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  • 1.
    Abeywardana, Asela Janaka
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Solar - Biomass hybrid system for process heat supply in medium scale hotels in Sri Lanka2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at evaluating and demonstrating the feasibility of using Concentrated Solar Thermal technology combined with biomass energy technology as a hybrid renewable energy system to supply the process heat requirements in small scale industries in Sri Lanka. Particularly, the focus was to apply the concept to the expanding hotel industry, for covering the thermal energy demand of a medium scale hotel.

    Solar modules utilize the rooftop area of the building to a valuable application. Linear Fresnel type of solar concentrator is selected considering the requirement of the application and the simplicity of fabrication and installation compared to other technologies. Subsequently, a wood-fired boiler is deployed as the steam generator as well as the balancing power source to recover the effects due to the seasonal variations in solar energy. Bioenergy, so far being the largest primary energy supply in the country, has a good potential for further growth in industrial applications like small hotels. 

    When a hotel with about 200-guests capacity and annual average occupancy of 65% is considered, the total annual CO2 saving is accounted as 207 tons compared with an entirely fossil fuel (diesel) fired boiler system. The annual operational cost saving is around $ 40,000 and the simple payback period is within 3-4 years. The proposed hybrid system can generate additional 26 employment opportunities in the proximity of the site location area.  

    This solar-biomass hybrid concept mitigates the weaknesses associated with these renewable technologies when employed separately. The system has been designed in such a way that the total heat demand of hot water and process steam supply is managed by renewable energy alone. It is thus a self-sustainable, non-conventional, renewable energy system. This concept can be stretched to other critical medium temperature applications like for example absorption refrigeration. The system is applicable to many other industries in the country where space requirement is available, solar irradiance is rich and a solid biomass supply is assured.    

  • 2.
    Abolghasemi Moghaddam, Saman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science.
    The effects of low-emissivity window films on thermal comfort and energy performance of a historic stone building in cold climate: computer simulations with "IDA ICE"2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Low-emissivity (low-E) window films are designed to improve the energy performance of windows and prevent indoor overheating by solar radiation. These films can be applied to different types of glazing units without the need for changing the whole window. This characteristic offers the possibility to improve the energy performance of the window of old and historic buildings for which preservation regulations say windows should remain more or less unchanged. This research aims to figure out to what extent a low-E window film can improve thermal comfort and energy performance of an old three-storey historic stone building in the cold climate of Mid-Sweden. In this research, first, with help of the simulation software “IDA ICE”, the entire building was modelled without window films in a one-year simulation. Second step was to add the low-E window films (3M Thinsulate Climate Control 75 (CC75)) to all the windows and repeat the simulation. Comparison between the results of the two cases revealed an improvement in energy use reduction as well as the thermal comfort when applying the films. For the application of the window films, a cost analysis using payback method was carried out which showed a long- time payback period. Although an investment with a long-time payback period is considered as a disadvantage, for historic buildings with very strict retrofit regulations specially when it comes to the building’s facades, application of the low-emissivity window films for better energy performance and thermal comfort is among the recommendable measures, but not necessarily the best.

  • 3.
    Aguirre Sánchez, Mikel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Air flow disturbance by moving objects at local exhaust ventilation2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis aims to study the effect of human movements on local exhaust ventilation.

    In its simplest terms, local exhaust ventilation is a system which has the function of extracting contaminated air situated close to the contaminant source, protecting a working person from exposure to hazardous substances by containing or capturing them locally, at the emission point. As an important security measure referred to terms of health, it is crucial for the healthiness of workers to control and prevent them from the exposure to vapour, mist, dust or other airborne contaminants. Additionally, to a lesser degree of significance, it can be stressed an expected increase in worker performance due to an improvement of the working conditions.

    There is an existing necessity for well-defined and appropriate methods to test the performance of local exhaust devices in order to reach standard efficiency values. The lack of an international standardization led to the realization of this study, which, ultimately, has the purpose of obtaining relevant results that can be utilized for future normalized test procedures.

    The study entails full scale experimental measurements that include air velocity measurements in 3 dimensions, a local exhaust ventilation device with circular hood and a flat flanged plate and a controlled generation of air turbulence through physical movements of a human-sized cylinder, simulating a walking person.

    The present study extends previous similar studies at the University of Gävle, where the controlled air turbulence was generated by a moving plate. After meaningful results obtained in that study, one of the considerations was to better simulate a walking person, by replacing the plate for a movable cylinder. The present study points at a larger similarity occurring with a cylinder than with a plate, as regards the air flow pattern produced by a real walking person.

    As in the previous study, the Percentage of Negative Velocities, PNV, has been used as the main measure of turbulence induced risk of contaminant spread. The PNV represents the fraction of the time when the flow is directed opposite to the suction air stream in front of the local exhaust hood. The obtained results conclude that the use of the cylinder as a moving object has been an improvement to simulate the effect of the movement of a human being on a relaxed walking pace.

    The present study was carried out in parallel with the thesis work by Leyre Catalán Ros, which complements this study by analyzing the effect of an added heated dummy, simulating a person seated in front of the local exhaust device.

  • 4.
    Ahlund, Viktor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energikartläggning av förskolan Smultronstället2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is an energy audit with recommended energy efficient solutions recommended made on a preschool in north Gävle. This preschool is administrated by Gavlefastigheter. In Sweden almost 40 % of Sweden’s energy supply goes to the housing and service sector. This means there is a lot of potential to save energy in this field. A good way to start saving energy in a building is to do an energy audit.This energy audit is made from blueprints of the building, real measurements, standard values, assumptions, and literature.The school has a calculated energy use of 1239 MWh per year; this is divided on ventilation, transmission losses and hot tap water. A calculation with energy efficient solutions makes a total of 612 MWh or 49, 4 % in saved energy. The energy efficient savings calculated are new windows, additional insulation and changed ventilation. To only change the ventilation made for an energy saving of 522 MWh which is 42, 1 % from the total energy use in the building. To change the ventilation to an FTX-system is the recommended change to be made.

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Basem
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Investigation of energy retrofits of a multi-family building by using IDA Simulation Software2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy simulation in building sector was an important issue which can eliminate energy use and improve energy efficiency. The building, which is located at Ringvägen 18 in Ljusdal community in Sweden, was chosen to be the main mission of this research and it was one of eleven objects which were involved in EKG project. First step was to create the model and simulate it to reach heating value of 117 MWh which was reached by EKG project. After getting validation value, many renovations were implemented and the heating value was reduced by 58.7% and the heating demand by 55.2%. Improving of energy use through prefabrication gave reduction of heating value of 70.4% and heating demand of 65.8%

    The LCC part was important issue because it gave clear vision and judgment about the economic and investment issue. The acceptability of the investment decision was decided by 198 answers which were responsible to judge if the investments were good or not. There were 22 types of different renovation and every type included 9 cases which depended on interesting rate and energy price factors. The result was 198 answers which were divided to 100 answers as “YES” for good investment and 98 answers as “NO” for good investment.

  • 6.
    Akander, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University.
    Assessing the Myths on Energy Efficiency When Retrofitting Multifamily Buildings in a Northern Region2017In: Sustainable High Rise Buildings in Urban Zones: Advantages, Challenges, and Global Case Studies / [ed] Ali Sayigh, Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2017, 1, p. 139-161Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the light of EU’s requirements to achieve a major cut in energy use by 2050, Sweden has the same target. The built environment must by 2020 reduce energy use by 20 and 50 % by 2050. The size of the future building stock will naturally increase and regardless of how energy efficient future buildings will be, the energy performance of the old stock must be improved in order to reach those goals. In major renovation projects involving multifamily buildings in large residential areas in the cities, 50 % reduction can be achieved. This is cost-effective and profitable even if the rent is increased.

    Gävleborg is a sparse region in the North, with few cities. Multifamily buildings are generally much smaller than in large cities and owners are reluctant to impose changes that increase rents due to the housing situation in the region. In consequence, the Regional Council and the University of Gävle set out to assess the potential and feasibility of reducing energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in this region’s multifamily buildings. Eleven real buildings were investigated, each having various ownership forms, different technical attributes and heating sources. Energy audits and measurements were conducted to assess the condition of each building. Performances of the buildings and proposed improvements were simulated with building energy simulation programs, whilst life cycle cost analyses were conducted to study viability. Carbon dioxide emission (CO2) reductions were estimated for each improvement.

