office environments. This study reports the mean flow field behavior of dual isothermal corner-placed inlets based on an impinging jet in a square-shaped room with the size of 7.2 m × 7.2 m. A detailed numerical study is carried out to evaluate the influence the different configuration parameters, such as the inlet placement, same side or opposite side, and supply airflow rate, have on the flow field. The results show that the highest velocity peak for all cases is obtained at x = 0.5 m and the lowest at x = 3.5 m. The velocity profiles development remains similar when increasing the flow rate. For the zone evaluation, the results show that Case 1 and 2 (V = 20 L/s) meet the requirement of not exceeding 0.15 m/s during the heating season in the occupied zone according the BBR standard both for same-side and opposite-side configurations. For Case 4, the optimal placement of the inlets is opposite to each other when V = 30 L/s for the BBR requirements. Case 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 all meet the requirement of not exceeding 0.25 m/s during the cooling season both for the same-side and opposite-side configurations. For Case 8, the optimal placement of the inlets is opposite to each other when V = 50 L/s.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energiteknik.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energiteknik.
    Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems2010Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, nr 7, s. 2401-2410Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study is to analyse the conditions for connection of residential buildings in heat sparse areas to district heating systems in order to increase electricity production in municipal combined heat and power plants. The European electricity market has been assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of heat sparse areas, increased electricity and heat production as well as electricity prices, fuel prices and emissions rights is investigated. The results of the study show that there is potential to expand the district heating market to areas with lower heat concentrations in the cities of Gavle, Sandviken and Borlange in Sweden, with both economic and environmental benefits. The expansion provides a substantial heat demand of approximately 181 GWh/year, which results in an electricity power production of approximately 43 GWh/year. Since the detached and stand-alone houses in the studied heat sparse areas have been heated either by oil boiler or by direct electricity, connection to district heating also provides a substantial reduction in emissions of CO(2). The largest reductions in CO(2) emissions are found to be 211 ktonnes/year assuming coal-fired condensing power as marginal electricity production. Connection of heat sparse areas to district heating decrease the system costs and provide a profitability by approximately 22 million EURO/year for the studied municipalities if the price of electricity is at a European level, i.e. 110 EURO/MWh. Sensitivity analysis shows, among other things, that a strong relation exists between the price of electricity and the profitability of connecting heat sparse areas to district heating systems.

  • 10.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Assessment of the natural gas potential for heat and power generation in the County of Östergötland in Sweden2009Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 496-506Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential use of natural gas for heat and power production for the municipality of Linkoping, Norrkoping and Finspang in the County of Ostergotland, Sweden. The results of the study revealed that these three municipalities with the present heating demand can convert 2030 GWh/year of the present fuel mixed to natural gas. The expansion of natural gas provides the possibility to increase the electricity generation with approximately 800 GWh annually in the County of Ostergotland. The global emissions of CO(2) reduce also by approximately 490 ktonne/year by assuming the coal condensing power plant as the marginal power plant. The total system cost decreases by 76 Mkr/year with the present electricity price which varies between 432 and 173 SEK/MWh and with 248 Mkr/year if the present electricity price increases to 37% which is approximately corresponding to European electricity prices. Sensitivity analysis is done with respect to the different factors such as price of electricity, natural gas, etc. The findings show that increased price of electricity and increased district heating demand increases the profitability to convert to natural gas using CHP plant. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Andersen, Niklas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Wind Turbine End of Life: Characterisation of Waste Material2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Wind power is growing fast all over the world, and in Sweden alone thousands of turbines has been installed the last few decades. Although the number of decommissioned turbines so far is very low, the rapid installation rate indicates that a similar rapid decommissioning rate is to be expected shortly. If the waste material from these turbines is not handled sustainably the whole concept of wind power as a clean energy alternative is challenged.

    This study aims to present an accurate estimate of the amounts of waste material that will be generated from wind turbines in Sweden during the coming decades, allowing the waste management industry to plan for this and by extension prevent unnecessary energy losses through imperfect waste treatment. It should also present helpful information on how problematic waste can be reduced or avoided.

    VindStat’s annual report, presenting installation date and other relevant data for most installed turbines in Sweden, has been used as the base for the calculations. Information on material composition in different types and sizes of wind turbines has been extracted from various life cycle assessments, and by using the available parameters in the data base each turbine has been assigned a specific amount of steel, iron, copper, aluminum, blade material and electronics. An average life time of 20 years has been assumed, based on prior research and comparison with empiric data, and the material of each turbine is therefore seen as generated waste 20 years after installation date.

    To calculate the amount of waste material from replacing faulty components, empiric data over replacement rates in further developed markets has been combined with a prognosis over future development of installed wind capacity in Sweden based on a method described by prior research. As no sufficient way to predict how the future second hand market for turbines and components has been found, three different possible scenarios have been investigated to see how this may affect waste amounts.

    The results show that annual waste will grow slowly at about 12 % increase per year until around 2026, and then the average increase is 41 % per year until 2034. By then, annual waste amounts are estimated to have reached 237 600 tonne steel and iron (16 % of currently recycled amounts), 2 300 tonne aluminium (4 %), 3 300 tonne copper (5 %), 343 tonne electronics (<1 %) and 28 100 tonne blade material. There is no industrial scale recycling method for commonly used blade materials, and a high strength steel developed by Sandvik is proposed as a fully recyclable material to consider for further research. A well-functioning second hand market is shown to possibly have a major impact on waste amounts, at least in postponing it until better recycling systems are in place.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Wind turbines end-of-life - Characterisation of Waste Material
  • 12.
    Andersson, Harald
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Numerical and experimental study of confluent jets supply device with variable airflow2019Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, application of confluent jets for design of ventilation supply devices has been studied. Similarly, numerus studies have been made on the potential and application of variable air volume (VAV) in order to reduce the energy demand of ventilation systems. This study investigates the combination of supply devices based on confluent jets and VAV, both in terms of the nearfield flow behavior of the device and the impact on thermal comfort, indoor air quality and energy efficiency on a classroom-level space when the airflow rate is varied.

    The method used in this study is an experimental field study where the confluent jets-based supply devices were compared to the previously installed displacement ventilation. The field study evaluated the energy efficiency, thermal comfort and indoor air quality of the two systems. In the case of the confluent jets supply devices, airflow rate was varied in order to see what impact the variation had on the performance of the system for each airflow rate. Furthermore, the confluent jets supply devices were investigated both experimentally and numerically in a well insulated test room to get high resolution data on the particular flow characteristics for this type of supply device when the airflow rate is varied. The results from the field study show nearly uniform distribution of the local mean age of air in the occupied zone, even in the cases of relatively low airflow rates. The airflow rates have no significant effect on the degree of mixing. The thermal comfort in the classroom was increased when the airflow rate was adapted to the heat load compared to the displacement system. The results lead to the conclusion that the combination of supply devices based on confluent jets can reduce energy usage in the school while maintaining indoor air quality and increasing the thermal comfort in the occupied zone.

    The results from the experimental and numerical study show that the flow pattern and velocity in each nozzle is directly dependent on the total airflow rate. However, the flow pattern does not vary between the three different airflow rates. The numerical investigation shows that velocity profiles for each nozzle have the same pattern regardless of the airflow rate, but the magnitude of the velocity profile increases as the airflow increases. Thus, a supply device of this kind could be used for variable air volume and produce confluent jets for different airflow rates.

