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  • 1.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, University of Umeå, Sweden.
    Jensen, B. R.
    Sandfeld, J.
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Crenshaw, Albert
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    The impact of object size and precision demands on fatigue during computer mouse use2011Inngår i: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 118-127Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Prolonged computer use, especially if fatigue ensues, is associated with visual and musculoskeletal symptoms. The aim was to determine the time-course of perceived fatigue in the wrist, forearm, shoulder and eyes during a 60-min mouse task (painting rectangles), and whether object size and/or mouse use demands were of influence. Also, we investigated performance (number of rectangles painted), and whether perceived fatigue was paralleled by local muscle fatigue or tissue oxygenation. Ten women performed the task for three conditions (crossover design). At condition 1, rectangles were 45 × 25 mm, square paint cursor size 1.3 × 1.3 mm, and mousepointer movement ratio 1:26. At condition 2, the same cursor size and mousepointer movement ratio was used, but rectangles were smaller. At condition 3, the smaller rectangles were used, but the cursor size was also smaller and mousepointer movement ratio was 1:8. The results showed increased self-reported fatigue over time, with the observed increase greater for the eyes, but no change in physiological responses. Condition 2 resulted in higher performance and increased eye fatigue. Perceived fatigue in the muscles or physiological responses did not differ between conditions. In conclusion, computer work tasks imposing high visual and motor demands, and with high performance, seemed to have an influence on eye fatigue. 

  • 2.
    Abolghasemi Kordestani, Arash
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Farhat, Farshad
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Supply Chain Maturity and Financial Performance: Study of Swedish SMEs2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The goal of this research is to demonstrate that financial performance of current year is dependent to the amount of maturity of the supply chain processes. This aim is achieved through considering current supply chain process maturities of the firm together with financial performance of prior years.

     

     

    Research question - How supply chain process maturities in relation to financial performance of prior years are related to current financial performance  

     

     

    Methodology - The deductive approach has been followed to use theories and literatures to build the hypothetical model in order to test it empirically.

    This quantitative research is benefited from the primary data of Swedish steel SMEs including the secondary data from financial ratios from Scandinavian financial database

     

     

    Findings - The effect between supply chain process maturity and current year financial performance, the effect between prior year financial performance and current year financial performance, and also total effect of prior year financial performance and supply chain process maturity on current year financial performance proved empirically.

  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Emilie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    Relationen mellan kalkyleringsmetoder, Lean och produktionsflöden av kundanpassad karaktär: Hur kostnadsprecisionen i förkalkyleringen i denna typ av produktion kan ökas samt vilken kalkyleringsmetod som passar bäst2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Då tillverkningsindustrin går mot en högre grad av kundanpassning och implementering av Lean, samtidigt som föråldrade traditionella kalkyleringsmetoder fortfarande används i moderna industriföretag, är det intressant att utreda relationerna mellan produktionsflöden av kundanpassad karaktär, Lean samt olika kalkyleringsmetoder.

    Syftet är att öka kostnadsprecisionen i förkalkylen för ett produktionsflöde av kundanpassad och Lean karaktär och beskriva en generaliserbar arbetsprocess för detta. Syftet är även att ta fram generella rekommendationer för val av kalkyleringsmetod genom att utifrån denna produktions karaktär genomföra en jämförande analys av kalkyleringsmetoder (traditionella kalkylmetoder, ABC och kalkylering enligt Lean).

    Genom en litteraturstudie samt en fallstudie av ett produktionsflöde med många varianter och inslag av Lean har båda syftena uppfyllts.

    Fallstudien har utförts genom intervjuer och observationer. Problem och positiva faktorer som enligt litteratur karaktäriserar produktion av kundanpassade produkter har även återfunnits på fallföretaget. Det sambandet har kunnat användas för att stödja analysen av relationerna. Relationerna mellan kalkyleringsmetoder, Lean samt produktionsflöden av kundanpassad karaktär har analyserats genom att jämföra litteratur och resultat från fallstudien. Det framkom att Value Stream Costing (VSC) är den mest lämpliga kalkyleringsmetoden för produktionsflöden med kundanpassade produkter som uppnått en hög mognadsgrad av Lean.

    Förkalkyleringen på fallföretaget är beroende av tillförlitliga operationstider, vilket tagits fram på fallföretaget samtidigt som en generell arbetsprocess utarbetats. Operationstiderna togs i detta fall fram genom videoupptagning av produktionsmomenten samt efterföljande analys i mjukvaran AviX. Genom att följa den generella arbetsprocessen som utarbetats erhålls både ett bra underlag till förkalkylering samt ständiga förbättringar i produktionsflödet.

    Eftersom forskning visar att Lean bör implementeras i hela organisationen om full fördel med Lean ska uppnås, kan VSC vara en utmärkt kalkyleringsmetod för att komma ifrån föråldrade, traditionella kalkyleringsmetoder samtidigt som denna kalkyleringsmetod förenklar kalkylering i produktion av kundanpassad karaktär.

  • 4.
    Ahnfeldt, Tomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Geometry for CAD Toolbox2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 5.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Maskinteknik.
    Modelling of metal removal rate in titanium alloy milling2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium is one of fourth most abundant structural metal in earths soil. It is in a composition with other elements, forming titanium alloys. These alloys are used in many different areas, such as medical, energy and sports, but is most commonly used in aerospace applications. Titanium alloys have different solid phases, α, α+β and β depending on temperature and the amount of α and β-stabilizers.When machining titanium alloys, one of the most important factors to control is the temperature in the cutting zone. The built-up heat in the cutting edge of the tool, are connected to titanium alloys low thermal conductivity and high heat capacity, which means that the alloy has low heat conduction from the cutting zone. The temperature is strongly depending on the cutting speed, which is the relative speed difference between the cutting tool and the workpiece. Many studies and research work have been conducted surrounding this fact, focusing on the physical and chemical quantities, to model tool wear progression and how this affects the tool life and the metal removal. These models are often implemented and analyzed in finite element software providing detailed but time-consuming solutions.The focus for this work have been on developing a suitable tool life expectancy model, using design of experiments in combination with metamodeling to establish a model connecting cutting parameters and measured responses in terms of tool life, from a conducted milling experiment. This models where supposed to provide a platform for customer recommendation and cutting data optimization to secure reliable machining operations. The study was limited to focus on the common α+β titanium alloy 6Al-4V. The outcome and conclusion for this study, is that the tool life is strongly connected to the choice of cutting speed and the radial width of cut and that these parameters can be predicted by the two models that have been develop in this project. The models ensure the highest possible metal removal rate, to selected parameters.