    Based on the results, a concluding discussion is made on whether or not some myths on energy use and retrofitting are true. The following is concluded: It is possible to reach a 50 % reduction, but it is not economical with the costs involved and with today’s energy prices and moderate price increase over time.

    Retrofitting or improvements made in the building’s services systems (HVAC) are more economical than actions taken to improve performance of building by constructions. HVAC improvements give about 20 % reduction in energy use. However, mechanical ventilation systems with heat recuperation are not economical, though these may or may not substantially reduce use of thermal energy.

    Solar energy is, despite the latitude of the region, economically viable—especially PV solar energy. Photovoltaic panels (PVs) are becoming viable—the combination of PVs and district heating is beneficial since saving electricity is more important than thermal energy in district-heated areas.

  • 7.
    Al hamdany, Yarub
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Simulering och energieffektivisering för en kontorsbyggnad iForsmark2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The society changes rapidly and is heavily dependent on energy. The Energy usage in buildings account for about 40% of total Sweden's energy usage, where energy is used by buildings for electricity, cooling and heating. Therefore, energy is an important issue in today's society from an energy use approach to stop the global warming. In this work, a survey was carried out by an office building in Forsmark Kraftgrupp AB to find out about energy use and create a basis for energy-saving measures. The IDA ICE 4.7.1 program was used to simulate the building's energy use by creating a base model of the building. After that, the base model has been compared with different energy efficiency measures to check where the biggest and least energy saving potentials occur. The result shows that the total energy use in the office building is 198 125 kWh / year. The simulations show that energy efficiency measures could reduce energy use in the building by 81 962 kWh / year, which corresponds to 41.4% of the total energy use. Time control of ventilation systems gives the largest energy savings of 51, 2 kWh / m2, year.

  • 8.
    Alcheikh, Ahmad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Advantages and Challenges of Hemp Biodiesel Production: A comparison of Hemp vs. Other Crops Commonly used for biodiesel production2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing reliance on a fossil fuel is a major challenge to many advanced and developing economies. This is due to the fact that fossil fuel, a finite resource, is depleting at a rapid rate with increasing demand. Additionally, the burning of fossil fuel is responsible for the current climate change, as a result of produced greenhouse gas emissions. Lastly, developing alternative renewable fuels improves energy security and decreases vulnerability of fuel supply. This thesis work explores the advantages and challenges of hemp biodiesel production. The aim of this research is to present a comprehenive evaluation of these advantages and disadvantages in the way of large-scale production of biodiesel produced from hemp oil. The thesis work relies on relavent research paper in the field and reports from the industry. Industrial hemp, a variant of the Cannabis Sativa plant (Cannabis Sativa Linn), is an important industrial and nutritional crop. Hemp seed oil can be used to produce biodiesel though the process of transesterification. Oil from hemp seeds presents a viable feedstock option for biodiesel production. Hemp provides a competitively high yield compared to similar crops. Biodiesel from hemp seed oil exhibits superior fuel quality with the exception of the kinetic viscosity and oxidation stability parameters, which can be improved with the introduction of chemical additives. Hemp remains a “niche” crop in the food supply chain, which makes it prohibitively expensive a primary feedstock in biodiesel production. Legal and perception challenges remain a major challenge in the way of wide-scale hemp biodiesel production. 

  • 9.
    Alcoverro Colom, Pau
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    A new energy model for the Lakshadweep islands: Change from a diesel-based model to a hybrid model with renewable energy systems considering the ecological fragility of the islands2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Alonso Lozano, Alvaro
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Coal gasification in entrained flow gasifiers simulation & comparison2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Ameen, Arman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energianalys och energieffektivisering av en förskola: Söderskolan (Slottets förskola) i Gävle, simulering utförd genom IDA ICE 4.612014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bostad- och servicesektorn står för 38 % av Sveriges totala energianvändning. Av det här står bostäder och lokaler för 90 % av energianvändningen och nästan 60 % av det går till att värma upp byggnaderna och till varmvatten. Därför är det viktig att börja titta på den här sektorn och se om det finns möjlighet att spara på energianvändningen. I den här studien har en kartläggning gjorts av en gammal skolbyggnad för att kunna skapa ett underlag för energieffektiviseringsåtgärder. Genom att använda simuleringsprogrammet IDA ICE 4.61 har man skapat en basmodell av byggnaden som då används som simuleringsbas. Basmodellen har jämförts med fjärrvärmekostnader för att kunna verifieras. Därefter har man lagt in energieffektiviserar och tittat på vilka besparingar man har kommit fram till. Resultatet av den här studien visade att i den här byggnaden så är den mest effektiva åtgärden isolering av taket till vinden.

  • 12.
    Ameen, Arman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Larsson, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Experimental Investigation of Ventilation Performance of Different Air Distribution Systems in an Office Environment: Heating Mode2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 10, article id 1835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A vital requirement for all-air ventilation systems are their functionality to operate both in cooling and heating mode. This article experimentally investigates two newly designed air distribution systems, corner impinging jet (CIJV) and hybrid displacement ventilation (HDV) in comparison against a mixing type air distribution system. These three different systems are examined and compared to one another to evaluate their performance based on local thermal comfort and ventilation effectiveness when operating in heating mode. The evaluated test room is an office environment with two workstations. One of the office walls, which has three windows, faces a cold climate chamber. The results show that CIJV and HDV perform similar to a mixing ventilation in terms of ventilation effectiveness close to the workstations. As for local thermal comfort evaluation, the results show a small advantage for CIJV in the occupied zone. Comparing C2-CIJV to C2-CMV the average draught rate (DR) in the occupied zone is 0.3% for C2-CIJV and 5.3% for C2-CMV with the highest difference reaching as high as 10% at the height of 1.7 m. The results indicate that these systems can perform as well as mixing ventilation when used in offices that require moderate heating. The results also show that downdraught from the windows greatly impacts on the overall airflow and temperature pattern in the room.

  • 13.
    Ameen, Arman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Choonya, Gasper
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Experimental Evaluation of the Ventilation Effectiveness of Corner Stratum Ventilation in an Office Environment2019In: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 9, no 7, article id 169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study was conducted in a room resembling an office in a laboratory environment. The study involved investigating the ability of corner-placed stratum ventilation in order to evaluate the ventilation’s effectiveness and local thermal comfort. At fixed positions, the air temperature, air velocity, turbulence intensity, and tracer gas decay measurements were carried out. The results show that corner-placed stratum ventilation behaves very similar to a mixing ventilation system when considering air change effectiveness. The performance of the system was better at lower supply air flow rates for heat removal effectiveness. For the heating cases, the draught rates were all very low, with the maximum measured value of 12%. However, for the cooling cases, the maximum draught rate was 20% and occurred at ankle level in the middle of the room.

  • 14.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Economic and Environmental Benefits of CHP-based District Heating Systems in Sweden2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Future energy systems and thus the climate are affected by many factors, such as energy resources, energy demand, energy policy and the choice of energy technologies. Energy systems of the future are facing three main challenges; the steady growth of global energy demand, the energy resource depletion, as well as the increasing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases and their impact on climate change. To meet the mentioned challenges with sustainability in mind, actions that increase energy efficiency and choosing an energy-efficient energy system which is cost efficient will be essential. Combined heat and power (CHP) plants and district heating and cooling could contribute greatly to increased system efficiency by using energy otherwise wasted.

    The aim of this study is to increase the understanding of how CHP-based district heating and cooling systems using different primary energy sources can contribute to more cost-efficient energy systems, which reduce global CO2 emissions, and to highlight the impact of some important parameters and measures on Swedish municipal district heating systems. An important assumption in this study is the estimation of CO2 emissions from electricity production, which is based on marginal electricity perspectives. In the short term, the marginal electricity is assumed to come from coal-fired condensing power plants while in the long term it consists of electricity produced by natural gas-fired combined cycle condensing power plants. This means that the local electricity production will replace the marginal electricity production. The underlying assumption is an ideal fully deregulated European electricity market where trade barriers are removed and there are no restrictions on transfer capacity.