    The results from both studies show that the airflow rate does not affect the distribution of the airflow on both near-field and room level. The distribution of air is nearly uniform in the case of the near-field results and the room-level measurement shows a completely uniform degree of mixing and air quality in the occupied zone for each airflow rate. This means that there is potential for combining these two schemes for designing air distribution systems with high energy efficiency and high thermal comfort and indoor air quality.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 13.
    Andersson, Harald
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Optimization of confluent jets ventilation with variable airflow2022Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, applications of confluent jets for design of ventilation supply devices have been widely studied. Similarly, numerous studies have been made on the potential and application of variable air volume (VAV) in order to reduce the energy demand of ventilation systems. This study investigates the combination of confluent jets ventilation (CJV) and VAV, both in terms of the near-field flow behavior of the device and the impact on thermal comfort, indoor air quality and energy efficiency in conference room and classroom environments when the airflow rate is varied. For the investigation of CJV with VAV in a classroom environment two experimental studies were performed. One was a field study in a school classroom with a constant supply temperature and four cases with varying heat loads and airflow rates. The other took place in a laboratory environment with five cases, all with varying heat loads, supply temperatures and airflow rates. The two experimental studies measured mean age of air, air speeds and temperatures in the occupied zone. Both studies showed that CJV had higher energy efficiency and indoor air quality than conventional mixing ventilation. The main effects of lower supply temperatures were higher velocities in the occupied zone as well as lower temperatures due to higher energy efficiency . CJV produces mixing ventilation conditions at lower airflow rates (<4.2 ACH) and non-uniform conditions at higher airflow rates. The thermal comfort was similar to that of conventional mixing ventilation and had very small temperature gradients compared to displacement ventilation. For the investigation of CJV with VAV in a conference room environment three combined experimental and numerical studies were performed. One focused on the jet velocity profiles from the CJV supply device, the results of which were used as boundary conditions for the two other studies. The second study measured the conditions in the confluent jet development area and the occupied zone experimentally for six cases with different supply temperatures, airflow rates and nozzle matrix configurations. The results were used for validating the numerical model which was used in the last paper. The final paper was a parametric numerical study which used the response surface method to investigate the impact of four design variables: heat load, number of nozzles, airflow rate and supply temperature on energy efficiency, indoor air quality and thermal comfort. The results show that indoor air quality is increased with higher airflow rates. The energy efficiency has a negative correlation to the heat load but a positive correlation to the airflow rate which results in relatively stable heat removal effectiveness of 110% as heat load is increased and the VAV system compensates with higher airflow rates. The results also show that in a VAV system which aims at providing  uniform temperatures in the occupied zone, the thermal comfort is mostly dependent on a combination of the CLO value and the range of the airflow rates. At low CLO values the range of the airflow rate needs to be increased to create a satisfactory thermal climate.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 14.
    Andersson, Harald
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Linköping Universitet.
    An Investigation Concerning Optimal Design of Confluent Jets Ventilation with Variable Air Volume2023Inngår i: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This  parametric study aims to predict the  performance of confluent jets ventilation (CJV) with variable air  volume (VAV) from four  CJV  design parameters. A  combination of  computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and response surface method (RSM) has  been used to  predict the  energy efficiency, thermal comfort and  IAQ  for  the  four  expected vital  design variables, i.e.,  heat load (XH),  number of  nozzles (XN),  airflow rate  (XQ) and  supply temperature (XTS).  The  RSM was  used to  generate a  quad-ratic  equation for  the  response variables exhaust temperature (TE),  sup-ply  temperature (TP),  PMV, DR, eT and  ACE. The  RSM  shows that  the  TE, TP and PMV were independent of the number of nozzles. The proposed equations were used to  generate setpoints optimized for  thermal com-fort  (PMV) for  summer, spring and  winter cases with different CLO  fac-tors  and  different TS under a  scenario where the  heat load varied between 10-30W/m2.  TE was  used as  setpoint to  regulate the  airflow rate  to  keep the  PMV values close to  zero. The  results show that  by adapting the TS to the CLO factor both thermal comfort and the energy efficiency can  be  improved. Further energy reduction can  be  gained by downregulating the airflow rate to keep the TP at a fixed setpoint when the  heat load is  decreased. This  means that  a  CJV  can  effectively be combined with VAV  to  improve environmental performance with good thermal comfort (-0.5<PMV <0.5,  DR <20%), above average IAQ (ACE = 106%) and  with a  higher heat removal efficiency (eT = 110%) than conventional mixing ventilation

  • 15.
    Andersson, Harald
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Experimental and numerical investigations of a new ventilation supply device based on confluent jets2018Inngår i: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 137, s. 18-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In developed countries, heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for more than 10% of national energy use. The primary function of a HVAC system is to create proper indoor environment. A number of ventilation strategies have been developed to minimize HVAC systems’ energy use whilst still maintaining a good indoor environment. Among these strategies are confluent jet ventilation and variable air volume. In this study, an air supply device with a novel nozzle design that uses both of the above-mentioned strategies was investigated both experimentally and numerically at three different airflow rates. The results from the numerical investigation using the SST k - ω turbulence model regarding velocities and flow patterns are validated by experimental data carried out by Laser Doppler Anemometry. The results from both studies show that the flow pattern and velocity in each nozzle is directly dependent on the total airflow rate. However, the flow pattern does not vary between the three different airflow rates. The numerical investigation shows that velocity profiles for each nozzle have the same pattern regardless of the airflow rate, but the magnitude of the velocity profile increases as the airflow increases. Thus, a supply device of this kind could be used for variable air volume and produce confluent jets for the airflow rates investigated.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Harald
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Linköpings universitet.
    On the ventilation performance of low momentum confluent jets supply device in a classroom2020Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 20, artikkel-id 5415Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of three different confluent jets ventilation (CJV) supply devices was evaluated in a classroom environment concerning thermal comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy efficiency. The CJV supply devices have the acronyms: high-momentum confluent jets (HMCJ), low-momentum confluent jets (LMCJ) and low-momentum confluent jets modified by varying airflow direction (LMCJ-M). A mixing ventilation (MV) slot jet (SJ) supply device was used as a benchmark. Comparisons were made with identical set-up conditions in five cases with different supply temperatures (TS) (16–18 °C), airflow rates (2.2–6.3 ACH) and heat loads (17–47 W/m2). Performances were evaluated based on DR (draft rating), PMV (predicted mean vote), ACE (air change effectiveness) and heat removal effectiveness (HRE). The results show that CJV had higher HRE and IAQ than MV and LMCJ/LMCJ-M had higher ACE than HMCJ. The main effects of lower Ts were higher velocities, DR (HMCJ particularly) and HRE in the occupied zone as well as lower temperatures and PMV-values. HMCJ and LMCJ produce MV conditions at lower airflow rates (<4.2 ACH) and non-uniform conditions at higher airflow rates. LMCJ-M had 7% higher HRE than the other CJV supply devices and produced non-uniform conditions at lower airflow rates (<3.3 ACH). The non-uniform conditions resulted in LMCJ-M having the highest energy efficiency of all devices.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Energieffektivisering av byggnad med enkla medel: en fallstudie på Hofors mödravårdscentral2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I centrala Hofors ligger vårdcentralen som ingår i Hoforshus ABs byggnadsbestånd, byggnaden i sig är uppdelad i en huvudbyggnad och en mindre del där BVC och mödravårdsverksamheten återfinns. Byggnaderna är sammanbundna med en korridor som huvudsakligen är inglasad. Företaget var intresserat av att kartlägga byggnadens energianvändning eftersom denna föreföll relativt hög, dessutom hade brukarna i byggnaden uttryckt sitt missnöje med inneklimatet under såväl sommar- som vintertid. På grund av den verksamheten i byggnaden var lösningar som inte stör denna av högsta intresse.

    Studien som genomförts har haft främsta fokus på byggnadens klimatskal och fram för allt på glasgångens inverkan på den övriga byggnaden. Det kan förutsättas att den höga andelen glas i den här delen av byggnaden påverkar dess inneklimat negativt medtanke på de låga U-värdet hos glas och den solvärmelast som detta ger under sommartid då värmetillskottet inte är önskat. En litteraturstudie för att undersöka hur människor upplever inneklimatet samt hur en tillförlitlig simuleringsmodell för en byggnad har genomförts. Studien resulterade i en förståelse för hur inneklimatet upplevs och kvantifieras samt en förståelse för vad som är viktigt vid insamling av data till en simuleringsmodell.

    Med tanke på hur indata skall hämtas enligt litteraturstudien har så mycket data som möjligt mätts upp via undersökningar och egna observationer, ritningar har undersökts och deras validitet har undersökts genom uppmätning av byggnaden, blower-door har genomförts samt temperatur- och relativånghaltloggning. Momentanvärden. på FTX-systemet för att beräknas dess verkningsgrad. Linjära köldbryggor har undersökts med finitelementmetod i programmet Comsol multiphysics 3,5. För validering av simuleringsmodellen har uppmätta energiförbrukningen använts och jämförts med simuleringens resultat. Simuleringarna är genomförda i BV2.