  • 6.
    Asplund, Lars
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi.
    Systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete: Nyckelpersonsintervjustudie om uppfattning kring arbetsmiljöarbete, lönsamhet och prioriteringar på en arbetsplats2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Asplund, L (2007). Systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete. Nyckelpersonsintervjustudie om uppfattning kring arbetsmiljöarbete, lönsamhet och prioriteringar på en arbetsplats 15 högskolepoäng, Magisterprogrammet. Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för Pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi.

    Bakgrund

    Att arbeta systematiskt med arbetsmiljöarbete är ett krav för alla arbetsgivare enligt svensk arbetsmiljölag. Alla arbetsgivare förväntas göra riskbedömningar och ta fram lösningar för att förebygga olyckor. Det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet på arbetsplatsen ska hanteras som en naturlig del i den dagliga verksamheten och omfattar de fysiska, psykologiska och sociala förhållandena i arbetsmiljön.

    Syfte:

    Att undersöka nyckelpersoners uppfattningar om vad som påverkar prioriteringar av systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete på ett företag samt studera deras uppfattningar om arbetsmiljöförändring i relation till ökad lönsamhet.

    Urval

    Inför nyckelpersonsintervjuerna kontaktades personalansvarig som i sin tur valde ut nyckelpersonerna. Chefer, områdesansvariga och skyddsombud intervjuades. Intervjupersonerna valdes ut då en speciell kompetens för området krävdes. Sex av intervjuerna utfördes under en veckas tid på de intervjuades arbetsplats. En kort intervju med skyddsombudet utfördes fyra veckor senare på företaget.

    Design och metod

    För att besvara frågeställningarna utfördes intervju på sex nyckelpersoner utifrån en intervjuguide. Intervjuerna tog cirka 30 minuter vardera. Halvstrukturerade intervjuer användes. Intervjuerna transkriberades och analyserades och ytterligare en intervju utfördes efteråt med ett skyddsombud. Intervju användes som metod för datainsamlingen som kom att stå för resultatet.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att informanterna anser att det som mest påverkar prioriteringar kring det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet på arbetsplatsen är ekonomin och chefer/ledningens inställning. Annat som påverkar är arbetsmiljölagen och koncernens riktlinjer och budget. Sjuk-frånvarouppföljningar görs i en del i sin strävan att uppnå ökad lönsamhet. Arbetsmiljöförändringar som utförts i strävan att nå ökad lönsamhet och bättre arbetsmiljö har mestadels varit av fysisk ergonomisk art.

    Slutsatser

    Informanterna gav olika information gällande det pågående arbetsmiljöarbetet. De sade att arbetsmiljöarbetet var fortgående och aktivt och de trodde att personalen ansåg att det inte arbetades särskilt mycket med arbetsmiljöarbete. Skyddsombudet ansåg att det gjordes mer än vad personalen trodde. Detta betyder att kommunikationen kan behövs bättras för att de anställda skall få mer insikt om vad som föregår gällande arbetsmiljöarbete och kan bli mer involverad i själva arbetet.

    Nyckelord:

    Systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete, lönsamhet, och hälsofrämjandearbete

  • 7.
    Barcos, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Energy Survey: Energy Audit for ICA Maxi in Sandviken2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
  • 8.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Berggren, Christian
    Rethinking outsourcing in manufacturing: A tale of two telecom firms2004Inngår i: European Management Journal, ISSN 0263-2373, E-ISSN 1873-5681, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 211-223Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Industriell ekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för logistik och innovativ produktion.
    Lind, JohnnyHandelshögskolan Stockholm.
    Innovation eller kvartalskapitalism?: Utmaningar för global svensk produktion2013Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Carlsson, Inga-Lill
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för logistik och innovativ produktion.
    Logistics capabilities important to small system suppliers2009Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Chen, Chao
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    Yu, Di
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    The CSR challenges and opportunities in Chinese tobacco industry2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 12.
    Chen, Li
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö.
    Supplier Management in Chinese State-owned enterprises: A case study of bounded relationships from the perspective of buyer2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation: Chinese stated-owned enterprises (SOEs) play an increasingly role in Chinese economy although, its management for its suppliers are yet not in an effective manner in the situation mentioned in this case. Even though the Kraljic (1983) matrix is commonly used as a guideline for how to manage suppliers, there is a lack of studies based on Kraljic that have analysed the situation where the buyer are bound to and unable to switch its suppliers.

    Purposes: the purpose of this paper is to first to analyse the situation in the case by applying the Kraljic matrix, and second to explore the major challenges in terms of cost, communication and supplier selection in dealing with the supplier relationships. Specifically the analysis concern how factors like political risk, “Guanxi” and CSR restrict the way the case company manage its suppliers. In addition, appropriate supplier management strategies are formulated based on the findings.

    Research methods: in order to achieve the purposes of this paper, first an extensive literature review related to this paper was conducted. Afterwards, a case study of a subsidiary of Sinopec was carried out. The discussion concerns different types of the suppliers who are categorized according to the Kraljic matrix. Interviews with these two managers are major source of data collection.

    Findings: as indicated from the purpose the findings from the case confirm that Kraljic matrix is inadequate to capture the case of Chinese SOEs in this paper. The subsidiary does not either select or evaluate suppliers based on cost efficiency. Further, it is shown that political risk “Guanxi” and CSR influence the way the way the firms manage its suppliers.

    Implications: training design including all levels of managers and exploiting the use of “Guanxi” is two of appropriate strategies recommended for improvements in current situation

  • 13.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Mot hållbara produktionssystem!2005Inngår i: Alternativ till outsourcing, Malmö: Liber , 2005, s. 71-84Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 14.
    DANIERE, Sébastien
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö. Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Energy survey and saving in the ICA maxi Gävle.2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the global warming of the atmosphere it is now time to decrease the consumption of energy. One of the most important consumer is the commercial building area and especialy the supermarket. After a survey of the total consumption and a division into unit process it is possible to find some measures to decrease the global consumption of energy (in the lighting, cooling/freezing and space heating processes).