    The results show that electricity generation in CHP plants, particularly in higher efficiency combined steam and gas turbine heat and power plants using natural gas, can reduce the global environmental impact of energy usage to a great extent. The results confirm, through the scenarios presented in this study, that waste as a fuel in CHP-based district heating systems is fully utilised since it has the lowest operational costs. The results also show how implementation of a biogas-based CHP plant in a biogas system contributes to an efficient system, as well as lowering both CO2 emissions and system costs. The results show that replacing electricity-driven (e.g. compression) cooling by heat-driven cooling using district heating (e.g. absorption chillers) in a CHP system is a cost-effective and climate friendly technology as electricity consumption is reduced while at the same time the electricity generation will be increased. The results of the study also show that there is potential to expand district heating systems to areas with lower heat density, with both environmental and economic benefits for the district heating companies.

    The results reveal that the operation of a studied CHP-based district heating system with an imposed emission limit is very sensitive to the way CO2 emissions are accounted, i.e., local CO2 emissions or emissions from marginal electricity production. The results show how the electricity production increases in the marginal case compared with the local one in order to reduce global CO2 emissions. The results also revealed that not only electricity and fuel prices but also policy instruments are important factors in promoting CHP-based district heating and cooling systems. The use of electricity certificates has a large influence for the introduction of biogas-based cogeneration. Another conclusion from the modelling is that present Swedish policy instruments are strong incentives for cogeneration with similar impact as applying external costs.

  • 15.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Henning, Dag
    Optensys Energianalys, Linköping, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Björn G.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Simulation and introduction of a CHP plant in a Swedish biogas system2013In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 49, p. 242-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study are to present a model for biogas production systems to help achieve a more cost-effective system, and to analyse the conditions for connecting combined heat and power (CHP) plants to the biogas system. The European electricity market is assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of CHP. increased electricity and heat production, electricity prices, and electricity certificate trading is investigated. A cost-minimising linear programming model (MODEST) is used. MODEST has been applied to many energy systems, but this is the first time the model has been used for biogas production. The new model, which is the main result of this work, can be used for operational optimisation and evaluating economic consequences of future changes in the biogas system. The results from the case study and sensitivity analysis show that the model is reliable and can be used for strategic planning. The results show that implementation of a biogas-based CHP plant result in an electricity power production of approximately 39 GW h annually. Reduced system costs provide a profitability of 46 MSEK/year if electricity and heat prices increase by 100% and electricity certificate prices increase by 50%. CO2 emission reductions up to 32,000 ton/year can be achieved if generated electricity displaces coal-fired condensing power.

  • 16.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Weinberger, Gottfried
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Increased cogeneration of renewable electricity through energy cooperation in a Swedish district heating system - A case study2018In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 116, p. 866-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study of the district heating (DH) system in the city of Kisa, Sweden, shows how, through energy cooperation with a nearby sawmill and paper mill, a local energy company contributes to energy-efficient DH and cost-effective utilization of a new biofuel combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Cases of stand-alone and integrated energy systems are optimized with the linear program MODEST. The European power market is assumed to be fully deregulated. The results show clear advantages for the energy company to cooperate with these industries to produce heat for DH and process steam for industry. The cooperating industries gain advantages from heat and/or biofuel by-product supply as well. The opening to use a biofuel CHP plant for combined heat supply results in cogenerated electricity of almost 29 GWh/a with an increased biofuel use of 13 GWh/a, zero fuel oil use and CO2 emission reductions of 25,800 tons CO2/a with coal-condensing power plant on the margin and biofuel as limited resource. The total system cost decreases by −2.18 MEUR/a through extended cooperation and renewable electricity sales. The sensitivity analysis shows that the profitability of investing in a biofuel CHP plant increases with higher electricity and electricity certificate prices.

  • 17.
    Andersson, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Olsson, Philip
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Hur kan en skola med högre energianvändning än det svenska genomsnittet energieffektiviseras?: Energikartläggning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union as a whole is one of the largest energy users and has one of the world's largest greenhouse gas emissions. To reduce global warming, targets have been set to ensure that the average temperature on the earth does not increase more than 2 degrees since the pre-industrial time. Nearly 40% of Sweden's total energy use comes from the building and services sector which in context with that the 2020 targets approaching contributes to the increased need of higher energy efficiency of buildings. Energy audits is a tool for determining what has the greatest potential for saving energy before efficiency measures occurs.

    The thesis includes an energy audit of Trödje primary and middle school, administered by Gavlefastigheter. The study was performed using IDA Indoor Climate and Energy simulation tool. IDA ICE was used to modulate the existing building where all data for the school was included. The vision of the thesis is to investigate how much energy which is possible to save through energy saving measures and which action that is most effective.

    The potential energy saving in the school is high, the school uses 42.6 kWh/m2year more than the average for Gavlefastigheter schools, which corresponds to 21 %. The results show that the complexity of the school and the reconstruction, also called the paviljong, are a major factor in the high energy consumption. The school's energy use has a potential to decrease by 17 %, which did not correspond to the 25 % target set for the work. The work shows that the greatest savings potential exists through the exchange of windows and heat exchangers in the ventilation system, but also that the measures that are assumed to give the greatest savings are not always the most effective.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Harald
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Energy-Saving Measures in a Classroom Using Low Pressure Drop Ceiling Supply Device: A Field Study2016In: 2016 ASHRAE Winter Conference Papers, ASHRAE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 1990 and 2006 the energy use by ventilation systems in Swedish schools doubled. This is explained by high airflows in schools because of the high occupant density. Studies show that 87% of Swedish schools use constant air volume (CAV), and it is estimated that a change to variable air volume (VAV) could save 0.12-0.33 TWh (4.1*10(12) - 1.1*10(13) Btu) per year. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate whether it is possible to replace displacement ventilation (DV) with mixing ventilation (MV) to create a comfortable indoor climate in a typical classroom and at the same time decrease the energy use by using VAV and Low Pressure Drop Ceiling Supply Device (LPDCSD). The study used two LPDCSDs which consist of circular channels with 190/228 round jets placed in an interlocking pattern, with a horizontal one/two-way-direction. The field study was carried out in a school which is intended to be extensively renovated. The school currently has DV and CAV. The study was carried out by installing MV with LPDCSD in one of the typical classrooms. Several different air-flow rates were investigated using tracer-gas technology to measure the local mean age of the air in the occupied zone. Simultaneously, thermal comfort and vertical temperature gradients were measured in the room. The results show nearly uniform distribution of the local mean age of air in the occupied zone, even in the cases of relatively low air-flow rates. Since the mixing of air is more or less the same in the entire occupied zone VAV can be used to reduce air-flow rate based on the desired CO2-level. Because of the number of students in each classroom and the fact that changes in air-flow rates have no significant effect on the degree of mixing, it is possible to reduce the air-flow rates for extended periods of time. Finally, since the LPDCSD has a lower pressure-drop than the currently used supply devices and it is possible to use VAV to lower the airflows in cases with reduced heat loads, it is possible to significantly reduce the energy usage in the school while maintaining the IAQ, increasing the thermal comfort and the available floor area of the occupied zone.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Berge, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Energi- och miljökonsekvenser vid energieffektivisering av belysning och installation av solceller på Nacka Forum i Stockholm2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of energy is increasing worldwide and due to the threat of global warming more and more discussions are made about how the consumption could be reduced and at the same time more sustainable solutions is requested.Buildings consume 40 % of the total global energy where most of it comes from fossil fuels. To reduce the impact of the environment the EU (European Union) has set several goals for that where one is reducing its CO2-emission with 20 % compared to 2008 by the year 2020. One way to do so is from using more efficient technology. This work was made to reduce Nacka Forums electricity bills and that after it had been requested of their owner Unibail-Rodamco. The authors have only looked for solution in areas which the property owners are responsible for like services areas and public spaces. Ideas for reducing their energy use were obtained through studying literature. That study also showed that shopping malls use a lot of energy, especially electricity which mostly is consumed by the building’s lighting. Something that is becoming increasingly more common on buildings is solar cells. Solar cells do not only cut the electricity costs but also decreases the demand on fossil fuels. The shopping mall seemed to have good conditions for such an installation so an investigation was made to see if that could be useful. A plant with a power of 100 kWp was calculated to need 920 m2 roof surface and would yearly produce 93 534 kWh which the authors conclude that it would be a good investment and also highlights that an even bigger plant should be considered. After observing the lights two new solutions were proposed where LED-lamps was considered to be the best source for replacement. Just changing all the light sources would cut the electricity costs a lot but since the existing luminaires was considered to be at the end of their technical lifetime the best solution would therefore be to change both luminaires and light sources. Such solution would decrease the energy use with 544,4 MWh/year and has a payback period of 3,3 years. That energy saving would decrease the CO2-emission with 218 ton/year.This work shows that regardless of which solution that is chosen both of them would decrease the energy use and CO2-emission with 50 %.One of the stores in the shopping mall was using a lot of light which caused problem with the thermal comfort. Despite that, the store does not exceed the limit of 50 W/m2 that is set from the property owner. Such low requirements might hinder any efforts to reduce the energy use and also contribute to unnecessary heat.