    Resultatet av studien visar som tidigare förväntat på glasgångens negativa inverkan på byggnadens inneklimat temperaturen loggades mellan den 12 april och 9 maj 2016 högsta temperaturen var 30°C och lägsta 15°C vilket är en större spridning jämfört med övriga utrymmen där temperaturen loggats. Simuleringarna som genomfördes av glasgången visar att denna förbrukar mellan 5000-5500 kWh med bruksarean 13,5 m2. Slutligen resulterade studien i rekommenderade åtgärder för byggnaden som innefattar tilläggsisolering av vindsbjälklag, utbyte av ett mindre väggparti, sänkning av temperaturen med 1°C samt en del underhållsåtgärder för att förbättra inneklimatet. Åtgärderna antas vara möjliga att genomföra utan att verksamheten störs. Föreslagna åtgärder förefaller också relativt lönsamma enligt pay-off metoden.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Andersson, Nils
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Lindberg, Samuel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Dynamisk energieffektivisering med hjälp av elektrokroma fönster i ett svenskt klimat: En fallstudie av en simulerad kontorslokal med geografisk variabilitet.2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det används stora mängder energi inom kontorslandskap för att reglera inomhusklimatet. Intresset har ökat för energisparande åtgärder både politiskt och privat. För kontorsbyggnader är fönster en stor andel av klimatskärmen vilket har en stor påverkan på värme- och kylvärmeenergin som tillförs in i kontorsbyggnaden.

    Elektrokroma fönster kan, genom att skicka en spänning till ett av fönstrets skikt, aktivt förändra sina egenskaper för att steglöst begränsa solinstrålning i en byggnad.   

    Denna fallstudie är framtagen för att undersöka var och hur elektrokroma fönster kan användas för att effektivisera inomhusklimatet, med betoning på kylbehov, i Sverige.

    Undersökningen gjordes genom att göra flertal simuleringar på en kontorslokal i IDA ICE där lokalen simuleras på olika orter. Orter varieras från norr till söder och från kust till inland. Fönsterfasaden simulerades även i olika väderstreck.

    Resultaten visar att användning av tekniken sänker inkommande värmeenergi genom fönster med runt 60 procent oavsett på omgivande medeltemperatur. Därför motiveras användandet bäst på sydliga fasader och vid orter nära kust eller stora vatten där solvärmelasten är som störst.

     

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Angele, Kristian
    et al.
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energiteknik. Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Högström, Carl-Maikel
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Odemark, Ylva
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Mats
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Tinoco, Hernan
    Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, Östhammar, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Hans
    Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, Östhammar, Sweden.
    Hemström, Bengt
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Flow Mixing Inside a Control-Rod Guide Tube: Part 2—Experimental Tests and CFD-Simulations2010Inngår i: 18th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering: Volume 4, Parts A and B, 2010, s. 655-663Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Alarge number of control rod cracks were detected during therefuelling outage of the twin reactors Oskarshamn 3 and Forsmark3 in the fall of 2008. The extensive damage investigationfinally lead to the restart of both reactors at theend of 2008 under the condition that further studies wouldbe conducted in order to clarify all remaining matters. Also,all control rods were inserted 14% in order to locatethe welding region of the control rod stem away fromthe thermal mixing region of the flow. Unfortunately, this measureled to new cracks a few months later due toa combination of surface finish of the new stems andthe changed flow conditions after the partial insertion of thecontrol rods. The experimental evidence reported here shows an increasein the extension of the mixing region and in theintensity of the thermal fluctuations. As a part of thecomplementary work associated with the restart of the reactors, andto verify the CFD simulations, experimental work of the flowin the annular region formed by the guide tube andcontrol rod stem was carried out. Two full-scale setups weredeveloped, one in a Plexiglass model at atmospheric conditions (inorder to be able to visualize the mixing process) andone in a steel model to allow for a highertemperature difference and heating of the control rod guide tube.The experimental results corroborate the general information obtained through CFDsimulations, namely that the mixing region between the cold crud-removalflow and warm by-pass flow is perturbed by flow structurescoming from above. The process is characterized by low frequent,high amplitude temperature fluctuations. The process is basically hydrodynamic, causedby the downward transport of flow structures originated at theupper bypass inlets. The damping thermal effects through buoyancy isof secondary importance, as also the scaling analysis shows, howevera slight damping of the temperature fluctuations can be seendue to natural convection due to a pre-heating of thecold crud-removal flow. The comparison between numerical and experimental resultsshows a rather good agreement, indicating that experiments with plantconditions are not necessary since, through the existing scaling lawsand CFD-calculations, the obtained results may be extrapolated to plantconditions. The problem of conjugate heat transfer has not yetbeen addressed experimentally since complex and difficult measurements of theheat transfer have to be carried out. This type ofmeasurements constitutes one of the main challenges to be dealtwith in the future work.

  • 20.
    Angele, Kristian
    et al.
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Odemark, Ylva
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energiteknik. Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Hemström, Bengt
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Högström, Carl-Maikel
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Mats
    Vattenfall Research & Development AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Tinoco, Hernan
    Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, Östhammar, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Hans
    Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, Östhammar, Sweden.
    Flow mixing inside a control-rod guide tube: Experimental tests and CFD simulations2011Inngår i: Nuclear Engineering and Design, ISSN 0029-5493, E-ISSN 1872-759X, Vol. 241, nr 12, s. 4803-4812Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 21.
    Antoniou, Nestoras
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus; Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Montazeri, Hamid
    Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands; Department of Civil Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Wigö, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Neophytou, Marina
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Blocken, Bert
    Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands; Department of Civil Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    CFD and wind-tunnel analysis of outdoor ventilation in a real compact heterogeneous urban area: evaluation using “air delay”2017Inngår i: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 126, s. 355-372Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Outdoor urban ventilation in a real complex urban area is investigated by introducing a new ventilation indicator – the "air delay". Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed using the 3D steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approaches. The up-to-date literature shows the lack of detailed evaluations of the two approaches for real compact urban areas. This study further presents a systematic evaluation of steady RANS and LES for the assessment of the ventilation conditions in a dense district in Nicosia, Cyprus. The ventilation conditions within the urban area are investigated by calculating the distribution of the age of air. To better assess the outdoor ventilation, a new indicator, the "air delay" is introduced as the difference between the local mean age of air at an urban area and that in an empty domain with the same computational settings, allowing the comparison of the results in different parts of the domain, without impact of the boundary conditions. CFD results are validated using wind-tunnel measurements of mean wind speed and turbulence intensity performed for the same urban area. The results show that LES can accurately predict the mean wind speed and turbulence intensity with the average deviations of about 6% and 14%, respectively, from the wind-tunnel measurements while for the steady RANS, these are 8% and 31%, respectively. The steady RANS simulations overestimate the local mean air delay. The deviation between the two approaches is 52% at pedestrian level (2 m).

  • 22.
    Apell, Oscar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Energikartläggning av Fridhemsskolan 16:22014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Increased energy consumption in the world has created an increased supply of various fuels, especially fossil fuels. The Swedish government has set up various energy targets for 2020. To reach these goals it’s important to increase the energy efficiency in local buildings such as schools. This work illustrates the breakdown between energy supply and energy losses over the school. It also shows various suggestions to reduce the energy usage. The results shows that energy losses from transmission is definitely the greatest. Significant savings can be made by replacing windows, add insulation and install motion sensor lightning. If the proposed savings would be made, the energy consumption of the school could decrease by approximately 165MWh/year. This represent an annual saving of about 123600 SEK.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Arfan, Muhammad
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. 202100-2890.
    Biogas Value Chain in Gävleborg: Feedstock, Production and Use2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to identify the current status and future opportunities for biogas as an alternative fuel for road transport in the Gävleborg region. The regional actors along the value chain are mapped by their role in feedstock supply, production and use of the biogas. Mapping and analysis of biogas development generally in Sweden and particularly in the Gävleborg region has been conducted primarily through literature, national and regional statistics and through interviews with the regional actors. About 15 companies were reached through emails and phone calls during the interview process.

    In 2017, about 3.5-4.0 million Nm3 of raw biogas (50-65% CH4) was produced in the region of which 3.6 GWh was upgraded. The region has two plants with upgrading facilities, one in Forsbacka, which produces gas mainly from food waste and Duvbacken, the wastewater treatment plant in Gävle. The gas produced at these two big facilities is upgraded and mostly used as transport fuel in the region, and for the industry. Gas produced from other sources is either used for heat and electricity production or flared to avoid methane emissions to the environment. The region has 14 buses and more than 500 other vehicles running on biogas. The gas infrastructure is not well developed in the region except for two filling stations situated in Gävle and Forsbacka. However, some developments on building biogas infrastructure for transport are in process.