  • 15.
    Eklöv, Tommy
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Bergström, Peder
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Utformning av en arbetsmodell för införande av lean inom sjukvården: En fallstudie på Gävle sjukhus2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Att införa lean principer inom sjukvården är ett relativt nytt område. Landstinget i Gävleborg och Gävle sjukhus är intresserade av att korta ner sina vårdköer med hjälp av logistiska metoder och lean production principer. Detta på grund av att vårdköerna på bland annat urologmottagningen på Gävle sjukhus bara växer. Lean production är ett koncept som ursprungligen härstammar från bilindustrin i Japan och innebär att man strävar efter att göra mer med mindre. På svenska kan lean production översättas till resurssnål produktion och arbetet med lean innefattar principer som kunden i fokus, teamarbete och ständiga förbättringar.

    Syftet med examensarbetet är att ta fram en arbetsmodell för införande av lean principer inom sjukvården, då vårdköerna idag är långa och någon form av förändring är nödvändig. Arbetsmodellen innehåller sex olika nivåer, kartläggning, analys, framtagning av förbättringsförslag, avstämning, genomförande och uppföljning. De fyra första stegen kommer att presenteras i arbetet medans de två sista stegen ligger utanför arbetets ramar.

    Genom att använda logistiska metoder och lean principer i kartläggningar och analyser av mottagningens processer har en del problemområden upptäckts. Problemen har sedan analyserats och förbättringsförslag till de olika områdena har utarbetats. Förbättringsförslagen som har utarbetats med hjälp av logistiska metoder och lean production principer bör kunna medverka till en minskning av urologmottagningens vårdköer.

  • 16.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Södergren, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Distribution av bensin och diesel från Gävle Hamn: Analys av alternativa distributionssystem2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattningen syftar till att ge en övergripande bild om vad arbetet handlar om, för att skapa en nyfikenhet till att läsa hela arbetet.

    Studiens syfte var att analysera alternativa distributionssystem för petroleumprodukter från Gävle Hamn. Där vi har valt två slutdestinationer, norra Stockholmsregionen med Brista som ett alternativ och det andra alternativet är Västerås. De faktorer som vi har utgått från när vi har analyserat distributionssystemen är ekonomiska, miljömässiga och tekniska möjligheter.

    Den metod som användes var kvalitativ och det empiriska materialet inhämtades genom intervjuer. I studien har nio respondenter intervjuats, vi anser att de personerna har varit relevanta för studiens syfte. Resultatet har analyserats med hjälp av tidigare forskning och teorier inom ämnet.

    Resultatet visade att det skulle vara ekonomsikt, miljömässigt och tekniskt möjligt att starta upp petroleumtransporter till norra stockholmsområdet. Till Västerås fann vi inga belägg för att ett alternativ där båten först går till Gävle Hamn för att sedan lastas om till tåg skulle bli billigare eller bättre ur miljösynpunkt. Det fanns även tekniska aspekter som gjorde kapaciteten sämre till Västerås än till norra Stockholm. Därför anser vi att det nuvarande alternativet ska användas till dess att nya förutsättningar börjar gälla.

  • 17.
    Ertushi, Kamiran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö.
    Norell, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö.
    Att etablera ett tredjepartslogistikföretag i Kina2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att ur ett Supply Chain Management perspektiv undersöka förutsättningar för att implementera ett tredjepartslogistikföretag från EU i ett växande industriområde i Kina. Detta examensarbete fokuserar på distriktet Xiaohe i staden Guiyang i provinsen Guizhou.

    Logistikbranschen är en av de snabbast växande industrierna i Kina. Den kinesiska regeringen föreslår en främjande policy för en logistikexpandering som innefattar skattereduceringar och nedsatta priser på lokalhyra och markpriser för logistikföretag. Den största skillnaden mellan marknaden i EU och marknaden i Kina är de kulturella skillnaderna i sättet att göra affärer och att umgås. Korruption kan förekomma i Kina och det är värt att undersöka de kinesiska företagen innan ett samarbete inleds. Om ett samarbete inleds kan det vara fördel att ta reda på om det finns särskilda bestämmelser i Kina. Detta för att minska risken att problem uppstår med de varor som ska exporteras och/eller importeras. En vara som ska importeras eller exporteras mellan EU och Kina ska förtullas genom inlämning av tulldeklaration till Tullverket.

    När det gäller växande industriområden som i Guiyang finns det geografiska fördelar med avseende på handel genom att staden angränsar ett flertal andra provinser och att den anses som en knutpunkt i sydvästra Kina. Huvudindustrier förknippade med staden innefattar kol, järn, stål, aluminium, gödningsmedel och tillverkning. De lokala kinesiska logistikföretagen saknar den erfarenhet och kompetens som krävs för att kunna erbjuda logistiska helhetslösningar åt företagen i industriparken i Xiaohe i Guiyang. Vidare finns inga tredjepartslogistikföretag i staden. Delvis på grund av dessa anledningar är det en stor fördel för ett tredjepartslogistikföretag från den Europeiska Unionen att etablera verksamhet i Guiyang. Svagheten med en etablering är bland annat indikation på brister i infrastrukturen och långt avstånd till närmaste hamn. Vidare finns det en planering för utveckling i regionen som innefattar bland annat utveckling av transportinfrastrukturen.

  • 18.
    Fang Sjöberg, Ina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö.
    Exploring the portfolio approach in purchasing and supply management: - the result of an international survey2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Although many scholars assert that portfolio approach can facilitate purchasing to live up to its strategic importance and contribute to company performance; and practitioners have applied portfolio approach in various purchasing activities, there are still limited empirical researches to confirm that portfolio can actually create the benefits. The purpose of the study is to explore the usefulness of portfolio approach as well as why companies decide to apply portfolio approach in purchasing and supply management.

    Based on an international survey carried on a large number of European and North American manufacturing companies, the findings of the study provide strong evidence on the significant impact that the purchasing portfolio approach has on the business results, and also shed lights on the strategic importance of purchasing as a direct explanation to the application of the approach by companies. The empirical study confirms that the competency of the purchasing professionals plays a prominent role on the path of transforming the strategic importance of purchasing, with the help of portfolio approach, to the success of improved purchasing performance. A cross-discipline theoretical study reveals that different models share a common theoretical foundation and consist of similar basic elements in their construct.