  • 20.
    Antón, Raúl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; TECHUN, University of Navarra, San Sebastián, Spain.
    Jonsson, Hans
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för energi- och maskinteknik.
    Detailed CFD modelling of EMC screen for radio base stations: A conjugate heat transfer problem2007In: International Journal of Heat Exchangers, ISSN 1524-5608, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 95-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to perform an experimental as well as CFD investigations of the conjugate heat transfer problem in a sub-rack slot model. A steady-state three-dimensional detailed model, which serves as the most accurate representation of the model, was used in order to evaluate the details of the airflow paths and temperature field. A general model that covers a considerable range of velocities, screen porosities and heat fluxes was validated experimentally by wind tunnel measurements. The result shows that the RNG k-ε model used with correct y+ and mesh strategy accurately predicts the temperature field. The average temperature deviation at several locations is less than 4% compared to experimental data. The influence of the velocity, screen porosity, heat flux and presence of the EMC screen on the PCB temperature field is commented. © 2007 R.T. Edwards, Inc.

  • 21.
    Arcos Usero, Lucía
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Analysis and improvements of outdoor hot benches in Gävle2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Five exterior hot benches have been installed in Gävle, in Kyrkogatan street by the company Gävle Energi with the aim of achieving the wellnes of people that sit on them. This system uses the residual heat from the district heating, representing consequently a non-polluting system. However, the temperature desired on the surface, 35°C is not always achieved before different exterior conditions. For this reason, Gävle Energi is interested in carrying out a study about enhancements that could be made in the system in order to take them into account for future projects of this kind of technology.

     

    The aim of this project is analysing if it would be possible to achieve the requirements established by Gävle Energi, changing with this objective all the necessary system parameters of the current system such as diameter of the pipes, materials, number of turns... These requirements consist of working with a supply temperature of 40, 45 and 50°C when the exterior conditions are 0, -5 and -10°C respectively, accomplishing always 35°C on the surface. Moreover, in case that it was not possible, providing the company with the characteristics of the system that would make the system as efficient as possible, specifying for different exterior temperatures the mass flow, pressure drop, velocity and needed power.

     

    The study has been developed by different simulations with the software COMSOL, whose use requires a high knowledge on heat transfer. After several simulations, it has been checked that it is not possible to accomplish the requirements established by the company. However, a new more efficient design has been designed because the supply temperatures of the system to accomplish an average temperature of around 35°C on the surface have been minimised. For that, several changes have been carried out. The number of pipes turns have been increased from 12 to 17, their total diameter from 20mm to 30mm and the distance between the centres of the pipes from 5.5cm to 4cm. The 2mm of outer plastic thickness of the pipes has been replaced by copper and the height of the pipes has been moved 2cm upwards.

     

    With all these changes, the final length of the pipes inner the stones has a value of 40.6m and the supply temperatures reach 46, 47 and 49°C for the 0,-5 and -10°C exterior conditions respectively. Apart from the supply temperatures for the study cases, the ones necessary to accomplish always the temperature desired on the surface for other exterior temperatures have been provided together with the amount of power necessary, velocity flow, volumetric flow and pressure drop for all the different cases. These values would allow the company to work always at the optimum point as well as to design the heat pump for the system.

  • 22.
    Arnaiz Remiro, Lierni
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Modelling and assessment of energy performance with IDA ICE for a 1960's Mid-Sweden multi-family apartment block house2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis has been carried out during the spring of 2017 on behalf of Gavlegårdarna AB. This is a public housing company in Gävle (Sweden) which is a large energy consumer, over 200 million SEK per year, and has the ambitious goal of reduce its energy consumption by 20 % between 2009 and 2020. Many multi-family apartment blocks were built during the "million programme" in the 60’s and 70’s when thermal comfort was the priority and not the energy saving. Nevertheless, this perspective has changed and old buildings from that time have been retrofitted lately, but there are many left still. In fact, one of these buildings will be retrofitted in the near future so a valid model is needed to study the energy saving measures to be taken. The aim of this thesis is to get through a calibration process to obtain a reliable and valid model in the building simulation program IDA ICE 4.7.1. Once this has been achieved it will be possible to carry out the building’s energy performance assessment. IDA ICE has shown some limitations in terms of thermal bridges which has accounted for almost 15 % of total transmission heat losses. For this reason, it is important to make a detailed evaluation of certain joints between elements for which heat losses are abundant. COMSOL Multiphysics® finite element software has been used to calculate these transmittances and then use them as input to IDA ICE to carry out the simulation.

    Through an evidence-based methodology, although with some sources of uncertainty, such as, occupants’ behaviour and air infiltration, a valid model has been obtained getting almost the same energy use for space heating than actual consumption with an error of 4% (Once the standard value of 4 kWh/m2 for the estimation of energy use in apartments' airing has been added). The following two values have been introduced to IDA ICE: household electricity and the energy required for heating the measured volume of tap water from 5 °C to 55 °C. Assuming a 16 % of heat losses in the domestic hot water circuit, which means that part of the heat coming from hot water heats up the building. This results in a lower energy supply for heating than the demanded value from IDA ICE. Main heat losses have been through transmission and infiltration or openings. Windows account 11.4 % of the building's envelope, thus the losses through the windows has supposed more than 50 % of the total transmission losses. Regarding thermal comfort, the simulation shows an average Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD) of 12 % in the worst apartment. However, the actual value could be considerably lower since the act of airing the apartments has not been taken into account in the simulation as well as the strong sun's irradiation in summer which can be avoided by windows shading. So, it could be considered an acceptable level of discomfort. To meet the National Board of Housing Building and Planning, (Boverket) requirements for new or rehabilitated buildings, several measures should be taken to improve the average thermal transmittance and reduce the specific energy use. Among the energy saving measures it might be interesting replace the windows to 3 pane glazing, improve the ventilation system to heat recovery unit, seal the joints and intersections where thermal bridges might be or add more insulation in the building’s envelope.

  • 23.
    Arrese Foruria, Ander
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Analysis of a Low Energy Building with District Heating and Higher Energy Use than Expected2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis project, a building in Vegagatan 12, Gävle has been analysed. The main objective has been to find why it consumes more energy than it was expected and to solve theoretically the problems.This building is a low energy building certified by Miljöbyggnad which should use less than 55kWh/m2 year and nowadays it is using 62.23 kWh/m2. In order to find why the building is using more energy than the expected several different things has been measured and analyzed.First of all, the heat exchanger of the ventilation unit has been theoretically examined to see if it works as it should and it does. This has been done using the definition of the heat exchangers.Secondly, the heating system has been analysed by measuring the internal temperature of the building and high temperatures have been found (around 22°C) in the apartments and in the corridors. This leads to 5-10% more use of energy per degree.Thirdly, the position and the necessity of all the heaters have been checked. One of the heaters may not make sense, at least in the way the building has been constructed. This leads to bigger heating needs than the expected.Fourthly, the taps and shower heads have been checked to see if they were efficient. Efficient taps and shower heads, reduce the hot water use up to 40%. The result of this analysis has been that all taps and shower heads are efficient.Fifthly, the hot water system has been studied and some heat losses have been found because the lack of insulation of several pipes. Because of this fact 8.37kWh/m2 are lost per year. This analysis has been carried out with the help of an infra red camera and a TA SCOPE.Sixthly, the theoretical and real U values of the different walls have been obtained and compared (concrete and brick walls). As a conclusion, the concrete wall has been well constructed but, the brick wall has not been well constructed. Because of this fact 1 kWh/m2 of heat are lost every year. Apart from that, windows and thermal bridges have also been checked.

  • 24.
    Backlund, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Efficient improvement of energy efficiency in small and medium-sized Swedish firms2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a dissertation about efficient implementation of energy efficiency measures in small and medium-sized Swedish firms. The aim is to investigate the potential for economically efficient implementation of energy efficiency improvement measures in small and medium-sized firms. The thesis contains five papers that analyse different aspects that have been put forth in policy documents and academic debate as  methods to improve energy efficiency in non-energy intensive sectors.