    Analysis of interviews with actors and literature studies revealed that the region has much more feedstock for biogas production than used in the currently installed capacity of biogas technologies. Many actors showed great interest in its use as transport fuel but had very serious concerns about its future scope. Lack of supporting infrastructure such as filling stations, very low market demand and regional long-term strategies on biogas as transport fuel are considered barriers in the sector´s further development in the region. The value chain actors need to work more closely to get the most out of this valuable resource. Additionally, future planning on biogas should also consider its other uses such as an energy source for manufacturing industry, shipping and as raw material for chemicals or intermediate products.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Arizcun Zúñiga, Paula María
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Ram pump hydraulic air test. Pressure conditions and flow measurements: Experimental research and case study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study consists of the development of a ram pump, which will allow the pumping of water without the need of external energy sources. It is considered an analysis of interest since, once it is finished; it can be applied in reality improving and facilitating different activities related to agriculture and health.

    Previous studies have been made related to the ram pump; however, in this case, it is intended to understand the system that has been built in the laboratory in order to find the best combination of parameters that will lead to obtain the highest possible efficiency. 

    The study will be carried out by studying scientific literature and by experimenting in the laboratory. Encompassing the experimental and literary field, it is expected to understand perfectly the advantages and disadvantages of the ram pump in order to determine if it is worth it to install in certain places.

    After the study, the most favourable parameters for the operation of the Bruzaholms Bruk pump have been obtained. It has been found that the use of a longer drive pipe favours the operation of the system, as it is possible to obtain a higher efficiency, although it must be taken into account that the mentioned length needs to be controlled, as it could reduce the working rhythm of the pump. It has also been seen that the pump gives better results if the impulse valve is completely opened. Finally, it has been proven that, as long as the height difference between the two tanks is enough, increasing the height of the water source will favour the operation of the system.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Arnfelt, Emma
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    En byggnads energiprestanda: En utredande och jämförande studie av Boverkets författningssamling BEN12017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report is an exploratory and comparative study of Boverkets constitution BEN1. In this study the constitution BEN1 is examined, why the constitution was established, when is it applicable and what advantages and disadvantages will come with it. Today the housing and service sector is using a major part of Europe’s final energy use, in addition to this, these sectors also represents a major part of the total carbon dioxide emissions. The EU-commission aims to reduce the housing and service sectors energy use and emissions. In 2002 the European parliament established directives and demands for buildings energy performance. These directives were changed in 2009-2010, which led to an inspection of the already existing Swedish constitution, this was found to be inadequate by the EU-commission. Sweden decided to create a new constitution in order to satisfy EU’s new directives and demands. The focus is on a normal usage of the building in a normal year in the new constitution, BEN1. 

    The reader should receive an idea and understanding about BEN1 and why it was established in this report. Beyond this, the study will show the changes that happen to a buildings energy performance after the constitution is applied and what advantages and disadvantages this could bring. 

    This study was performed by simulating the buildings energy use with the input from BEN1 in a simulation tool, IDA Indoor Climate and Energy. 

    The study shows that the energy performance will change but it also shows that further studies should be made in order to obtain a more carefully drawn and common conclusion.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    En byggnads energiprestanda
  • 26.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable development, Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjorklund, Anna
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable development, Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable development, Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Soderman, Maria Ljunggren
    Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Environmental Assessment of Possible Future Waste Management Scenarios2017Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikkel-id 247Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management has developed in many countries and will continue to do so. Changes towards increased recovery of resources in order to meet climate targets and for society to transition to a circular economy are important driving forces. Scenarios are important tools for planning and assessing possible future developments and policies. This paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) model for environmental assessments of scenarios and waste management policy instruments. It is unique by including almost all waste flows in a country and also allow for including waste prevention. The results show that the environmental impacts from future waste management scenarios in Sweden can differ a lot. Waste management will continue to contribute with environmental benefits, but less so in the more sustainable future scenarios, since the surrounding energy and transportation systems will be less polluting and also because less waste will be produced. Valuation results indicate that climate change, human toxicity and resource depletion are the most important environmental impact categories for the Swedish waste management system. Emissions of fossil CO2 from waste incineration will continue to be a major source of environmental impacts in these scenarios. The model is used for analyzing environmental impacts of several policy instruments including weight based collection fee, incineration tax, a resource tax and inclusion of waste in a green electricity certification system. The effect of the studied policy instruments in isolation are in most cases limited, suggesting that stronger policy instruments as well as combinations are necessary to reach policy goals as set out in for example the EU action plan on circular economy.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Aslani, Mohammad
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Datavetenskap.
    Seipel, Stefan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Datavetenskap. Uppsala universitet.
    Automatic identification of utilizable rooftop areas in digital surface models for photovoltaics potential assessment2022Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 306, artikkel-id 118033Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The considerable potential of rooftop photovoltaics (RPVs) for alleviating the high energy demand of cities has made them a proven technology in local energy networks. Identification of rooftop areas suitable for installing RPVs is of importance for energy planning. Having these suitable areas referred to as utilizable areas greatly assists in a reliable estimate of RPVs energy production. Within such a context, this research aims to propose a spatially detailed methodology that involves (a) automatic extraction of buildings footprint, (b) automatic segmentation of roof faces, and (c) automatic identification of utilizable areas of roof faces for solar infrastructure installation. Specifically, the innovations of this work are a new method for roof face segmentation and a new method for the identification of utilizable rooftop areas. The proposed methodology only requires digital surface models (DSMs) as input, and it is independent of other auxiliary spatial data to become more functional. A part of downtown Gothenburg composed of vegetation and high-rise buildings with complex shapes was selected to demonstrate the methodology performance. According to the experimental results, the proposed methodology has a high success rate in building extraction (about 95% correctness and completeness) and roof face segmentation (about 85% completeness and correctness). Additionally, the results suggest that the effects of roof occlusions and roof superstructures are satisfactorily considered in the identification of utilizable rooftop areas. Thus, the methodology is practically effective and relevant for the detailed RPVs assessments in arbitrary urban regions where only DSMs are accessible.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Aslani, Mohammad
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Datavetenskap.
    Seipel, Stefan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Datavetenskap. Uppsala universitet.
    Rooftop segmentation and optimization of photovoltaic panel layouts in digital surface models2023Inngår i: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, ISSN 0198-9715, E-ISSN 1873-7587, Vol. 105, artikkel-id 102026Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rooftop photovoltaic panels (RPVs) are being increasingly used in urban areas as a promising means of achieving energy sustainability. Determining proper layouts of RPVs that make the best use of rooftop areas is of importance as they have a considerable impact on the RPVs performance in efficiently producing energy. In this study, a new spatial methodology for automatically determining the proper layouts of RPVs is proposed. It aims to both extract planar rooftop segments and identify feasible layouts with the highest number of RPVs in highly irradiated areas. It leverages digital surface models (DSMs) to consider roof shapes and occlusions in placing RPVs. The innovations of the work are twofold: (a) a new method for plane segmentation, and (b) a new method for optimally placing RPVs based on metaheuristic optimization, which best utilizes the limited rooftop areas. The proposed methodology is evaluated on two test sites that differ in urban morphology, building size, and spatial resolution. The results show that the plane segmentation method can accurately extract planar segments, achieving 88.7% and 99.5% precision in the test sites. In addition, the results indicate that complex rooftops are adequately handled for placing RPVs, and overestimation of solar energy potential is avoided if detailed analysis based on panel placement is employed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Aslani, Mohammad
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Datavetenskap.
    Seipel, Stefan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för datavetenskap och samhällsbyggnad, Datavetenskap.
    Solar Energy Assessment: From Rooftop Extraction to Identifying Utilizable Areas2023Inngår i: Geographical Information Systems Theory, Applications and Management, 7th International Conference, GISTAM 2021, Virtual Event, April 23–25, 2021, and 8th International Conference, GISTAM 2022, Virtual Event, April 27-29, 2022, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Grueau, C., Laurini, R., Ragia, L., Springer , 2023, s. 102-115Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rooftop photovoltaics have been acknowledged as a critical component in cities’ efforts to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels and move towards energy sustainability. Identifying rooftop areas suitable for installing rooftop photovoltaics-referred to as utilizable areas-is essential for effective energy planning and developing policies related to renewable energies. Utilizable areas are greatly affected by the size, shape, superstructures of rooftops, and shadow effects. This study estimates utilizable areas and solar energy potential of rooftops by considering the mentioned factors. First, rooftops are extracted from LiDAR data by training PointNet++, a neural network architecture for processing 3D point clouds. The second step involves extracting planar segments of rooftops using a combination of clustering and region growing. Finally, utilizable areas of planar segments are identified by removing areas that do not have a suitable size and do not receive sufficient solar irradiation. Additionally, in this step, areas reserved for accessibility to photovoltaics are removed. According to the experimental results, the methods have a high success rate in rooftop extraction, plane segmentation, and, consequently, estimating utilizable areas for photovoltaics.