    The results of this study fill the research gap in analyzing the causes of the application of portfolio approach; provide quantitative empirical proof on the usefulness of portfolio approach in the industrial companies and thus give support to the existing theories. The study contributes to a growing research stream on how to improve purchasing business performance, reflecting the increasing strategic role that purchasing is given. The results send useful messages to company managements and provide valuable insights on an important tool for improving purchasing business performance.

  • 19.
    FU, YU
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö.
    Foreign market entry strategies: a case study for a Chinese pump manufacturer2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Economic globalization, regional economic cooperation and knowledge economy make a great impact on the development of the new century. The changes of international trade and investment reflect the variety of the world economy development; the world economic development, in turn, influences the international trade and investment in both quality and quantity (Feenstra, 1998). The international marketing has become an important trend in this modern society, global strategy has been put at the top of the agenda of many companies. And making development in the international market can also be a good solution for the companies to increase their competition (Mittelman, 1996). It is vital for those companies to deal with foreign market entry as a first step in accomplishing their global mission (Onkvisit & Shaw, 2004).  How to enter a foreign market is very important in this case, so the purpose of this work is therefore to research important factors on entering a foreign market. The theories, including environmental assessment before entry and foreign market entry strategies, are summarized by literature review and in order to make the theories applicable, a case study on a company inChinahas been done in this work as well. The methods used in this work include collecting processed data from literature review, gathering primary data by telephone interviews and through e-mails. SWOT analysis is used to assess targeted market for the case company. The case company is Shandong Shuanglun Group which is a famous pump manufacturer inChina; its targeted market that the company wants to enter is the Italian market. After SWOT analysis, the conclusion of this work indicated that opportunities of entry targeted market for the case company includes favorable tax policies and relevant laws, the threats in high context culture and terrorist activities should be paid attention to. The company has strengths in product but weaknesses in service, strategic alliance with one local pump manufacturer and exporting could be their market entry modes.

  • 20.
    Fältholm, Ylva
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle. Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Norberg, Cathrine
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Gender diversity and innovation in mining – a corpus-based discourse analysis2017Inngår i: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 359-376Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to gain increased knowledge about gender diversity and innovation in mining by analyzing how women are discursively represented in relation to these two concepts, and in doing so establish how diversity management is received and communicated in the industry. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on analysis of texts including references to gender diversity and innovation in mining found on the web. The tool used to retrieve the data has been WebCorpLive, a tool designed for linguistic analysis of web material. Findings Although increased female representation is communicated as a key component in the diversity management discourse, based on the idea that diversity increases innovation and creativity, closer analysis of texts on diversity and innovation in mining shows that what women are expected to contribute with has little explicit connection with innovation. Research limitations/implications The study contributes with increased knowledge about diversity management by providing an example of how it is received in a traditionally male-dominated industry. Practical implications Our findings indicate that for diversity management to have a real effect in mining, it needs to be based on gender equality and social justice motives, rather than on a business case rationale ? the principal motive today. To enable this change stereotypical gender patterns, as shown in this study, need to be made visible and problematized among policy makers, practitioners and actors on all levels of the industry. Originality/value The study contributes with new knowledge about gender in the mining industry previously not attended to by using a method which so far has been sparsely used in discourse analysis, although pointed out as promising.

  • 21.
    Gil, Arnaud
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Raffier, Alex
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Wallpaper drying solutions: Feasibility study of a low temperature drying process2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The wallpaper company Duro Sweden AB, one of the most important Scandinavian

    wallpaper manufacturers, wants to decrease its energy use and costs and make its

    production more environmentally friendly. It implies changes in the key process energy

    use whom consists mainly by drying process using heat production from oil.

    The purpose of this project, studied by the consulting company Sweco Theorells AB,

    is to determine the feasibility of a change in the energy utilisation implemented to the

    most representative process to propose future solutions’ basis on the future energy

    question.

    The company use mainly two kind of energy, electricity with 1055MWh per year and

    oil with 1985MWh per year. The oil power consumption and cost represent respectively

    65% and 73% of the global part.

    Several proposed changes with better energy efficiency are presented : use of district

    heating as a heat source, Infrared Drying, combination, etc; but due to the important

    rebate make by the Swedish government on the oil price, they are not currently viable to

    achieve.

    But the constant rise of the oil price could be sooner a strong incentive to make these

    improvals, strongly environmentaly friendly and power consumption reducer,

    economicaly viable in the long term.

  • 22.
    Gruvman, Joakim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för industriell ekonomi, industridesign och maskinteknik, Industriell ekonomi.
    Andersson, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för industriell ekonomi, industridesign och maskinteknik, Industriell ekonomi.
    Produktionsrelaterad förändring för ett bättre logistiskt flöde med mänsklig hänsyn: En fallstudie på PEPAB Produktionspartner AB2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The business world is in constant change, which means that businesses must be able to adapt to these changes and constantly improve. The research field on how businesses should achieve a smart material supply is small, which emphasizes the importance of studying how a company can change its production layout to improve its internal logistics.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to increase the understanding of the production layout's importance for the material supply and the human aspect in production-related change work.

    Method: The study has used an abductive, exploratory approach to answer the purpose and the research questions. This means that studies of theories were done in parallel with studies of the empirical material at the case company PEPAB Produktionspartner AB. Theories from the literature and the empirical data have been analyzed and discussed in order to draw conclusions.

    Findings: The results are a description of the current internal material flow of four representative components and a description of employees´ attitude to change. By mapping the material flow, logistics flow factors and human related factors have been discovered. 

    Theoretical contribution: When changing the production starting from the logistic factors waiting, unnecessary inventory, unnecessary manufacturing, defects, unnecessary transportations and improperly designed production layout a better logistical flow and better material supply can be achieved. Combining this with a well-planned preparatory work with related training can make a successful change. 

    Practical contribution: This study contributes practically with a new production layout that enables a better logistical flow. It also emphasizes the importance of a well-thought-out and wellplanned preparatory work to maintain the staff´s sense of participation.