    By reading policy documents, interviewing representatives of small and medium- sized firms and energy auditors as well as analysing data from the Swedish energy audit program, different aspects of energy management practices, energy services and energy audits are considered. The thesis is the product of an interdisciplinary context but economic theory is at the foundation of the analysis and has helped formulate questions and hypotheses that have been tested and explored with the data.

    The results show that while the potential for improving energy efficiency in the small and medium- sized sector in Sweden is large there are challenges to realizing it in each individual firm. There is potential for improving energy efficiency in the sector and not just for investments in new technology but also for adjusting existing machinery and changing behaviour, but costs for investigating the potential and implementing the measures are large relative to the improvement potential in each company. Energy management practices in this sector are lacking and energy services will only be demanded if reduction in production cost is estimated larger than transaction costs of the service. The Swedish energy audit program has led to the implementation of energy efficiency improvements in the participating firms but compared to other policy instruments it has been a less cost-efficient way to improve energy efficiency in Sweden.

  • 25.
    Baena Juan, Cristian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Comparison of the performance of silicon and thin film solar cells at the laboratory of the University of Gävle2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The huge environmental awareness emerging last years by reason of global warming and greenhouse effect, on one hand, and the need of finding other sources of energy production and conversion due to the declining of fossil resources and the increasing cost of this kind of energy resource, on the other hand, both have led position renewable energies as a powerful alternative on the energy production and conversion.

    PV-systems have emerged at an exponential rate in recent year as the main candidate and a satisfactory possibility with respect to environmental and economic sustainability.

    Nowadays, the large volume on photovoltaic market is currently dominated by four types of solar cells, divided by the semiconductor material used to absorb light and convert the energy into electricity: (1) crystalline silicon (monocrystalline and polycrystalline), (2) amorphous silicon, (3) CIGS and (4) cadmium telluride; and among them, monocrystalline silicon and CIGS technologies are installed on the building 45 of the University of Gävle, at the south face of the laboratory.

    In this context and with the motivation to contribute knowledge on PV field, a comparison between single crystal solar technology and thin film CIGS technology has carried out through f ratio and performance ratio procedures in order to perform an assessment of the energy conversion of each one under field conditions.

    A logger monitors the power conversion from the PV modules since June 2014 while two pyranometers monitor global and diffuse solar radiation since March 2016. It must take into account that only clear sunny days have been considered during a period from 8:00 to 14:00 in order to avoid shadows effect on the PV systems.

    The results come to conclude that single crystal silicon modules present a better behavior with respect to energy conversion under no shadows effect conditions by two reason: (1) f ratio, relationship of PV conversion per kW (PV yield) between CIGS and single crystal silicon, is about 87.25% with some variations along a day due to ambient temperature, cell temperature and incidence angle; (2) PV module's performance ratio of monocrystalline silicon modules is higher than thin film CIGS ones during a sunny day about 87.56% and 76.38%, respectively; and they are consistent with usual performance ratio values between 80% and 90% since 2010 onwards.

    In light of the outcome and in order to confirm these conclusions, it intends to launch a project with the objective of evaluating the data collected and compare the performance of the module after a year of measurements outdoors by the PV module's performance ratio procedure.

    Along the same lines, the next step of the University of Gävle will be to launch a project with the objective of evaluating the potential to be self-sufficient.

  • 26.
    Bahilo Rodríguez, Edgar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Power Plant Operation Optimisation: Unit commitment of gas turbines using Machine Learning and MILP programming2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27.
    Bahilo Rodríguez, Edgar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Swedish and Spanish electricity market: Comparison, improvements, price forecasting and a global future perspective2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to make a comparison between the Swedish and Spanish electricity market, the design of new improvements that could achieve a better operation for both markets as well as the price forecasting for both spot markets. These enhancements are oriented to decrease electricity prices, energy use and the system CO2 emissions.

    Also, the main organizations of the market and their roles has been characterized, clarifying the functions of the Market Operator and the System Operator. In addition, the different markets, the trading products and the price formation have been explained and the picture of the market structure has been achieved with enough depth.

    Moreover, some of the most used methods in Time Series Analysis has been enumerated to understand which techniques are needed for forecast the electricity prices and the methodology used (Box-Jenkins Method) has been explained in detail. Later, all these methods have been implemented in an own code developed in Python 3.6 (TSAFTools .py) with the help of different statistics libraries mentioned during the method chapter.

    On the other hand, the description of the market situation has been carried out for both countries. Power installed capacity, electricity generation, average prices, main renewable technologies and policies to increase the renewable energy share has been analysed and corresponding described.

    Then, to estimate the market’s future spot electricity prices, ARIMA models have been selected to analyse the evolution of the day-ahead price using the TSAFTools.py. The final models show a proper performance in the two markets, especially in the Nordpool, achieving an RMSE: 37.68 and MAPE: 7.75 for the year in 2017 in Nordpool and a RMSE: 270.08 and MAPE: 20.24 in OMIE for 2017. Nordpool spot prices from 2015 to 2016 has been analysed too but obtaining a result not as good as the year 2017 with an RMSE: 49.01 and MAPE: 21.42.

    After this analysis, the strengths and weaknesses of both markets are presented and the main problems of the Spanish electricity system (power overcapacity, fuel dependency, non-cost-efficient renewable energies policies, lack of interconnexion capacity etc.) and the Swedish electricity system (dependency for nuclear power, uncertainty for solar electricity Generation) are presented.

    Finally, due to the quick development of the energy sector in the last years and the concern of the European Committee to reach a new design for the electricity market, different kinds of recommendations for the future have been considered.

  • 28.
    Barguilla Jiménez, Núria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    The effect of a thin foil on the heat losses behind a radiator2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    This thesis work is the study of the effect of an aluminium foil on the losses that produced by a radiator, situated under a window, through the wall behind it. The reason behind this topic is due to the energy problem and the different goals that governments have set up to try to reduce the use of energy. For example, more specifically a Swedish national goal is to decrease the energy use of the built stock with 50% by 2050.

     

    For this purpose, an experimental set-up was built in the University of Gävle, Sweden. The arrangement was composed by a radiator and a window facing a climate chamber. A total of twenty-one temperatures and two heat fluxes in the exterior wall were measured in the set-up. Ten different measurement scenarios with different radiator temperature, 40°C, 50°C and 60°C; two different distance between the radiator and the wall, 5 and 9 centimetres and with and without the aluminium foil, were performed.

     

    With the experimental results, a CFD model was validated. Two different models were done, first a 2D model and afterwards a 3D model. For the turbulence, the chosen model was standard k-ε model. There were 54 cases simulated with the 2D model and the 3D model was used just for validation. The cases had different variables such as radiator temperature, outdoor temperature and wall insulation. With these cases, analysis of the effectiveness of the presence of an aluminium foil behind the radiator is performed to evaluate if there is a significant reduction of the losses.

     

    The results showed with both methods that the aluminium foil reduces the losses of the wall behind the radiator. The savings varied depending on the boundary conditions of the case and it were obtained a maximum of 4% and a minimum of 1,3%.

  • 29.
    Barroeta, Ander
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Design of a ventilation system for carbon dioxide reduction in two gym rooms2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is mainly focused on the improving and design of the ventilation system of two rooms at different levels of a gym (Friskis and Svettis in Gävle, Sweden) to reduce the  concentration to never be higher than 1000 ppm.

    For this purpose, several field measurements were performed in different locations and situations. Two main measurements were necessary. On one hand, the  level in different parts of the rooms during different activities. On the other hand, the air flow through the inlet and outlet ducts of the ventilation system. It was also important to take into account the indoor temperature and humidity. These measurements were enough to analyze the failures of the system and to recognize the worst points of each room.

    Comparing both rooms, the necessity of changing the ventilation system in one of these rooms was much higher, due to there were measured  values up to 3000 ppm during a typical day in the gym.

    With this information the consequences of high CO2 levels in human people were analyzed. Among various ventilation systems, displacement ventilation system was proposed as the new design. Theoretical calculations were made to reach to the value of 31.8  in the air change rate (ACH), which was the necessary value for the new design to keep the carbon dioxide level under 1000 ppm.