  • 30.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    Avdelningen för industriellt miljöskydd, KTH, Stockholm.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Avdelningen för industriellt miljöskydd, KTH, Stockholm.
    Frostell, Björn
    Avdelningen för industriellt miljöskydd, KTH, Stockholm.
    Kuttainen, Karin
    Avdelningen för industriellt miljöskydd, KTH, Stockholm.
    Kompostering eller förbränning av hushållsavfall i Stockholm: En systemstudie av effekter på miljö, energi och ekonomi2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    En systemanalys som utvärderar potentiella effekter på miljön, energiomsättning och ekonomi har genomförts där storskalig kompostering jämförts med förbränning. Studien har utförts på uppdrag av Birka Värme och är tänkt som en jämförelse av olika former av kapacitetsökning för behandling av avfall i Stockholmsområdet. Förebilder för behandlingsprocesserna är avfallsförbränningsanläggningen Högdalenverket som drivs av Birka Energi och en planerad storskalig komposteringsanläggning i Stora Vika i Rondecos regi. Avfallet samlas in från Stockholm med närområden. Avfallet består till större delen av lättnedbrytbart organiskt avfall och slam från reningsverk. Även rötning har jämförts där en mindre del av totala avfallet, motsvarande ledig kapacitet i rötningsanläggningen, behandlas.

    Studien visar att det ur de flesta av de betraktade aspekterna är fördelaktigare att förbränna avfallet än att kompostera det. Detta beror på miljöpåverkan (övergödning och höga tungmetallhalter) i hanteringen av kompostpelletsen och inverkan av att förlorad fjärrvärmeproduktion vid kompostering måste ersättas.

    Kompostering är att föredra ur klimatsynpunkt då dess bidrag till global uppvärmning (växthuseffekten) är totalt sett något lägre än för förbränning. Det beror till största del på att koldioxid från förbränning av plast som finns i avfallet frigörs vid avfallsförbränningen. Skillnaden är dock inom felmarginalen och resultatet bör ej tas för självklart.

    För den potentiella miljöeffekten försurning är det dött lopp mellan kompostering och förbränning. Förbränningen av avfall ger visserligen högre försurande utsläpp än komposteringen men när hänsyn tas till att förlorad fjärrvärme måste ersättas vid kompostering och att det går åt mer elektricitet vid kompostering, elektricitet som antas framställas från förbränning av kol, jämnar resultatet ut sig.

    Det finns en hel del svagheter i analysen, bland annat är det inte fullständigt klarlagt vilka materialbalanser som råder i komposteringsprocessen. Även för spridningen av kompostpelletsen råder stora osäkerheter. I dessa fall har antaganden gjorts men det är viktigt att i den fortsatta granskningen använda tillförlitligare data.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 31.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    Industrial Ecology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH),.
    Järås, Sven
    Chemical Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kusar, Henrik
    Chemical Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Life Cycle Assessment of Thermal Treatment Technologies: An environmental and financial systems analysis of gasification, incineration and landfilling of waste2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A technology which is currently developed by researchers at KTH is catalytic combustion which is one component of a gasification system. Instead of performing the combustion in the gas turbine by a flame, a catalyst is used. When the development of a new technology (as catalytic combustion) reaches a certain step where it is possible to quantify material-, energy- and capital flows, the prerequisites for performing a systems analysis is at hand. The systems analysis can be used to expand the know-how about the potential advantages of the catalytic combustion technology by highlighting its function as a component of a larger system. In this way it may be possible to point out weak points which have to be investigated more, but also strong points to emphasise the importance of further development.

    The aim of this project was to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts and economic costs of thermal treatment technologies in general and catalytic combustion in particular. By using a holistic assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of catalytic combustion of waste it was possible to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the technology under different conditions. Following different treatment scenarios have been studied: (1) Gasification with catalytic combustion, (2) Gasification with flame combustion, (3) Incineration with energy recovery and (4) Landfilling with gas collection. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios is supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied were classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment into the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential (also called the green house effect), Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical Oxidants.

    It is obvious that a decreased use of landfilling in favour of an increased energy recovery from waste is positive from all considered impact categories. Gasification with energy recovery in a combi cycle using catalytic combustion in the gas turbine is the most competitive technology from primarily an environmental point of view. The financial costs are however a bit higher than for incineration with energy recovery. This conclusion depends, however, on the assumption that the gasification and catalyst technologies work as the researchers presume and that the fuel is of high quality. For this, the pelletising unit is vital in the technology chain.

    A comparison of the catalytic combustion and the flame combustion shows that all impact categories except acidification, eutrophication and photochemical oxidants remain the same. The gasification process is identical between the two alternatives; it is just the combustion technology in the gas turbine that is different. This explains why the fuel consumption and the financial costs are not changed (a minor extra investment is made for the catalyst but is not noticeable in comparison to the total impact). Emissions of greenhouse gases are also identical. For the other impact categories there are differences for several of the emissions involved in the impact assessment but NOX is clearly the dominating one.

    Gasification with catalytic combustion is competitive to incineration. The small difference for eutrophication is within the error margin and is strongly dependent on the reduction of NOX in the incineration plant. The explanation to this result is that a combi cycle in combination with natural gas as the alternative power generation is a better system solution than incineration with biofuel as compensatory fuel. Financial costs are somewhat higher than for incineration but could also claimed to be within the error margin since the inventory of costs are more uncertain due to the fact that there is no plant with gasification and catalytic combustion in operation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Attia, Shady
    et al.
    Université de Liège, Belgium.
    Benzidane, Caroline
    Grenoble INP University of Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Rahif, Ramin
    Université de Liège, Belgium.
    Amaripadath, Deepak
    Université de Liège, Belgium.
    Hamdy, Mohamed
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway.
    Holzer, Peter
    Institute of Building Research & Innovation, Vienna, Austria.
    Koch, Annekatrin
    Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany.
    Maas, Anton
    University of Kassel, Germany.
    Moosberger, Sven
    Equa Solutions AG, Switzerland.
    Petersen, Steffen
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Mavrogianni, Anna
    University College London, United Kingdom.
    Maria Hidalgo-Betanzos, Juan
    University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Spain.
    Almeida, Manuela
    University of Minho Department of Civil Engineering, Portugal.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Khosravi Bakhtiari, Hossein
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Kinnane, Olivier
    University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Kosonen, Risto
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Carlucci, Salvatore
    Overheating calculation methods, criteria, and indicators in European regulation for residential buildings2023Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 292, artikkel-id 113170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the ongoing significance of overheating calculations in the residential building sector, building codes such as the European Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD) are essential for harmonizing the indicators and performance thresholds. This paper investigates Europe's overheating calculation methods, indicators, and thresholds and evaluates their ability to address climate change and heat events. e study aims to identify the suitability of existing overheating calculation methods and propose recommendations for the EPBD. The study results provide a cross-sectional overview of twenty-six European countries. The most influential overheating calculation criteria are listed the best approaches are ranked. The paper provides a thorough comparative assessment and recommendations to align current calculations with climate-sensitive metrics. The results suggest a framework and key performance indicators that are comfort-based, multi-zonal, and time-integrated to calculate overheating and modify the EU's next building energy efficiency regulations. The results can help policymakers and building professionals to develop the next overheating calculation framework and approach for the future development of climate-proof and resilient residential buildings.

  • 33.
    Avelin, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Jansson, J.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Use of combined physical and statistical models for online applications in the pulp and paper industry2009Inngår i: Mathematical and Computer Modelling of Dynamical Systems, ISSN 1387-3954, E-ISSN 1744-5051, Vol. 15, nr 5, s. 425-434Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the accuracy of different types of models. Statistical models are based on process data and/or observations from lab measurements. This class of models are called black box models. Physical models use physical relationships to describe a process. These are called white box models or first principle models. The third group is sometimes called grey box models, being a combination of black box and white box models. Here we discuss two examples of model types. One is a statistical model where an artificial neural network is used to predict NOx in the exhaust gases from a boiler at Mälarenergi AB in Västerås, Sweden. The second example is a grey box model of a continuous digester. The digester model includes mass balances, energy balances, chemical reactions and physical geometrical constraints to simulate the real digester. We also propose that a more sophisticated model is not required to increase the accuracy of the predicted measurements.