  • 23.
    Halling, Bengt
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för industriell ekonomi, industridesign och maskinteknik, Industriell ekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för logistik och innovativ produktion. Division of Ergonomics, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH.
    Lyckström, Martin
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Wijk, Katarina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Centre for Research and Development, Region Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Application of a sense of coherence-based leadership for productivity and health at Scania2019Inngår i: International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, ISSN 2045-7804, E-ISSN 2045-7812, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 179-194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to explore if sense of coherence (SOC) theory can be used in human factors ergonomics (HFE) practice as a leadership approach to decrease the rate of sick leave and rehabilitation cases and increase work attendance among assembly personnel without impeding productivity. Via three studies carried out at the Swedish truck manufacturer Scania, we investigated the company's key performance indicators and documented meetings with managers during the intervention. The results show that SOC can be used in HFE practice and that productivity, quality and attendance at work increased, while rehabilitation cases decreased. Our conclusion is that a health promotion approach among managers is essential in a lean organisation that aims to reduce waste in the company and optimise human capability and thereby productivity. SOC theory can support the creation of workplaces that are high performing and healthy, starting with concerns for the people creating the output.

  • 24.
    Halling, Bengt
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Industriell ekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för logistik och innovativ produktion.
    Renström, Jonas
    Lean and the implementation process: managers perspective on change2011Inngår i: Det nya arbetslivet, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and aims: Research has shown that view on Lean production differs both between researchers and practitioners and that there is no uniform definition of the concept (Emiliani 2006; Pettersen 2009). Furthermore, the perspective on Lean production as toolbox or philosophy, sometimes expressed as Lean thinking, influences the Lean implementation. Implementation of Lean can be seen as a project or an initiation of an ongoing developmental process where learning is taking place (Rother 2010). The purpose of this paper is to survey managers´s wiew of lean in terms of “toolbox Lean” or Lean thinking and their view of the implementation process in terms of a project with a time limit or as an initiation of an ongoing developmental process. The intention is to increase understanding about the relationship betweenhow Lean production is defined and implemented.

    Method: This paper is based on a case study at a Swedish manufacturing company aiming tobecome a company working with a business system based on Lean principles. The study has a multilevel, vertical, perspective covering five hierarchical management levels in the organization, from president of the company to first line managers at the shop floor. Data was collected through individual semi structured interviews with 14 managers at different organizational levels.

    Findings and reflection: The view on Lean has, according to managers, evolved at all management levels within the organization during the implementation. From a starting point were Lean was perceived as a set of tools by most, it has, as the managers increased their knowledge evolved into a view that is more complex and also includes behavioral and cultural issues. This would indicate that even if the starting point of an implementation of Lean is Lean tool focused it may over time come to include issues of management protocol addressing cultural development, coaching and communication as learning regarding the organizational needs take place. The interviews showed that managers on different hierarchical levels of the organization believed there to be differences in view regarding Lean within the organization. We however found the view on Lean to be quite similar at all management levels, described as a customer focused; standardized way of working that is continuously improved by keeping a process focus. The impression of there being differences in view regarding Lean is most likely caused by a lack of dialogue between organizational levels within the organization. Varying competence levels regarding Lean and thereby varying ways of working within the organization may create a lack of support between production and support functions. Health and health promotion are seen as important factors at the production unit that was studied.

    Research limitations: Organizational size and only partial coverage of the organization may limit the results validity to the parts of the organization that was researched and to larger organizations.

    Value: This paper provides insights regarding the learning process connected to a Lean implementation and that alterations of perspectives and needs may take place during such a process.

    Keywords: Lean production; Lean management; Lean implementation

    Paper type: Case study

  • 25.
    He, Qiao
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Trading Oil Futures2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Oil is an important energy source and a necessary industrial raw material. Every country’s economic growth and the daily life of its people are dependent on this energy form.

    Historically, the oil prices have varied significantly on the world market. This led to at least two oil crises when prices increased in a very fast pace. In order to reduce such rapid fluctuations, oil was introduced at so called commodity exchanges. At such trading places oil could be traded openly for future delivery and hence the market was aware of price changes in advance. A commodity exchange sells special contracts in the form of so called “futures”. In fact there are many different contracts, each exchange has its own set of them covering for a number of different oil types. This thesis deals with these contracts and how they are traded.

  • 26.
    Hildebertsson, Andrea
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för industriell ekonomi, industridesign och maskinteknik.
    Ericsson, Kajsa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för industriell ekonomi, industridesign och maskinteknik.
    Affärssystem – Utmaningar och framgångsfaktorer för en framgångsrik implementeringsprocess: En multipel fallstudie för små- till medelstora företag verksamma i naturstensbranschen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise resource planning system (ERP system) is a standardized support system that aims to support the various functions of a company. Companies have different conditions for a successful implementation process due to the complexity of the ERP system. Implementation of ERP systems is also considered to be particularly difficult in small- to medium sized enterprises (SME) because the process is depending on resources. The natural stone industry is unique because of the natural material that require great adaptation and selection. Only about 20% of the material that is mined from the bedrock can be used for further production. SMEs and the natural stone industry have been dedicated to a little attention in research when it comes to implementation of ERP systems. Therefore, two knowledge gaps are identified where one gap represents a lack of literature on ERP systems for SMEs and the other represents the natural stone industry's unexplored conditions and challenges regarding the implementation of ERP systems. The purpose of this work is therefore to identify critical success factors as well as challenges small companies operating in the natural stone industry possess in order to implement an ERP system and how these companies can avoid a time-consuming process with high costs.

    To realize the purpose a survey was sent out to companies operating in the natural stone industry and are members of the Swedish Stone Industry Association. Thenceforth four interviews have been conducted with three companies who are members of the Swedish Stone Industry Association and a consultant working to implement ERP systems was interviewed. The theory is chosen based on the purpose and has been collected from scientific articles, literature and websites explaining key concepts for the work. Based on the findings, a model has been created to represent a cross-industry approach to achieve a successful process for ERP system implementation. The model aims to demonstrate an approach which is to create an awareness of any challenges that may arise. Challenges such as material characteristics, lack of leadership and lack of a holistic perspective. Based on these challenges, companies should then focus on success factors such as user attitudes for ERP, the use of project teams and a parallel test system to generate a successful implementation process.