  • 30.
    Batista, Rúben
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering. University of gävle.
    The impact of shadowing in photovoltaic systems and how to minimize it: An analysis with the PVsyst Software2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 31.
    Bayo, Oihane
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Economic and Environmental Analysis of PV Electricity Storage in Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable energies, and among them solar photovoltaics, are becoming more important in the last years due to the lack of fossil fuels and the environmental impact of them. PV installed capacity is increasing over and over in some countries and the prices of the installation are decreasing while the prices of the electricity are predicted to increase. Electricity use in buildings account for an important part of all electricity use in the world. This two facts make the PV installation in the rooftops of buildings a good opportunity to reduce the purchase of electricity from the grid.

     

    The aim of the thesis is to analyze the profitability and the environmental impact (when using a hot water accumulator) of a PV system with different storage systems placed in the rooftop of two dwellings located in Gävle (Sweden). The storage systems can be either batteries or hot water accumulators. The purpose of the storage system is to increase the self-consumption rate of the PV system and to save the highest amount of money possible. It is also studied the difference of installing PbA and Li-ion batteries, and the reliability of the data used in the simulation of the alternative systems with the help of the software PVsyst.

     

    Results show that the profitability of the proposed three alternative PV systems with storage is not higher than the PV system without storage. The reason for this has been found in the low prices of electricity and DH nowadays. Moreover, the impact of decreasing the heating demand from DH network does not benefit the environment, because the electricity has to be produced in power plants that produce more pollutants. It can be said also that the data obtained in PVsyst has been determined reliable and that the difference between the two types of batteries is not conclusive.

     

    It can be concluded that if the cost of the PV systems or the batteries would decrease, the profitability will be higher. Furthermore, the increase in the price of electricity, DH or governmental subsidies would improve the results. 

  • 32.
    Bergman, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Ekonomisk och miljömässig värdering av en sänkt returtemperatur i ett fjärrvärmenät: En studie av ett fjärrvärmenät i Bollnäs2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For district heating companies it is extremely important that the heat they produce is utilized as efficiently as possible by their customers. However, there are a lot of problems with customers heat exchangers, which create obstacles to this goal. The heat exchangers tend to send a certain amount of uncooled water back to the district heating plant. Round passages and drain valves are other examples of problem areas in a district heating network.

     

    Bollnäs Energi AB wants to review how the district heating network and production facility in Bollnäs would be affected economically and environmentally if the return temperature dropped. What primarily is dealt with in this report is how it would affect the flue gas condenser.

     

    Flue gas condensation is when the amount of energy that has been used to produce steam by the moisture in the fuel during combustion again becomes liquid. This amount of energy is being utilized by heat exchanging it with the district heating network return line. It is simplistic to say that the lower the return temperature, the higher the effect output will be made possible from the flue gas condenser.

     

    If 1 MWh of energy is extracted from the flue gas condenser, that is 1 MWh less that needs to be burned in the company's boilers. If there are several boilers running simultaneously operated with different fuels, it is the fuel that has the highest cost that will be saved into. However, it can cause problems when the boiler is loaded into a cogeneration unit, ie, that it produces both heat and electricity, because even electricity production will then be reduced.

     

    Data has been collected from the company's logs and a simulated reduction in the return temperature has been made. This has demonstrated that lowering the return temperature by one degree would lead to a saving of approximately 442 000 SEK per year.

     

    When this "free energy" comes from flue gas condenser instead from waste or oil combustion so it also becomes a major environmental gain. Therefore, the amount of energy from the flue gas condensation was compared with if the same amount of energy would have been produced by burning waste or oil. The calculations show that the same reduction as above would reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 378 and 762 tonnes per year respectively.

  • 33. Bernardo, Ricardo
    et al.
    Davidsson, Henrik
    Gentile, Niko
    Gomes, João
    Solarus Sunpower AB.
    Gruffman, Christian
    Chea, Luis
    Chabu, Mumba
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Measurements of the Electrical Incidence Angle Modifiers of an Asymmetrical Photovoltaic/Thermal Compound Parabolic Concentrating-Collector2013In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 5, p. 37-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reflector edges, sharp acceptance angles and by-pass diodes introduce large variations in the electrical performance of asymmetrical concentrating photovoltaic/thermal modules over a short incidence angle interval. It is therefore important to quantify these impacts precisely. The impact on the electrical performance of the optical properties of an asymmet-rical photovoltaic/thermal CPC-collector was measured in Maputo, Mozambique. The measurements were carried out with the focus on attaining a high resolution incidence angle modifier in both the longitudinal and transversal directions, since large variations were expected over small angle intervals. A detailed analysis of the contribution of the diffuse radiation to the total output was also carried out. The solar cells have an electrical efficiency of 18% while the maxi-mum measured electrical efficiency of the collector was 13.9 % per active glazed area and 20.9 % per active cell area, at 25 °C. Such data make it possible to quantify not only the electrical performance for different climatic and operating conditions but also to determine potential improvements to the collector design. The electrical output can be increased by a number of different measures, e.g. removing the outermost cells, turning the edge cells 90°, dividing each receiver side into three or four parts and directing the tracking, when used, along a north-south axis.

  • 34.
    Berner Wik, Petter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Värmereglering utifrån byggnadens tidskonstant i en värmetrög fastighet: Prognostiseringar utav värmeenergianvändningen och dess ekonomiska kostnader2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to continue the development towards a more sustainable city of Gävle, Gävle Energi AB will implement a new season-based capacity model by the year 2019. It creates economic incentives for energy efficiency in real estate’s within Gävle's district heating network.

    This report investigates how the heat energy is used for a building that risks an increased heat energy cost, due to the new pricing model. The aim of the study is to reduce the heat energy usage without investing in the building, which is made possible by regulating the thermal energy supply to the building.

    By programming one year of historical data of temperatures, solar radiation, power- and heat effects the heat supply is forecasted the same way as the building's control system Kabona Eco-pilot is working. The control system applies a floating indoor temperature, which contribute that the thermal inertia of the building is included in the heat load control.

    The study includes two forecasts that are compared to the actual heat energy use and the new capacity price model. Forecast 1 is based on an annual cycle and forecast 2 is based on the range of November 2017 to Mars 2018. The aim of forecast 2 is to apply a strategic heat load control to reduce the heat capacity needed at -10˚C.

    Forecast 1 indicates a potential heat energy saving of 26% even though Diös Fastigheter AB does not invest in any energy saving technology. A saving of approximately 44 700 SEK is forecasted for the annual cycle. The building has an energy class D and has the potential to achieve energy class C after the change of control system parameters.

    Forecast 2 indicates a potential capacity reduction corresponding to 46,1% while the variable heat energy consumption decreases. Overall, there is an approximated heat energy saving potential of 47,8%, which corresponds to 216 700 SEK, during the range of 2017-11-01 to 2018-03-31. Due to the consequence of a lower indoor temperature.

  • 35.
    Blomqvist, Claes
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Conversion of Electric Heating in Buildings: an Unconventional Alternative2008In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 40, no 12, p. 2188-2195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To decrease the electric energy used for heating buildings it has become desirable to convert direct electrical heating to other heat sources. This paper reports on a study of the possibility of using an unconventional method for conversion to avoid installing an expensive hydronic system. The conversion method combines the ventilation and heating systems and uses air instead of water for distribution of heat within the building, taking advantage of thermal forces and the special properties of gravity currents. Full-scale tests have been carried out in a test apartment inside a laboratory hall where the conditions could be controlled. Temperatures and efficiency of ventilation have been measured to ensure that the demands with respect to thermal climate and air exchange were fulfilled. The results show that it is possible to use the method for heating and ventilation when converting the heating system, but further work has to be done to develop a detailed solution that works in practice.

  • 36.
    Blomqvist, Claes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Air Movements through Horizontal Openings in Buildings: A Model Study2004In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A building contains a number of large openings like doors and staircases. When the temperature of the spaces connected by these openings differs, the difference in density will cause air movements through them. Horizontal air movements through vertical openings in buildings like doors and windows are well investigated while studies of air movements through horizontal openings like stairwells are less frequent and therefore this work is focusing on this case.

    The paper reports on an experimental study of the possibility of using buoyancy forces to distribute air and heat through horizontal openings. The experiments have been carried out in a scale model with water as the operating fluid.

    The result of the study shows that the flow rate through a horizontal opening is roughly half of the flow rate through a vertical opening for the same conditions, probably caused by the more complex flow pattern in the horizontal opening. A staircase below the horizontal opening will guide the flow somewhat and will cause a small increase of the fluid exchange through the opening.

  • 37.
    Blomqvist, Stefan
    et al.
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Analyzing the performance and control of a hydronic pavement system in a district heating network2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 11, article id 2078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hydronic pavement system (HPS) is an alternative method to clear snow and ice, which avoids the use of salt, sand, and fossil fuel in conventional snow clearance, and minimizes the risk of accidents. The aim is to analyze the performance of different control strategies for a 35,000 m2 HPS utilizing heat from a district heating and cooling (DHC) system. The key performance indicators are (1) energy performance of the HPS, and (2) primary energy use, (3) electricity production and (4) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the DHC system. The methodology uses a simulation model of the HPS and an optimization model of the DHC system. Three operational strategies are analyzed: A reference scenario based on the current control strategy, and scenarios where the HPS is shut down at temperatures below −10 ◦C and −5 ◦C. The study shows that the DHC return temperature is suitable for use. By operational strategies, use during peak demand in the DHC system can be avoided, resulting in reduced use of fossil fuel. Moreover, the energy use of the HPS could be reduced by 10% and the local GHG emissions by 25%. The study emphasizes that the HPS may have positive effects on global GHG emissions, as it enables electricity production from renewable resources. 

  • 38.
    Bodell, Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Åhlander, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Energianalys av byggnad med installerat ångsystem för matlagningsprocesser: Kan ånga vara mer effektivt än el för matlagning?2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a great need to reduce energy use in the world. By reducing energy demand, this reduces the negative environmental impact. In a constantly growing world, where it is built at an ever faster pace, the energy demand also increases. By increasing energy efficiency inexisting buildings, energy requirements may stagnate or even decrease despite expansion. By increasing energy efficiency, more of the energy demand can be used instead of standing for energy losses.

    Fortifikationsverket has a building they believe use too much energy. This building contains a restaurant that uses a steam system to heat its food, which makes the building's energy system unique. In order to reduce the energy consumption of the building, an energy audit is completed and analyzed in this report. This case study is conducted with a literature study to develop the knowledge in the field. Then measurements in the building are performed which are subsequently analyzed and presented to indicate any deviations and deficiencies.

    During the work it was discovered that a fuse was incorrectly installed to measure the electricity consumption of one of the boilers. By correcting this in order to be able to bill correctly, Fortifikationsverket saves almost 170,000 SEK per year as the boiler goes. In addition to this, the steam system was analyzed and estimates were made to respond if steam is more effective than electricity for cooking. It turns out that the steam system can be effective if a large amount of food is cooked. Considering nights, weekends and days when less food is cooked, electrical equipment is more effective because it completely turns off when not in use. Unlike the steam system that has to cover the energy losses to keep temperature and pressure, even when the system is not in use. By replacing the steam system with equivalent electrical equipment, it couldsave 205 MWh/year, according to estimates.The steam system accounts for 35% of the building's total electricity demandand is the largest item for energy use and is therefore the most focused area.

    In addition to the steam system, other energy usage was analyzed to provide energy savings. Many of the proposals are based on certain estimates and assumptions which must be considered. Some examples of savings that can be made is lowering the indoor temperature to save 50 MWh/year, install additional windows to save up to 140 MWh/year, install more efficient cooling units -200 MWh/year, install better ventilation control systems-50 MWh/year, install better controls for indoor lighting -40 MWh/year.

  • 39.
    Brunke, Jean-Christian
    et al.
    Institute for Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER), University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany .
    Johansson, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Empirical investigation of barriers and drivers to the adoption of energy conservation measures, energy management practices and energy services in the Swedish iron and steel industry2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 509-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish iron and steel industry is focused on the production of advanced steel grades and accounts for about 5% of the country's final energy consumption. Energy efficiency is according to the European Commission a key element for the transition towards a resource-efficient economy. We investigated four aspects that are associated with the adoption of cost-effective energy conservation measures: barriers, drivers, energy management practices and energy services. We used questionnaires and follow-up telephone interviews to collect data from members of the Swedish steel association. The heterogeneous observations implied a classification into steel producers and downstream actors. For testing the significance, the Mann–Whitney U test was used. The most important barriers were internal economic and behavioural barriers. Energy service companies, in particular third-party financing, played a minor role. In contrast, high importance was attached to energy management as the most important drivers originated from within the company. Energy management practices showed that steel companies are actively engaged in the topic, but need to raise its prioritisation and awareness within the organisation. When sound energy management practices are included, the participants assessed the cost-effective energy conservation potential to be 9.7%, which was 2.4% higher than the potential for solely adopting cost-effective technologies.

  • 40.
    Buccolieri, R.
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy.
    Wigö, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Sabatino, S. D.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Italy.
    On the drag force distribution over arrays of cubical buildings: Wind tunnel experiments2017In: HARMO 2017 - 18th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Proceedings, Hungarian Meteorological Service , 2017, p. 384-388Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss the distribution of drag force along aligned arrays of cubes of different packing density. The distribution is evaluated via wind tunnel measurements performed on individual cubes located along the middle column of the array using a balance provided by a standard load cell. Results are compared with the drag force estimated by a pressure-derived method and clearly show a change of the distribution of the drag force. The force is uniform at low packing densities, while mostly acting on first rows of the arrays at large packing densities. This work leaves room for research tailored to a better parameterization of urban effects in dispersion models.

  • 41.
    Bueno Rosete, Isabel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Energy Audit of an industrial building in Sweden: Case study of a CNC processed components’ producer company2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial sector accounts for almost 40 % of the Swedish energy use and in order to meet the EU’s 2020 targets, an efficient production of high quality and great finish goods are more and more in demand. Moreover, it is important to develop the activities with the lowest environmental impact possible. 

    The energy audit process is an effective tool to achieve it. Thus, in this document the energy audit of an industrial company, Automat Industrier in Gävle, Sweden, was carried out.

    The energy balance of the building and the potential energy efficiency measures were analyzed with the IDA ICE simulation.

    The proposed energy retrofitting was apropos of the building envelope, the lighting system, the ventilation system and the installation of a PV system on the roof of the building.

    The survey indicated that the potential energy savings of the company accounted for 62.5 % of the current electricity use and 48.8 % of the current DH use if all the proposed ameliorations were performed. The main promoter of the electricity savings is the installation of the PV system, with 85 % of influence. Almost 90 % of the DH savings are due to the measures in the ventilation system.

    Financially, these savings can reach the amounts of 531 597 SEK/year for electricity and 174 201 SEK/year for DH.

    Nevertheless, the ameliorations regarding the building envelope have very long payback periods. Thus, it was recommended to not pursue them. Fortunately, the energy efficiency measures providing the greatest savings’ payback periods are between 3.47 years and 10.22 years long. As they are independent from each other, the owner has the freedom to decide whether to apply them or not and when if so.

  • 42.
    Cabral, Diogo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Simulation of Electrical Performance of a Newly Developed Symmetrical Low Concentrator PVT Solar Collector: Low Latitudes2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 43.
    Cabral, Diogo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Solarus Sunpower Sweden AB.
    Simulation of Electrical Performance of a Newly Developed Symmetrical Low Concentrator PVT Solar Collector: Low Latitudes2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 44.
    Cabral, Diogo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Gomes, João
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Solarus Sunpower Sweden AB, Gävle, Sweden.
    Dostie-Guindon, Paul-Antoine
    Ecole Polytechnique Montréal, Montréal, Canada.
    Karlsson, Björn O.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Ray tracing simulations of a novel low concentrator PVT solar collector for low latitudes2017In: ISES Solar World Congress 2017 - IEA SHC International Conference on Solar Heating and Cooling for Buildings and Industry 2017, Proceedings, International Solar Energy Society , 2017, p. 1068-1079Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One way to reduce solar collector's production costs is to use concentrators that increase the output per photovoltaic cell. Concentrating collectors re-direct solar radiation that passes through an aperture into an absorber. The current study evaluates electrical performance of symmetric C-PVT solar collectors with a vertical bifacial receiver, through a numerical ray tracing model software, Tonatiuh. Several designs have been analysed, such as the Pure Parabola (PP) and MaReCo CPC geometries, both symmetric. Parameters such as concentration factor, electrical performance, transversal and longitudinal IAM (Incidence Angle Modifier), the influence of optical elements and influence of the length of the reflector in the shadow effect have been studied for different geometries. The simulations were performed for Mogadishu, Somalia and showed good results for the Pure Parabola collector (PPc) annual received energy, 379 and 317 kWh/m2/year for a focal length of 15 e 30 mm, respectively. A symmetrical double MaReCo CPC collector has been simulated with the annual received energy of 315 kWh/m2/year. The addition of the optical elements will decrease the annual received energy of the PPc by around 11.5%, where the optical properties (7.1%) and glass (4.1%) have the biggest impact in the annual received energy. Overall, symmetric geometries proved to be the most suitable geometries for low latitudes applications, being the geometry f1 (focal length of 15 mm) the best one. 

  • 45.
    Cabral, Diogo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Karlsson, Björn O.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Electrical and thermal performance evaluation of symmetric truncated C-PVT trough solar collectors with vertical bifacial receivers2018In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 174, p. 683-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One way to reduce solar collectors’ production costs is to use concentrators that increase the output per photovoltaic cell. Concentrating collectors re-direct solar radiation that passes through an aperture into an absorber/receiver. Symmetrical truncated non-tracking C-PVT trough collectors based on a parabola and compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) geometries have been developed. The collector type has a central vertical bifacial (fin) receiver and it was optimized for lower latitudes. In this paper, the electrical and thermal performance of symmetric truncated non-tracking low concentrator PVT solar collectors with vertical bifacial receivers is analysed, through a numerical ray-tracing model software and a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment. A thermal (quasi-dynamic testing method for liquid heating collectors described in the international standard for solar thermal collectors ISO 9806:2013) and electrical performance models were implemented to evaluate the design concepts. The evaluation was made for heating Domestic Hot Water for a Single Family House in Fayoum (Egypt), where CPC geometries with a concentration factor of 1.6 achieved 8 to 13%rel higher energy yields (in kWh/m2/year) than the Pure Parabola geometries.

  • 46.
    Cano, Unai
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energy Audit for an Old Industrial Building in Gävle2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish industrial sector has overcome the oil crisis and has maintained the energy use constant even though the production has grown. This has been achieved thanks to the development of several energy policies, by the Swedish government, towards the 2020 goals.

    This thesis carries on this path and performs an energy audit for an old industrial building in Gävle (Sweden) in order to propose different energy efficiency measures to use less energy while maintaining the thermal comfort. The building is in quite a bad shape and some of the areas are unused making them a waste of money.

    By means of the invoices provided by different companies, the information from the staff and some measures that have been carried out in-situ, the energy balance has been calculated from where conclusions have been drawn.

    Although it is an industrial building, the study is not going to be focused in the industrial process but in the building’s envelope and support processes, since the unit combines both production and office areas. Therefore, the energy balance is divided in energy supplies (district heating, free heating and sun irradiation) and energy losses (transmission, ventilation hot tap water and infiltrations).

    The results show that the most important supply is that of the DH whereas the most important losses are the transmission and infiltration. Thus, the measures proposed are focused on the reduction of this relevant parameters. The most important measures are the renovation of the windows, heating systems valves and the ventilation. The glazing of the dwelling is old and some of it is broken accounting for quite a large amount of the losses. The radiator valves are not properly working and there does not exist any temperature control. Therefore the installation of thermostatic valves turns out to be a must. Moreover, some part of the building has no mechanical ventilation but conserves the ducts. These could be utilized if they are connected to the workshop’s ventilation which is capable of generating sufficient flow for the entire building.

    Finally, although other measures could also be carried out, the ones proposed appear to be the essential ones. A further analysis should be carried out in order to analyze the payback time or investment capability of the company so as to decide between one measure or another. A market study for possible new tenants for the unused parts of the building is also advisable.

  • 47.
    Carlander, Jakob
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Trygg, Kristina
    Technology and Social Change, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Integration of measurements and time diaries as complementary measures to improve resolution of BES2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 11, article id 2072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building energy simulation (BES) models rely on a variety of different input data, and the more accurate the input data are, the more accurate the model will be in predicting energy use. The objective of this paper is to show a method for obtaining higher accuracy in building energy simulations of existing buildings by combining time diaries with data from logged measurements, and also to show that more variety is needed in template values of user input data in different kinds of buildings. The case studied in this article is a retirement home in Linköping, Sweden. Results from time diaries and interviews were combined with logged measurements of electricity, temperature, and CO2 levels to create detailed occupant behavior schedules for use in BES models. Two BES models were compared, one with highly detailed schedules of occupancy, electricity use, and airing, and one using standardized input data of occupant behavior. The largest differences between the models could be seen in energy losses due to airing and in household electricity use, where the one with standardized user input data had a higher amount of electricity use and less losses due to airing of 39% and 99%, respectively. Time diaries and interviews, together with logged measurements, can be great tools to detect behavior that affects energy use in buildings. They can also be used to create detailed schedules and behavioral models, and to help develop standardized user input data for more types of buildings. This will help improve the accuracy of BES models so the energy efficiency gap can be reduced. 

  • 48.
    Carlsson, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Blomberg, Patric
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Geoenergi: En studie på Nyköpings lassarets möjlighet till fri-värme/kyla m.h.a. ett borrhålslager2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 49.
    Casanaba, Pablo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Development of a Simple and Cheap Equipment for monitoring the solar Irradiance on PV modules.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increased use of renewable energies that is taking place all over the world is having a very important impact on the photovoltaic solar energy industry. This means of obtaining electrical energy is one of the most promising ones nowadays, thanks to the fact that it is a technology of easy installation and maintenance. However, the number of hours that a photovoltaic system works at maximum power depends almost entirely on environmental conditions, mainly in terms of solar irradiance.Solar irradiance is a magnitude that measures the power released by sunlight per unit area; the higher it is, the more power the photovoltaic system will generate.Therefore, it is very important to measure this magnitude in order to obtain data that either can give information about which is the best place to install a photovoltaic system or expect the device performance.Unfortunately, sensors used nowadays to measure this magnitude are quite expensive. The most widely used are the so-called pyranometers, with an average cost of between 8000 SEK to 10000 SEK, and solar reference cells, which can be quite cheaper (1000 SEK), but also can be the most expensive devices on the market depending on the features they have (some reference cells cost 20000 SEK).In this thesis, a solar irradiance sensor based on the treatment of a current generated by a silicon photodiode has been designed, built and calibrated. The signal generated by the device is a voltage that has been obtained by means of a current-to-voltage converter amplifier stage. Once the construction of the circuit was completed, it was tested on the roof of Hall 45 located in the University of Gävle. The testing was carried out on 13, 14 and 15 May 2019, and it consisted in the comparison of the signal generated by the new device and the signals generated by a pyranometer and a solar cell.The result is a device priced at 200 SEK, which shows acceptable levels of accuracy during central daylight hours but shows a strong angular dependence on incident light during sunrise and sunset.

  • 50.
    Casimir, Justin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PLANT SUPPLYING ELECTRICITY FOR A LARGE SCALE REVERSE OSMOSIS DESALINATION UNIT IN AGADIR, MOROCCOJustin Casimir2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Legislation about the water use in Morocco including the watering of green spaces is about to change. Indeed, the watering of green spaces will have to be made from waste water treatment plant. This report focuses on a golf course located in Agadir which is subject to the new regulation. The option studied through this paper is the desalination of salt water powered by solar energy. This paper focuses specifically on the generation of solar energy. The aim of the report is to compare the levelized cost of water express in €/m3 for three different alternatives: A) water from the drinking water plant; B) water from a reverse osmosis desalination plant driven by electricity from the national grid; C) water from a reverse osmosis desalination plant driven mainly by solar energy and some electricity from the national grid.The paper will first present the boundary conditions for the case study (part I), the technical analysis (part II-A & B) and then the economic analysis (part II-C). Part III presents the results, based on the simulation results from the software PVsyst, for both the technical and economic analysis and part IV explains the technical part in more detail.In the conclusion, the writer of the report would recommend to another in depth economic analysis in few years as the capital cost for the system with the reverse osmosis desalination plant and the photovoltaic plant is at the moment too high. However, regarding at the levelized cost of water, this case study become competitive with the other alternative. Moreover, looking at the environmental issues (water depletion, greenhouse gas emission) one could decide to take action and therefore take some economic risks.

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