  • 34.
    Backman, Amadeus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Fjärrenergi eller geoenergi? En fallstudie för Gävle sjukhus.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a case study about geothermal energy system and its application forthe hospital in the city of Gävle. Today the hospital uses district heating and -coolingas their main energy source.There is a report about the hospital in the city of Umeå where geothermal energyhas been installed. Both hospitals have the same need when it comes to using heatand cooling all year round. The hospital in Umeå installed geothermal energy sothat they got a less vulnerable energy system. The emissions of CO2 were also lowereddue to this installation.This report aims to answer the following research question.How geothermal energy can be a option of choice for the hospital I the city ofGävle?The report presents a literature study on subject close to this research question. Focusfor the report is to find out if increased electricity consumption is better than usinglocal district heating- and cooling. The report from the geothermal installation inUmeå has on big difference and that is from which fuels the district heating is produced.In Gävle the energy comes from biomass which gives that the emission factoris almost zero.The calculations and modelling are performed in Excel and the results presented ingraphs.The results are positive both from an economical view and environmental perspective.If the total electricity price doesn’t increase more than 36% per year then geothermalenergy is more cost effective. Looking at the emissions of CO2 equivalentswith an emission factor of 90.4 kg per MWh electricity the COP-factor should notbe lower than 7.5. If that can be reached, then geothermal energy performs betterthan district heating- and cooling.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 35.
    Bahrami, Alireza
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Ameen, Arman
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Halvarsson, Mattias
    Aho, Mikael
    Potential Electricity Production of Roof-Mounted Solar PV Systems in a Row House Area in Sweden2023Inngår i: Sustainable Technology for Society 5.0: Case Studies, Examples, and Advanced Research Findings / [ed] Tilottama Singh, Richa Goel, Jan Alexa Sotto, CRC Press, 2023, s. 167-182Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's energy policy goal is to have completely renewable electricity production by the year 2040; thus, alternatives such as wind and solar energies are being investigated for electricity supply, where mainly solar energy has the potential for small and medium-sized systems for houses of private individuals and companies. As a part of this development, the tenant-owner's association, Stenbär, in the city of Gävle in Sweden has considered installing solar PV systems, which has become the basis for this research. The aim of this chapter is to investigate the potential areas for a solar cell plant, and how much electricity this could produce per year. The simulations are performed by using the computer software IDA ICE 5.0 beta. It is demonstrated that there is a good potential to produce a large amount of solar energy in the area. As the system produces a surplus during the summer half of the year, there is also the possibility of selling the electricity.

  • 36.
    Baky, Andras
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Agricultural Environmental Engineering (JTI), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Systems Analysis of Organic Waste Management in Denmark: Environmental Project No. 822 2003 Miljøprojekt2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Bergdahl, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Solar cells to counter rising electricity prices: Self-consumption and profitability of solar cells for a SME in price area 2 in Sweden.2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Increases in electricity prices in Sweden during the second half of 2021 have created a great deal of concern among companies in Sweden. Some companies report that they have stopped their production temporarily when electricity prices have been high. Several of the companies also report that future investments have been stopped and some of the companies also state that they have or are planning to move their production abroad. One of the companies that has been affected by the increased electricity prices is an SME (Small Medium Enterprise) company located in electricity area 2 in Sweden. This has caused the company to evaluate different alternatives to be able to lower their costs linked to their electricity consumption. One of the options that is being evaluated is to invest in a solar (photo voltaic) cell, a technology that has become significantly cheaper over time and solar cells installations have increased a lot in Sweden recent years.

    The purpose of this study is to help the company evaluate whether it is a good option or not to install a solar cells system. The perception within the company is that the price for purchasing electricity is higher than what they would earn from selling the electricity. Therefore, the company wants to install a solar cells system which has a high proportion of self-consumption. But is that view true and, if so, to what extent and how could a solar cells system be designed to optimize self-consumption?

    The result shows that by tilting and turning the solar cell panels, it is possible to change the time for production and the amount of electricity produced from a solar power system. In the current case for this study, electrical consumption is at its highest during working hours 07.00-16.00. It is also during this time of the day the solar radiation is at its most intense and the solar cells system can produce as efficiently as possible. Results showed that it was not profitable to increase self-consumption by turning and tilting the solar panels so that they produced less during the holiday season and more during other parts of the year. The view that self-consumption would increase profitability proved correct and it turned out that a smaller solar plant system is more profitable until the point that the installed power per SEK increased.

    The conclusion of the work is based on the results of the best-designed solar cells system based on installation costs, previous electricity consumption, forecasted electricity prices and current STIBOR rate. The pay-off time for this solar cell system would be 8.6 years and 15.6 years discounted pay-off time. Which may certainly seem like a bad investment and therefore, one might wonder why so many solar cell plants are installed in Sweden. This can largely be explained that from 2020 there are no subsidies for the installation to apply for companies. The company is also not entitled to a tax reduction that gives 0.60 SEK for each kWh sold. This is because their main fuse exceeds the limit of 100A, which is above the limit according to one of the Swedish tax agency requirements for obtaining the tax reduction. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 38. Bisaillon, Mattias
    et al.
    Haraldsson, Mårten
    Sundberg, Johan
    Eriksson, Ola
    Systemstudie Avfall - Borås: En systemstudie för den framtida avfallsbehandlingen i Borås: Ett delprojekt inom projektet "Termisk och biologisk avfallsbehandling i ett systemperspektiv"2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 39. Bisaillon, Mattias
    et al.
    Sundberg, J.
    Haraldsson, M.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Termisk och biologisk avfallsbehandling i ett systemperspektiv: Etapp 12009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40.
    Blackman, Corey
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Evaluation of a thermally driven heat pump for solar heating and cooling applications2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploiting solar energy technology for both heating and cooling purposes has the potential of meeting an appreciable portion of the energy demand in buildings throughout the year. By developing an integrated, multi-purpose solar energy system, that can operate all twelve months of the year, a high utilisation factor can be achieved which translates to more economical systems. However, there are still some techno-economic barriers to the general commercialisation and market penetration of such technologies. These are associated with high system and installation costs, significant system complexity, and lack of knowledge of system implementation and expected performance. A sorption heat pump module that can be integrated directly into a solar thermal collector has thus been developed in order to tackle the aforementioned market barriers. This has been designed for the development of cost-effective pre-engineered solar energy system kits that can provide both heating and cooling.

    This thesis summarises the characterisation studies of the operation of individual sorption modules, sorption module integrated solar collectors and a full solar heating and cooling system employing sorption module integrated collectors. Key performance indicators for the individual sorption modules showed cooling delivery for 6 hours at an average power of 40 W and a temperature lift of 21°C. Upon integration of the sorption modules into a solar collector, measured solar radiation energy to cooling energy conversion efficiencies (solar cooling COP) were between 0.10 and 0.25 with average cooling powers between 90 and 200 W/m2 collector aperture area. Further investigations of the sorption module integrated collectors implementation in a full solar heating and cooling system yielded electrical cooling COP ranging from 1.7 to 12.6 with an average of 10.6 for the test period.

    Additionally, simulations were performed to determine system energy and cost saving potential for various system sizes over a full year of operation for a 140 m2 single-family dwelling located in Madrid, Spain. Simulations yielded an annual solar fraction of 42% and potential cost savings of €386 per annum for a solar heating and cooling installation employing 20m2 of sorption integrated collectors.

  • 41.
    Blay Pomar, Jose Luis
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap.
    Assessment of offshore wind transmission technologies for green hydrogen production: Case study in Gävleborg County, Sweden2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The usage of green hydrogen is expected to reduce the annual greenhouse gas emissions by 2% that are currently generated by the consumption of fossil-based hydrogen, while also hard-to-abate industries that are difficult to shift to low-carbon alternatives in the future. Gävleborg county, a crucial part of Sweden's industrial value chain, aims to decrease its carbon footprint in hydrogen-based industries by producing competitive green hydrogen by deploying offshore wind energy along the Gävleborg coast. To enhance the industrial competitiveness of Gävleborg by making the most of the wind resources in the area, it is important to select suitable energy transmission technologies. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the potential of different offshore wind-to-shore technologies and assess the feasibility of hydrogen production for dedicated future offshore wind plants in the region.

    This case study examined the annual average power and energy recovery from wind resources in two different locations along the Gävleborg coast. More than 100 000 wind data values collected over 14 years from the New European Wind Atlas database were analyzed using the continuous Weibull function. Moreover, to evaluate the energy losses in the transmission to shore it was used the π-equivalent schema for either high voltage alternating current (HVAC) or high voltage direct current (HVDC), considering different voltage levels or the usage of reactive compensation. Finally, the power and energy input requirements of the largest operational PEM electrolyzer for hydrogen production were assessed.