  • 27.
    Hillbom, Christoffer
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    Lans, Theres
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    Integrerade ledningssystem: Drivkrafter, möjligheter och hinder2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The world is changing and the business context is no exception. One of the clearest tendencies is a tougher business climate with harder competition due to increased international trade and the expansion of the e-business. At the same time the customers are becoming more sophisticated and demanding. The last decades have also meant that tougher and more frequent demands are being aimed at the businesses from a wider variety of stakeholders; demands regarding how environmental issues, social responsibilities and business ethics should be dealt with. All of the above have driven companies towards implementation of different management systems to be able to cope with the demands as well as to ensure that these issues are being dealt with in an efficient and effective manner. The result is that there might be quite a few management systems that have to be handled, usually a time consuming and bureaucratic task. Theory in the field suggests that an integration of the different management systems is logical and profitable as well as beneficial in many other aspects. Some of the benefits that could be gained due to the holistic approach that the integrated management system (IMS) provides are an alignment of goals and strategies as well as elimination of duplications and sub-optimizations. The IMS will also provide an opportunity for companies to strive towards sustainable development in a balanced manner. Despite this not many companies have intentionally sought to integrate their management systems. Researchers within the field note that there is a lack of empirical data to support the theories regarding how companies act when integrating their management systems, knowledge that might provide insights why integration and IMSs is not more widespread.Hence it is interesting as well as theoretical motivated to further study this area, especially as IMSs might be an aid on the companies’ journey towards sustainable development, a highly important issue. This qualitative multiple case study aims to contribute with knowledge regarding how Swedish companies have handled the issue of IMS, more specific, what driving forces, opportunities and hindrances they have experienced associated with IMS. This, as the knowledge about Swedish firms is limited. The research questions are answered through interviews with managers responsible for the management systems. The findings suggest that companies with more than one management system integrates them to some degree, however not always intentionally, and that it might be a lack of clear motives, driving forces and stakeholder demands that limits further or full integration. The outcome is that integration primarily becomes a coordination of existing management systems with purpose to reduce bureaucracy and redundancies.

  • 28.
    Hillman, Karl
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Teknisk miljövetenskap.
    Governance of Innovation for Sustainable Transport: Biofuels in Sweden 1990-20102011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Hillman, Karl
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Teknisk miljövetenskap.
    Nilsson, Måns
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Rickne, Annika
    University of Gothenburg.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University.
    Fostering sustainable technologies: A framework for analysing the governance of innovation systems2011Inngår i: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 38, nr 5, s. 403-415Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The development and diffusion of technological innovations need governing in order to contribute to societal goals related to sustainability. Yet, there are few systematic studies mapping out what types of governance are deployed and how they influence the development and diffusion of sustainable technological innovations. This paper develops a framework for analysing the role of governance in innovation systems aimed towards sustainability. The framework is based on the literatures on governance, technological innovation systems and socio-technical transitions. We foresee empirical studies based on the framework that may serve as a needed input into governance processes. © Beech Tree Publishing 2011.

  • 30.
    Hillman, Karl
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Teknisk miljövetenskap.
    Suurs, Roald
    TNO.
    Hekkert, Marko
    Utrecht University.
    Sandén, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Cumulative causation in biofuels development: a critical comparison of the Netherlands and Sweden2011Inngår i: The Dynamics of Sustainable Innovation Journeys / [ed] Frank Geels, Marko Hekkert, Staffan Jacobsson, Abingdon: Routledge , 2011, 1, s. 73-92Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 31.
    Hu, Jingwei
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö.
    Zhang, Kaili
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    Improvements in the competitiveness of Chinese military-ownedhotel through TQM2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, China has the tendency that more and more military-owned hotels are shifting toprivate hotels gradually over time. Military-owned hotels have various disadvantages.However, they also have many reasons to exist as well. This thesis aims to answer theresearch question on how the military-owned hotels can deal with the privatization tendencythrough the application of TQM systematically. Case study and literature review are used tofind out the answers to the research question. Two case hotels, one military-owned hotel andone private hotel, are considered in this thesis. In order to guarantee the privacy of the twohotels and their staff, the military-owned hotel would be called Hotel A, and the private hotelwould be called Hotel B. By reviewing various TQM theories, five important aspects in theparticular quality management system have been identified for the case hotels. Finally, ageneralized quality management system model is developed for Chinese Military-ownedhotels in order to make them survive in the competition with private hotels.

  • 32.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Dempsey, Patrick G.
    Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Hopkinton MA, USA.
    Methodological variance associated with normalization of trapezius EMG using submaximal reference contractions2006Inngår i: Proceedings of the 16th World Congress of the International Ergonomics Association / [ed] Ernst Koningsveld, 2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While electromyography (EM G) is commonly used to quantify levels of muscle activity in different jobs and tasks, less attention has been paid to the size and sources of exposure variability between and within individuals at work. In particular , few attempts have been made to discriminate between biological sources of variabilityand methodological uncertainty, including the effects of the EMG normalization procedure. The present study aimed to quantify the testretest repeatability of reference voluntary effort (R VE) contractions of the upper trapezius and the amount of variance introduced to EMG exposure parameters due to normalization trial variance.

    EMG data was collected from the right trapezius muscle of 15 female subjects during 36 work cycles of simulated industrial assembly work on t wo separate days. For all cycles, EMG was norrnalized to each of the four RVE calibration trials collected on the day. From the normalized data the following exposure parameters were calculated for all cycles and norrnalizations: 1 St, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 99th percentile APDF values; mean EMG amplitude; time spent at 'rest' « 6.7% RVE); and time spent at 'large activation levels' (> 100% RVE). Exposure variability due to subjects, day within subject, work cycle within day, and normalization trial was determined using a variance component analysis based on ANOV A algorithms. For all parameters, the dominate source of variance occurred between subjects. For all parameters, except the 1 st APDF percentile and the time spent at rest, the proportions of variance due to norrnalization and cycle were no more than 5% of the sum of all variance components. The betweenday variance for mean and all APDF parameters besides the 1 st APDF percentile ranged from 7 -19% of the total variance, indicating changes in work style or activation patters between days do exist. The effects of normalization reported here are likely at the low end of the range (test-retest coefficient of variation = 0.07) compared to the expected effects when data are collected in the field using less meticulously controIled RVE trials.

  • 33.
    Jansson, Tove
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö.
    Saad, Neimo
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö.
    "Challenges when implementing standardized and processes within a customer service unit"2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

     

    Abstract

     

     

    Interest in Lean grows and spreads to the public from industrial and service sectors. Lean is currently used in administrative processes and it is called Administration but can administration be Lean? The aim of our study is to develop a useful model for a successful implementation of Lean Administration by using various scientific articles, books and information from the case study.

    The part of the purpose is to: • Identify critical success factors that arise• Identify the challenges arising from the implementation of Lean Administration.We have studied a Division within Distribution at GE Healthcare in Uppsala. The model that we have developed provides challenges and success factors for a successful implementation.

    In order to succeed in implementation, a culture that promotes continuous improvement must exist in the organization. A key success factor is to understand Lean Administrations structure and principles. Having a supportive leadership is a matter of course as well as having a secure and stable environment.

  • 34.
    Jansz, Robert
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Olofsson, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Johansson, Malin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Lean inom sjukvården2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är uppenbart för alla inom sjukvården i Gävle att de ligger på gränsen till vad de kan hantera. Landstingen bestämmer inte bara vad sjukvården skall producera, utan även vad det får kosta. Det går ibland inte ihop, vilket föder frustration och vanmakt hos berörda avdelningar och personal. Behovet av sjukvård kommer troligen att öka ytterligare i framtiden, och vi verkar ha kommit till vägens ände vad gäller nuvarande arbetssätt. Syfte och mål med detta examensarbete är att genomföra en förstudie till att implementera och arbeta med lean på Gävle sjukhus och ortopedavdelningen. Arbetet innefattar även att ta fram en generell arbetsmodell för att analysera och förbättra flöden inom sjukvården utifrån ett lean perspektiv. Examensarbetets olika moment har styrts utifrån gruppen framtagna modell. Nedan sammanfattas vilka moment som ingått i varje steg.

    1) Samla kunskap om lean: Första steget i arbetsmodellen handlar hur inlärning av lean i form av faktainsamling, litteraturstudier, föreläsningar och utbildning sker.

    2) Kartläggning av flödet: Andra steget behandlar kartläggning av det aktuella flödet från att patienten skadas i hemmet till att denna är färdigbehandlad. Vidare har intervjuer och observationer gjorts hos de olika avdelningarna inblandade i flödet parallellt med dokumentering.

    3) Analys av flödet i ett lean och kvalitetsperspektiv: Tredje steget innebär att en göra en analys av flödet med hjälp av olika metoder och verktyg inom lean.

    4) Förbättringsförslag: Fjärde steget innebär att med hjälp av analysen skapa förbättringsförslag på de problem organisationen identifierat i flödet.

    5) Implementering/Uppföljning: I sista steget handlar om hur en organisation inför förbättringsförslagen genom att informera och utbilda berörd personal.

    Några av de problem som upptäcktes under förstudien var långa väntetider till operation, överbeläggningar, dubbelarbete, bristande rutiner och kommunikation mellan avdelningarna. Efter insamlad information och sammanställning av intervjuer och problemformuleringar har gruppen kommit fram till en rad förbättringsförslag som anses relevanta vid implementering av lean.

    De olika lean och kvalitetsverktygen som gruppen främst har valt att jobba med är framtagna med hänsyn till de upptäckta problemen. Gruppens förslag till förbättringar inom det akuta höftflödet tror vi kommer förkorta vårdköerna, ge en mer kostnadseffektiv vård samt högre patient kvalitet. Lean har stor potential för sjukvården. Men att införa lean innebär inte enbart att införa en ny metod eller några verktyg. Det kräver en total förändring i synen på chefskap, på styrningen av sjukvården och på medarbetarnas roll. Förändringen sträcker sig ifrån högsta politiska nivå på landstingen till första linjens chefer som coachar sina team till dagliga förbättringar. Att införa lean är inte gjort i en handvändning, men det får inte hindra sjukvården ifrån att börja.

  • 35.
    Karls, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Höglund, Linda
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Effektiv Planering enligt Lean Production: En fallstudie på Sandvik Mining and Construction2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a constantly increasing competitive pressure it is of great importance to constantly strive for improvements in order to gain competitive advantages. Lean Production is a concept that has been introduced with the aim to minimize waste and increase profitability. The purpose of this report is therefore to investigate how to perform effective planning according to the principles of Lean Production, in companys with customer exclusive products, through a case study at Sandvik Mining and Construction (SMC), and to investigate how SMC kan improve their planning of drifting rods at the production unit in Sandviken.

    The study started by creating a theoretical framework, to describe the subject planning and planning based on Lean Production. This frame work constituted the base for the case study which took place at Sandvik Mining and Construction, and also for the model and planning tool that has been introduced.

    The result of the study is partly a general model with factors that contribute to a more effective planning. These factors has beed identifed as SMED, which focuses on reducing set up times and in the end to facilitate the planning. With the assistance of the Pareto rule the amount of items can be grouped together and by that simplify production planning. By using the EOQ, optimized order quantities can be calculated, and thereby simplify for production planning. Even the degree of customer order management is something that affects how the planning can be managed as a high degree of customer order management can simplify for the decision making regarding wich product should be produced, however the time through production can increase. Sequensing is another method that simplifies the planning, as an already predetermined production order shall be produced. The most essential factor is however the motivation of the employees, as this forms the base to able other changes and implement them. Altogether these factors are closely connected to each other and working actively with these can contribute with a simplified planning procedure.

    From without this a tool has been presented in order to simplify the planning of drifting rods at Sandvik Mining and Construction. Through this tool SMC can create a smoother flow through production, a smoother work load, a smoother machine load in the different assembly lines, and in the end reduced adjustment times within the forging press.

  • 36.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wijk, Katarina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    A description of work environment management in succesful companies2011Inngår i: Wellbeing and Innovations Through Ergonomics: Proceedings of NES2011, September 18-21, 2011, Oulu, Finland / [ed] Juha Lindfors, Merja Savolainen & Seppo Väyrynen, Nordic Ergonomics Society , 2011, s. 460-465Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A good work environment can support companies' competitiveness, but many managers mostly associate ergonomics with occupational health and safety. In the process of managing the work environment and creating a good working environment, company managers have a central role. This article investigated managers' own descriptions of the work environment management (WEM). The study group consisted of successful companies (n=142) in a county of Sweden. The managers' descriptions were categorised into nine categories. The most frequently described category was “PhysicalFactors at work”, followed by “Manuals and Standardisation”, and “EmployeeInvolvement and Interaction”.

  • 37.
    Kekonius, Henrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Martinsson, Gustaf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Framgångsfaktorer för arbete med funktionsöverskridande processer: En fallstudie vid Ericsson AB2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A product often consists for the most part of purchased materials and to reduce the total cost of production, therefore, companies often focus on reducing their purchase prices. Pushing supplier prices in this way is a popular way to improve the company's short-term profits.

    Ericsson negotiates annually with its suppliers to reduce their purchase prices, which is considered to reduce purchasing costs and thus the production costs. This is achieved by the sourcing function in a process known as the VPA process. The VPA process requires information from the local supply functions, which, however, has no documented approach for these activities. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to create a support processes to sourcing VPA process. We have also from a theoretical approach critically reviewed the existing process.

    What we found is that Ericsson's approach could be sub optimized, focusing on achieving internal goals within the function creates obstacles for other functions. Often, if not always, each function focuses on its own goals and do not have a holistic view on organizational performance. This means that the organization as a whole may suffer when instead of optimizing process output, local optimization leads to total sub optimization.

    To prevent sub optimization, functions needs to create an understanding of the other functions goals, communication between the functions are therefore of critical nature. However, this is not enough, to reduce the focus on goals within functions and instead focus on process goals requires that senior management will create this opportunity.

  • 38.
    Larsson, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Attraktivitet är en färskvara2009Inngår i: Dagens juridik, nr 2 febArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 39.
    Larsson, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    CSR - papperstiger eller riktig tiger?2009Inngår i: CSR i praktiken, nr 2 AprArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 40.
    Larsson, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    En attraktiv arbetsplats - en uthållig konkurrensfaktor2008Inngår i: Dagens Juridik, nr 18 FebArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 41.
    Larsson, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    En hälsofrämjande verksamhetsstyrning2008Inngår i: Dagens Juridik, nr 31 OktArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 42.
    Larsson, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    En systematisk metod för att skapa attraktiva arbetsplatser2009Inngår i: Dagens Juridik, nr 9 MarArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 43.
    Larsson, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Leadership for Quality, Effectiveness and Health in Organisations2010Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership, quality, effectiveness and health are important factors in the achievement of organisational success. Three questions are addressed to study these elements:

    1. How do leadership values relate to leadership behaviours, quality methodologies and health in organisations?

    2. How do leadership behaviours relate to effectiveness and health in organisations?

    3. How can leadership tools be designed and used to promote health in organisations?

    The research is based on five studies from three research projects. This research is reported in five papers. Study I concerned eight organisations in the middle of Sweden; the focus was on leadership values and behaviours. Study II concerned three successful organisations that received the award, ‘Sweden’s number one workplace’. Focus in this study was mainly on leadership behaviours. Study III combined results from Studies I and II with a focus on successful leadership behaviours. Study IV concerned the eight organisations in Study I. A leadership tool in the form of a Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) model was developed and evaluated. Study V was of two organisations in Sweden; the focus in that work was on the use of a leadership tool control chart designed to give managers statistically valid early warning signals about health in their organisations. Theory X and Y together with the three-dimensional leadership behaviour theory were used to assess leadership values and behaviours. The theory surrounding PDSA and control charts were used to develop leadership tools. The dimension of health is defined from a salutogenic humanistic perspective; which emphasizes individual well-being. The dimension of quality is defined as the ability to satisfy or exceed needs and expectations. Effectiveness is defined as the extent to which externally and internally defined objectives are fulfilled.

    Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used. Interviews, seminars with employees, collection of human resource and effectiveness figures, and questionnaires completed by managers and subordinates were used to collect data.

    Managers with more Theory Y-oriented leadership values were rated by subordinates as high concerning quality methodologies and leadership behaviour dimensions. The subordinates of these managers tended to be healthier.

    Two of the studies identified common groups of leadership behaviours in effective and healthy organisations: strategy and vision, communication and information, authority and responsibility, learning culture, worker conversations, plainness and simplicity, humanity and trust, walking around and reflective personal leadership.

    These leadership behaviours fit into a leadership profile where all three of the dimensions of structure, relation and change are present. Of the three, the relation dimension is strongest and concluded to be a universal dimension.

    The developed PDSA model seems to be a leadership tool that influences both leadership values and behaviour, particularly in the area of relation-oriented leadership behaviours. An early warning system built on CUSUM- and Shewhartcharts concerning the health indicators of self-assessed general health and new sickcases per employee was also found to be a powerful and usable leadership tool.

    For future research, the explorative research findings can be quantitatively tested using representative and preferably cross-national data, with a longitudinal design.

  • 44.
    Larsson, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Ledarskapets roll på en attraktiv arbetsplats2008Inngår i: Dagens Juridik, nr 25 MarArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 45.
    Larsson, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö.
    Optimering av fixtur och operationer: för effektivare produktion2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 46.
    Larsson, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Så redovisar företaget sin viktigaste resurs2008Inngår i: Dagens Juridik, nr 8 DecArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 47.
    Larsson, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Trenderna bakom en attraktiv arbetsplats2008Inngår i: Dagens Juridik, nr 16 JunArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 48.
    Larsson, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Är socialt ansvarstagande bara en papperstiger?2009Inngår i: Dagens juridik, nr 25 MarArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 49.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, 831 25 Östersund, Sverige.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, 831 25 Östersund, Sverige.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, 831 25 Östersund, Sverige.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, 831 25 Östersund, Sverige.
    Control charts as an early warning system for workplace health outcomes2011Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 409-425Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     Introduction: Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts have not been widely used to monitor workplace health and work environments. This research and effort to develop a more accurate and easy to use management control system for employee health is important from a humanistic, societal and economic standpoint, as well as complying with laws that regulate work environments. Objective: The purpose of the study is to design and discuss control charts as an early warning system for workplace health outcomes to promote workplace health management. Another purpose is to discuss relevant factors in the concept of the Out-of-Control Action Plan (OCAP) as a response when a chart warns that the workplace process may be malfunctioning. Participants: Two Swedish organizations were selected as case study organizations: a department at a university and an elderly care operation in a municipality. Methods: This study was explorative and should be seen as a starting point in learning how to use control charts for workplace health management. Self-assessed general health and new sick-cases per employee were selected as indicators for the control charts. Results: An integrated early warning system with Cumulative Sums-and Shewhart-charts are presented to show a possible method as to how an early warning system can be structured through the use of statistical control charts. Conclusions: The conclusion of this study is that control charts, along with well-designed implementation, make up a powerful and useable managerial early-warning system which promotes workplace health and helps to prevent sickness absence.

  • 50.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Så skapas attraktiva och hälsofrämjande arbetsplatser2009Inngår i: Dagens Juridik, nr 10 JunArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
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