    Three different offshore wind farm designs have been proposed for analysis, varying the installed power capacity and distance from the shore in accordance with the current offshore wind farm pro-spects in the region. On the one hand, designs with lower power capacity and closer to the shore are more likely to use HVAC technology with low voltage levels and little significance on reactive compensation. On the other hand, larger offshore wind designs will potentially use either HVAC technology with higher voltage levels and reactive compensation, or HVDC technology. After analysis, it can be concluded that the deployment of any of the suggested offshore wind designs will have a significant impact on the region´s energy mix, covering most of the current Swedish hydrogen demand when considering dedicated offshore wind-to-hydrogen plants. Nevertheless, most of these plans are currently in the initial stages of conception and planning and are awaiting political initia-tives and technological advancements to reach a level of economic competitiveness.

    This study also shows that Gävleborg county has a significant opportunity to become a prominent hydrogen producer in the next few decades; not only reducing the national carbon footprint, but also providing a significant business opportunity for the region. Furthermore, the selection of the best-suited offshore wind-to-shore technology will have a great impact in the investment and efficiency of the project, thus highlighting the most cost-effective and competitive offshore wind farms in the region.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 42.
    Bosnjak, Vjekoslav
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Waste Heat Recovery in Intensive Small and Medium Sized Industries: Case Study - Gästrike Härdverkstad2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In order to keep a high level and to stay competitive in the world market in the future, it is important for the Swedish steel industry to improve their efficiencies continuously and to reduce the energy consumption. In order to realize these goals, the Swedish steel association Jernkotoret was found and by their initiative Triple Steelix was found in 2006 in Berglanden, a significant area for the steel industry. In 2009, the Clean Production Centre was found in Hofors in order to build a cluster of local steel manufacturers, factories and companies. One of those companies is Gästrike Härdverkstad, a small steal heat treatment industry with six employees and about 700.000 tons treated materials every year.

    The aim for this thesis is to suggest solutions for recovering waste heat and lowering the total energy consumption in furnaces for heat treatment in the case of Gästrike Härdverkstad.

    Some limitations were necessary to complete the analysis and to come to conclusions. The yearly treated material and energy prices were assumed to be constant and the yearly power consumption was estimated by an extrapolation of a one to five days measurement.

    Gästrike Härdverkstad is located in Uhrfors, the southern part of Åshammar, a village with 727 inhabitants. There are not any buildings with a possibility to supply heat and there is no district heating in the surroundings. The company has a power consumption of 1.40 GWh/year, of which 65.7% is consumed by the 12 main furnaces. The rest is used by eight seldom used furnaces, devices and auxiliary machines of the support process like fans, pumps, compressor, office heating, and some other. The efficiencies of the main furnaces are between 10% and 20%.The estimated energy consumption of the space heating is about 27 MWh/year, which completely can be covered by the material coolant and the combustion heat of the exhaust gases from the hardening furnaces. Since there are 10 different types of furnaces with different duties and efficiencies, the preheating furnace was taken as an example and compared with a new furnace. According to the needs of Gästrike Härdverkstad, the furnace VAW 60/100-650°C from the company Vötsch was chosen at the cost of 248,827 SEK. The payback time depends on the efficiency. With an efficiency of 40% the payback time would be about 13 years, see Figure 20.

    After the annealing and ageing, the finished products are cooled down in the building hall by the ambient air. In future, the possibility of preheating the material with the heat of the finished products should be considered. With an efficiency of 30.87%, one preheating furnace could bereplaced, and taken a payback time of 5 years into account; the price of the construction would be allowed to be up to 253,200 SEK.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Master_Thesis_Vjekoslav_Bosnjak_2012
  • 43.
    Bravo Jimenez, Ismael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Detection and removal of wind turbine ice: Method review and a CFD simulation test2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the energy sector is facing a huge demand that needs to be covered. Wind energy is one of the most promising energy resources as it is free from pollution, clean and probably will arise as one of the main energy sources to prevent global warming from happening. Almost 10% of the global energy demand is coming from renewable resources. By 2050 this percentage is expected to grow to 60%. Therefore, efforts on wind turbine technology (i.e. reliability, design…) need to be coped with this growth.

    Currently, large wind energy projects are usually carried out in higher altitudes and cold climates. This is because almost all of the cold climates worldwide offer profitable wind power resources and great wind energy potential. Operating with wind turbines in cold climates bring interesting advantages as a result of higher air density and consequently stronger winds (wind power is around 10% higher in the Nordic regions). Not only benefits can be obtained but extreme conditions force to follow harsh conditions. Low temperatures and ice accretion present an important issue to solve as can cause several problems in fatigue loads, the balance of the rotor and aerodynamics, safety risks, turbine performance, among others. As wind energy is growing steadily on icy climates is crucial that wind turbines can be managed efficiently and harmlessly during the time they operate.

    The collected data for the ice detection, de-icing and anti-icing systems parts was obtained through the company Arvato Bertelsmann and is also based on scientific papers. In addition, computer simulations were performed, involving the creation of a wind tunnel under certain conditions in order to be able to carry out the simulations (1st at 0ºC, 2nd at -10ºC) with the turbine blades rotating in cold regions as a standard operation.

    In this project, Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD) simulation on a 5MW wind turbine prototype with ice accretion on the blades to study how CL and CD can change, also different measures of ice detection, deicing and anti-icing systems for avoiding ice accumulation will be discussed. Simulation results showed a logical correlation as expected, increasing the drag force about 5.7% and lowering the lift force 17,5% thus worsening the turbine's efficiency.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 44. Brinkworth, BJ
    et al.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Design procedure for cooling ducts to minimise efficiency loss due to temperature rise in PV arrays2006Inngår i: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 80, nr 1, s. 89-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The principal variable to be fixed in the design of a PV cooling duct is its depth, and hence the hydraulic diameter of its cross-section D. Analysis of the flow and heat transfer in the duct under still-air (buoyant flow) conditions, when the temperature rise is greatest, is validated by measurements on a full-scale test rig. It is shown that there is an optimum value of this design variable, such that for an array of length L the minimum temperature occurs when the ratio L/D is about 20. The optimum value is not affected much by other quantities, including the slope of the array.

    In practical situations, the flow is obstructed by devices across the duct inlet and outlet to exclude insects, birds and rain, and by structural support members crossing the duct interior. It is shown that the latter are no cause for concern, since the effect of the reduction in the flow-rate due to their presence is more than offset by an increase in heat transfer through additional turbulent mixing.

    It is also shown that array temperatures are strongly reduced by wind effects, which increase both the heat lost from the front surface of the array and by enhancement of the flow in the duct. Though the trends are clear, limitations are encountered in the present state of knowledge in both areas. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 45. Broberg Viklund, Sarah
    et al.
    Johansson, Maria T.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction2014Inngår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 77, s. 369-379Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, which would create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the use of primary energy and to contribute to global CO2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present different measures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the development of the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the most to global CO2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of the excess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gavleborg County in Sweden. Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system and heat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO2 emissions, six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrial excess heat in Gavleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recovery measures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be supplied from this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO2 emissions in all of the analyzed scenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production from biomass would result in increased global CO2 emissions when the CO2 emission charge is low. 

  • 46.
    Broström, Simon
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Energianalys av byggnad i industriell miljö: Energikartläggning med effektiviseringsförslag till byggnad innehå̊llande betningsprocess hos Ovako Hofors AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Världen står inför stora utmaningar där energibehovet ständigt ökar i takt med den globala ekonomin. Något de flesta människor idag känner till är kopplingen mellan energianvändning och negativ påverkan av miljö samt klimat.

    Sveriges industrier står inför stora utmaningar med ständigt växande global marknad. Följder blir tuffare konkurrenssituation för många företag. Konkurrenssituationen medför att företag flyttar sin verksamhet till länder med lägre produktionskostnader. Kostnader vilka i Sverige har ökat väldigt mycket de senaste decennierna. För att stoppa utflyttning av industriverksamhet krävs stora effektiviseringar i industriföretags energianvändning och förändring av attityd gentemot energianvändning.

    Studien vilken ligger till grund för rapporten utfördes med energikartläggning av en lokal hos ståltillverkaren Ovako Sweden AB i Hofors. Lokalen där energikartläggningen utförts innehåller en process kallad betning. Kartläggningen grundas på data erhållna av ÅF, vilka även har varit samarbetspartners i studien.

    Väldigt stora mängder energi används i lokalen, närmare bestämt 14 000 MWh. Störst andel energi går till produktionsprocesser i form av ånga och elektricitet. Ånganvändning står för 8 500 MWh medan elektricitetsanvändning uppgår till 4 500 GWh. För ånga kan kostnadsminskning med 60 % implementeras. Elektricitetskostnader kan med föreslagna metoder minskas med uppskattningsvis 14 %.

    För uppvärmning av lokalen beräknades användningen uppgå till 2 500 MWh. Användning av uppvärmningsenergi kan minskas drastiskt då byggnaden är väldigt dåligt isolerad och använder mycket energi till uppvärmning. Vid införande av samtliga föreslagna åtgärder för uppvärmning sparas totalt 95 % av uppvärmningskostnader 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Cabral, Diogo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Hayati, Abolfazl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Gomes, João
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. MG Sustainable Engineering AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gorouh, Hossein Afzali
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman 76175 133, Iran.
    Nasseriyan, Pouriya
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman 76175 133, Iran.
    Salmanzadeh, Mazyar
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman 76175 133, Iran.
    Experimental Electrical Assessment Evaluation of a Vertical n-PERT Half-Size Bifacial Solar Cell String Receiver on a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector2023Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A two-trough parabolic-shaped concentrating photovoltaic solar collector with a vertical half-size ‘phosphorus-passivated emitter rear totally diffused’ bifacial cell string receiver was designed and built for household applications, with the aim of smooth the electrical ‘duck curve’. The study consisted in testing the concentrating photovoltaic solar collector outdoors, under real weather conditions, for its daily electrical peak power and efficiency, as well as for its electrical transversal and longitudinal Incidence Angle Modifier direction. The outdoor testing measurements were conducted in a parabolic trough with low concentration coupled with a central vertical half-size ‘phosphorus-passivated emitter rear totally diffused’ bifacial cell string receiver. Furthermore, the electrical transversal Incidence Angle Modifier showed to be very delicate due to the position and outline of the receiver, which led to an electrical peak efficiency close to 10% at ±25° (i.e., for an electrical power output of around 49.3 W/m2). To validate the measured parameters, a ray-tracing software has been used, where the measured Incidence Angle Modifiers have a very good agreement with the simulated Incidence Angle Modifiers (e.g., deviation of <4%). Consequently, the concentrating solar collector met the objective of lowering the Photovoltaic cell stress and high radiation intensity, by shifting the electrical peak power at normal (e.g., at 0°) to higher incidence angles (e.g., ±25°); this aids the electrical demand peak shaving, by having the highest electrical power production displaced from the highest intensity solar radiation during the day.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Cabral, Diogo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Kosmadakis, George
    Solar & Other Energy Systems Laboratory, National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Agia Paraskevi, Greece.
    Mathioulakis, Emmanouil
    Solar & Other Energy Systems Laboratory, National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Agia Paraskevi, Greece.
    Parametric comparison of a CPVT performance evaluation under standard testing procedures - ISO 9806:2017 and IEC 62108:2016 - for an automated and manual 2-axis tracking solar system stand2024Inngår i: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 11, s. 1242-1255Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, a noticeable lack of literature with respect to a wide-ranging comparison of the precision exhibited by automated and manual two-axis tracking solar systems, particularly within the context of adhering to the standard testing protocols delineated by ISO and IEC. To address this research gap, a symmetrical concentrating Photovoltaic-Thermal solar collector underwent a detailed evaluation encompassing two standard testing procedures such as ISO 9806:2017 and IEC 62108:2016. This comprehensive assessment covered thermal and electrical performance parameters, unfolding across two distinct geographical locations: Athens (Greece) and Gävle (Sweden). Within this experimental framework, an automated two-axis tracking solar system stand was employed at the Greek testing site, while in Sweden it was characterized by the employment of a manual two-axis tracking solar system. The collective peak power performance presented marginal divergence within a narrow range of ± 1% across both testing sites. This culminated in an overall peak power output of 1550 Wpeak, which included an electrical peak capacity of 218 Wpeak and a thermal peak power of approximately 1332 Wpeak. Notably, the most pronounced deviation has been materialized in the transversal and longitudinal Incidence Angle Modifier coefficients, with disparities remaining limited to a threshold of < 5%. These findings underscore the commendable precision hallmarking. In summary, the outcomes presented in this study not only contribute to the extant body of knowledge by bridging the existing gap in literature, but also emphasize the precision inherent to manual two-axis tracking solar systems when compared with automated equivalents. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Carlander, Jakob
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik. Linköpings universitet.
    Akander, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Energisystem och byggnadsteknik.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Sweco Systems AB.
    Effects on Energy Demand in an Office Building Considering Location, Orientation, Façade Design and Internal Heat Gains: A Parametric Study2020Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, nr 23, artikkel-id 6170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    12.9% of the energy use in the EU originates from the commercial and public sector. It has therefore become a priority to optimize energy efficiency in these buildings. The purpose of this study has been to explore how energy demand in a new office building is affected by different internal heat gains, location, orientation, and façade design, and also to see how different indicators can change perspective on energy efficiency. The study was performed with simulations in IDA-ICE with different façade design and changes in internal heat gains (IHG), orientation, and location. Energy demand was then compared to two different indicators. Using a façade designed to lower solar heat gains had little effect on energy demand in the north of Sweden, but slightly more effect further south. The amount of internal heat gains had significant effect on energy demand. Making deeper studies on design and internal heat gains should therefore be prioritized in the beginning of new building projects so the most energy-efficient design can be chosen. When the indicator kWh/m2 was used, the cases with low internal heat gains were perceived as the most energy efficient, while when kWh/(m2 × hpers) (hpers = hours of use) was used, the cases with high occupancy and low electricity use were considered to be the most energy efficient. Therefore, revising the standardized indicator is of great importance.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 50.
    Carlsson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Ramböll Sverige AB, Gävle; ACC Glasrådgivare, Stockholm.
    Wintzell, Helene
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Helene Wintzell AB.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    Miljöstrategisk analys – fms, KTH, Stockholm.
    Ohring, Ilari
    Miljöstrategisk analys – fms, KTH, Stockholm.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    Miljöstrategisk analys – fms, KTH, Stockholm.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Miljöstrategisk analys – fms, KTH, Stockholm.
    Erlandsson, Malin
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Stockholm.
    Lindholm, Torbjörn
    Installationsteknik, Chalmers, Göteborg.
    Andersson, Johnny
    Ramböll Sverige AB, Gävle.
    Malmström, Tor-Göran
    Installationsteknik, KTH, Stockholm.
    Testfasen i miljöklassningsprojekten: Delrapport september 20072007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en redovisning av resultat och underlag i testfasen imiljöklassningsprojekten.

    I januari 2005 inleddes tre forskningsprojekt med målet att föreslå ettsystem för miljöklassning av byggnader. Forskningsprojekten har engemensam projektgrupp där 27 företag ingår. Syftet med projekten är attta fram förslag till indikatorer och kriterier för klassning inom områdenaenergi, innemiljö och farliga ämnen. Projekten avslutas hösten 2007.

    Under perioden december 2006 – mars 2007 genomfördes ett test avflera alternativa förslag till indikatorer. Testet utfördes i nära samverkanmed 16 företag från projektgruppen och ytterligare 10 bostadsrättföreningaroch 6 småhusägare. Sammanlagt ingick 46 byggnader av olika typ(flerbostadshus, kontor, sjukhus, småhus etc.).

    Testet utfördes genom att företag, föreningar och småhusägare samladein nödvändiga data för klassning av ett antal preliminära indikatorer. Defick också svara på frågor om prioritering av aspekter, indikatorer ochvilka resurser som krävdes.

    Insamlingen av mätdata kompletterades sedan med intervjuer för att fåin ytterligare information och synpunkter.

    Denna rapport innehåller resultat i form av:

    • Indata från dem som testat.
    • Försök till klassning av respektive byggnad.
    • Synpunkter på genomförandet av testningen.
    • Synpunkter på klassningssystemet.

    Dessutom ingick en studie av kopplingen mellan energideklarationer ochmiljöklassning. Några av byggnaderna energideklarerades och dessa datajämfördes med vad som behövs för miljöklassning.

    Rapporten innehåller samtliga dokument från testningen och kommeratt vara ett viktigt underlag i det fortsatta arbetet. Under hösten 2007kommer ett förslag till klassningssystem att presenteras.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
1234567 1 - 50 of 354
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard-cite-them-right
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • sv-SE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • de-DE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf