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  • 1.
    Abad, Marta
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    WORK WITH AGENDA 21 IN EUROPEAN CITIES.: A case of study: the waste's management in Barcelona and Gävle2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is a long-term world reference country in terms of sustainable development. On the other hand, Barcelona has recently made great efforts in order to improve and to make society aware of the importance of environmental issues. Hence, it would be interesting to investigate if these efforts had succeeded in the waste’s management in Barcelona compared to other leading European cities, and particularly to the case of Gävle.

    In this work, the operation of the management of the urban solid wastes of the two cities is explained.

    First, the objectives marked by Agenda 21 of each locality are exposed. Next, a theoretical perspective about management, generation of wastes and types of waste treatment is provided. In the following chapter, the results of the generation of wastes, selective collection and the treatments of the wastes are shown for both the cases of Barcelona and Gävle until the 2006.

    Finally, the two cities are compared and the results obtained in the management of the wastes are discussed.

    The conclusion in this study is that Barcelona has improved noticeable in terms of environmentally safe management of the wastes. This has happened thanks to the efforts of the city council and of the citizens.

    But It is still necessary to make a major effort by the inhabitants of Barcelona.

  • 2.
    Agbauduta, Stephen Ogba
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    SPATIAL MCDA FOR FINDING SUITABLE AREAS FOR HOUSING CONSTRUCTION2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Demand for residential houses in urban areas has become a major problem facing town planners today. With the high increase in urbanization due to the increase in population, residential houses are becoming more difficult to find. Planners aim at developing new ideas to combat the high increase in the demand for residential buildings. In recent times, different methods of analysis have been introduced that will help planners select best locations to erect residential houses.

    A Geographic information system (GIS) is one of the tools for analyzing and storing a great deal of information. Over the years, GIS technology has been introduced into planning and the result has been of great help to urban planners in planning sustainable environment for residents. This research aims at using GIS technology and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to determine possible locations to build residential houses and analyzing different methods of selecting suitability areas within the study area. An MCDA map was produced from the combination of different factors and constraint which include elevation, orientation of the building (direction), the soil type and land use type. Proximity analysis was also done to find out how infrastructures (existing roads, shopping malls and health care enter) are close to the study area. Results show that the southern, eastern, and a part of western side of the study area is better to build residential houses than other areas.

    Three different methods (visual interpretation method, seeding method and neighborhood method) where used to find out which method produces the most suitable locations within the study area. In order to calculate the suitability areas and suitability values, the sum of pixel values were calculated for each method. The visual interpretation method servers as a standard method of deciding the suitability area covers 15,375 m² and has the highest suitability values of about 500 pixels. The seeding method was used as an automatic method for selecting the suitability area; result shows that the suitability area covers 17,421 m² and has the highest suitability value of about 1200 pixels. The neighborhood method was calculated using two different statistics (mean statistics and majority statistics). The mean statistics covers an area of 12,439 m² while the majority statistics covers an area of 14,332 m². From analysis carried out, the seeding method is preferred for selecting suitability areas than the visual interpretation method and the neighborhood method but the visual interpretation method covers more suitability area than the seeding method and neighborhood method.

  • 3.
    Alonso, Laura
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Assessment of waste and biofuel resources for district heating in the region of Gävle in Sweden2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel availability and security of supply are two of the most important factors in the well functioning of a company like Gävle Energi. Another important factor is the price of the fuels used. The transportation cost plays also an important role when purchasing fuels from different sources. Currently the fuels used in Gävle Energi are mainly woody biofuels, but waste and peat could also be used in the future.

    The aim of this thesis is to provide an overview of the different available biofuels in the region of Gävle. The fuels considered in the study are:

    - Bark

    - Forest Residues

    - Wood waste

    - Pellets and Briquettes

    - Garbage/waste materials

    - Peat

    The research is focused on the physical properties of the fuels, their price and transportation cost, environmental and legislation issues and the availability in the region of Gävle. A 10-year perspective is defined for an estimated availability of the different fuels in te region.

  • 4.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Lindgren, Samuel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Brunifiering av Öjaren: Analys och framtida utsikter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The colouring of water in many lakes across the Northern hemisphere is increasing. This is also the case in Lake Öjaren in Sandviken municipality in Sweden. The lake is the main water source in Sandviken and has a high and increasing watercolour. This leads to more complex cleaning methods and higher costs for the society. This study focuses on the changing and increasing watercolour in the lake over a period from 1995-2015. The factors analysed in this study are those who is considered to have an effect on the watercolour in the lake.

    The reasons for increased brownification are different depending on which type of water body is studied. Climate, soil conditions and pollutants contributes in varying extent to brownification. Increased levels in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iron are common reasons for brownification in Lake Öjaren and other water bodies, in Lake Öjaren increased levels of manganese are also shown to affect brownification.

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the correlation between the watercolour and the factors: iron, pH, COD, manganese, temperature and precipitation. The aim is also to investigate which actions are possible to apply to prevent increased watercolour.

    Water samples from Lake Öjaren between the years 1995-2015 have been the basis for the executed statistical analysis. Evaluating the correlation between the factors we have used Minitab 17 and calculated Pearson´s correlation coefficient. To further explain the relationship between the factors a principal component analysis (PCA) has been performed. Future scenarios and current trends have also been produced, in order to develop a better foundation for further studies.

    The correlation analysis reveals that the most significant connection with watercolour are iron, COD and manganese. The result of the PCA also corroborates this connection where three factors are the ones that are most co-variating.

    The trend and the future scenario for all the factors in Lake Öjaren are that they all are increasing and the watercolour is expected to be increasing by 63 % until year 2050. This scenario means that actions are needed to counteract the increasing colouring of the water.

  • 5.
    Carlos-Pinedo, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Wang, Zhao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Methane yield from SS-AD: Experiences to learn by a full spectrum analysis at laboratory-, pilot- and full-scale2019In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 127, article id 105270Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) takes place when solid content of the substrate is higher than 15%. Some advantages of this technology have been recognized as e.g., less required water added to raw feedstock and consequently minimized digester size and cost, higher volumetric organic loading rates (OLR) that may lead to higher efficiency methane yield and better acceptance of a wide range of feedstocks. However, scientific studies of SS-AD at pilot- and full-scale are very few and difficulties have been reported in operating SS-AD, especially when the system undergoes a scale-up, where methane production is the purpose. As a result, this review gives a summary of scientific studies for SS-AD processes at laboratory-, pilot- and full-scale, where a great diversity of substrate composition, reactor design and operational parameters have been categorized, and their performances in terms of methane yield have been analyzed. This, in turn, helps to identify that factors affecting methane yields at different scales arise mainly from operational conditions as well as the characteristic of feedstocks. This review even contributes to suggest several strategies for improvement of methane yield at full-scale.

  • 6.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Assefa, Getachew
    Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anna
    Environmental Strategies Research - FMS, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Environmental Strategies Research - FMS, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    What life-cycle assessment does and does not do in assessments of waste management2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 989-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In assessments of the environmental impacts of waste management, life-cycle assessment (LCA) helps expanding the perspective beyond the waste management system. This is important, since the indirect environmental impacts caused by surrounding systems, such as energy and material production, often override the direct impacts of the waste management system itself. However, the applicability of LCA for waste management planning and policy-making is restricted by certain limitations, some of which are characteristics inherent to LCA methodology as such, and some of which are relevant specifically in the context of waste management. Several of them are relevant also for other types of systems analysis. We have identified and discussed such characteristics with regard to how they may restrict the applicability of LCA in the context of waste management. Efforts to improve LCA with regard to these aspects are also described. We also identify what other tools are available for investigating issues that cannot be adequately dealt with by traditional LCA models, and discuss whether LCA methodology should be expanded rather than complemented by other tools to increase its scope and applicability.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Plastic waste as a fuel - CO2-neutral or not?2009In: Energy and Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, Vol. 2, no 9, p. 907-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is not only a societal problem addressed with environmental impact, it is also a resource that can be used for energy supply. In Northern Europe combustion of MSW (incineration with energy recovery) in combination with district heating systems is quite common. In Sweden, about 47 % of the household waste is treated by incineration with energy recovery. Most incineration plants are CHP, summing up to 0.3 % of the total electricity generation. MSW is to a high extent a renewable fuel, but plastic, rubber etc. can amount to 50 % of the carbon content in the waste. Recycling of plastic is in general environmentally favourable in comparison to landfill disposal or incineration. However, some plastic types are not possible to recycle and some plastic has such low quality that it is not suited for recycling. This paper focuses on the non-renewable and non-recyclable plastic in the MSW. A CO2 assessment has been made for non-recyclable plastic where incineration with energy recovery has been compared to landfill disposal. In the assessment, consideration has been taken to alternative fuel in the incinerator, emissions from waste treatment and avoided emissions from heat and power supply.

     

    For landfill disposal of plastic the emissions of CO2 amounts to 253 g/kg plastic. For incineration, depending on different discrete choices, the results vary from -673 g/kg to 4 605 g/kg. Results indicate that for typical Swedish and European conditions, incineration of plastics has net emissions of greenhouse gases. These emissions are also in general higher for incineration than for landfill disposal. However in situations where plastics are incinerated with high efficiency and high electricity to heat ratios, and the heat and the electricity from incineration of plastics are replacing heat and electricity in non-combined heat and power plants based on fossil fuels, incineration of plastics can give a net negative contribution of greenhouse gases. The results suggests that efforts should be made to increase recycling of plastics, direct incineration of plastics to places where it can be combusted with high efficiencies and high electricity-to-heat ratios where it is replacing fossil fuels, and reconsider the present policies of avoiding landfill disposal of plastics.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Life cycle assessment of Swedish single malt whisky2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 112, no 1, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural production and further processing to food and drink have large impacts on the environment. However, there are still few examples of LCA studies on beverages such as whisky. This paper presents a life cycle assessment of Swedish single malt whisky and different environmental improvements of the production chain are discussed. The functional unit is one bottle (70cl) of whisky and results are obtained for global warming potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP), Eutrophication potential (EP) and primary energy (PE). The contribution to GWP is dominated by CO<inf>2</inf> emissions from transport of stillage. When avoided emissions from use of biogas are included, the net result is 2.1tonnes CO<inf>2</inf>-eq. Acidification is mainly due to emissions of SO<inf>2</inf> from bottle production, transport and barley cultivation which ends up to 14.6kgSO<inf>2</inf>-eq. Eutrophication results are totally dominated by barley cultivation, in total 8.6kgPO43-The total use of primary energy is 53.5MJ/FU with a 50/50 distribution in renewable and non-renewable. Non-renewables emanate from fossil fuels used for transports and in glass production, whereas renewables are mostly used for heating in the distillery. Improvement analysis of transports included; (1) decreasing need of transport, (2) change of fuel and (3) change of transport mode. Decreasing transport of stillage is an efficient measure to reduce GWP and use of non-renewable energy. Substituting diesel with biodiesel for all road transports is an even more efficient measure for these categories, but increases other environmental impact. For all impact categories except use of renewable energy a scenario combining all improvements is the most efficient measure to reduce environmental impact. The results can be used by the manufacturer, but an improved and expanded LCA on product level can be used for a more specific eco-labelling of the different whisky editions. 

  • 9.
    Fan, Ruoxi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Jin, Xiaoguang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    How CSR create advantages in Chinese logistics SMEs: A case study of YHYB Co2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of China's economy, it is found that the importance of corporate social responsibility is increasing. SME as a large proportion of the economy, its importance is evident. Logistics industry in China developed very fast in recent 30 years, it has formed a large-scale industry. Due to the nature of logistics industry, the impact on environment is huge, the demand of CSR is increasing. Many large companies have already adopted CSR in recent years, but SMEs receive less attention. In this thesis, we conducted a case study of a small logistics company which has implemented CSR from its very beginning. From the case study, we compared the company’s behaviors and the existing theories and explained how does a SME work with CSR. It is approved that most of CSR theories can apply to a Chinese logistics SME. The company applied CSR into business strategy from the very beginning, communication with stakeholders plays a very important role in CSR strategy, and the company owner’s personal attitude and background plays a decisive role. In the end, we found out the advantages that CSR can bring to Chinese logistics SME. It can improve company’s reputation, employee’s loyalty and customer’s satisfaction, thus improve company’s sales and other business opportunities. 

  • 10.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research - fms, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anna
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research - fms, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsson Reich, Marcus
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Sörbom, Adrienne
    Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 8, p. S1-S8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment of solid waste continues to be on the political agenda. Waste disposal issues are often viewed from an environmental perspective, but economic and social aspects also need to be considered when deciding on waste strategies and policy instruments. The aim of this paper is to suggest flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden, and to discuss different policy instruments. Emphasis is on environmental aspects, but social and economic aspects are also considered. The results show that most waste treatment methods have a role to play in a robust and flexible integrated waste management system, and that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb from an environmental perspective. A review of social aspects shows that there is a general willingness among people to source separate wastes. A package of policy instruments can include landfill tax, an incineration tax which is differentiated with respect to the content of fossil fuels and a weight based incineration tax, as well as support to the use of biogas and recycled materials.

  • 11.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    Miljövärdering av bebyggelse: metodbeskrivning för EcoEffect2005Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH Miljöstrategisk Analys.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH Miljöstrategisk Analys.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH Miljöstrategisk Analys.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Development of an environmental rating tool for buildings through a new kind of dialogue between stakeholders and researchers2009In: ArchNet - I J A R, ISSN 1938-7806, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 116-130Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Hadin, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    From waste problem to renewable energy resource: exploring horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A sustainable energy system requires, according to energy policies, reduced emissions of greenhouse gases, increased ratio of renewable sources of energy and more efficient use of energy. Horse manure could be regarded as waste, but also as a resource for renewable energy and plant nutrients. This thesis explores the potential of horse manure as a renewable energy source, and its possibilities to support and contribute to energy and environmental objectives. To do this, data was collected from literature, simulations, study visits and interviews.

    A number of horse keeping activities were identified in the assessment of horse manure as a feedstock for energy and as a plant resource: feeding, indoor housing, outdoor keeping, manure storage, fertilizing and transport, all with effect on amount and content of horse manure. Results indicated that choice and amount of bedding are important for both energy performance and plant nutrient content in the biofertilizer. Operational conditions such as long hydraulic retention time and high temperature had less impact for horse manure as a biogas feedstock. Anaerobic digestion resulted in the lowest global warming potential compared to incineration and composting, while large-scale incineration reduced primary energy demand, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. In a subsequent simulation, anaerobic digestion had lower potential environmental impact than unmanaged composting, regarding all chosen environmental impact categories in the study. Experiences from energy companies suggest that horse manure can be used in small quantities in co-incineration, with suitable incineration technology, but odor was mentioned as a problem. Farm-scale incineration required continuous maintenance and monitoring and mixing with pellets. As a feedstock for anaerobic digestion horse manure was regarded as suitable for plug-flow processes while stirred processes experienced more technical problems leading to increased cost for plants. With adaption of horse manure to the energy recovery technology to be used, and adaption at energy conversion plants to homogenous materials, this not yet fully utilized bioenergy resource has potential to contribute with renewable energy to the energy system, and thereby also reduce environmental impact from horse manure treatment

  • 14.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Governance of Innovation for Sustainable Transport: Biofuels in Sweden 1990-20102011Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Hillman, Karl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Damgaard, Anders
    Department of Environmental Engineering, DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Fluck, Lena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Climate Benefits of Material Recycling: Inventory of Average Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Denmark, Norway and Sweden2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is to compare emissions of greenhouse gases from material recycling with those from virgin material production, both from a material supply perspective and from a recycling system perspective. The method for estimating emissions and climate benefits is based on a review, followed by a selection, of the most relevant publications on life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials for use in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The proposed averages show that emissions from material recycling are lower in both perspectives, comparing either material supply or complete recycling systems. The results can be used by companies and industry associations in Denmark, Norway and Sweden to communicate the current climate benefits of material recycling in general. They may also contribute to discussions on a societal level, as long as their average and historic nature is recognised.

  • 16.
    Hillman, Karl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Nilsson, Måns
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Rickne, Annika
    University of Gothenburg.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University.
    Fostering sustainable technologies: A framework for analysing the governance of innovation systems2011In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 403-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development and diffusion of technological innovations need governing in order to contribute to societal goals related to sustainability. Yet, there are few systematic studies mapping out what types of governance are deployed and how they influence the development and diffusion of sustainable technological innovations. This paper develops a framework for analysing the role of governance in innovation systems aimed towards sustainability. The framework is based on the literatures on governance, technological innovation systems and socio-technical transitions. We foresee empirical studies based on the framework that may serve as a needed input into governance processes. © Beech Tree Publishing 2011.

  • 17.
    Hillman, Karl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Suurs, Roald
    TNO.
    Hekkert, Marko
    Utrecht University.
    Sandén, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Cumulative causation in biofuels development: a critical comparison of the Netherlands and Sweden2011In: The Dynamics of Sustainable Innovation Journeys / [ed] Frank Geels, Marko Hekkert, Staffan Jacobsson, Abingdon: Routledge , 2011, 1, p. 73-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Li, Liang
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Zhu, Sha
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Energy Audit of Ludvigsbergsskolan2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Students of Ludvigsbergsskolan have complained that it was cold in classrooms during winters, but actually the energy consumption (electricity and district heating) of the school has been already very high. So energy audit is required and aim of this project is to find out how to improve the indoor climate of Ludvigsbergsskolan(http://www.skola.gavle.se/ludvigsberg/) which is located in Valbo, a city on the Sweden east coast and at the same time. Achieving this goal is not by increasing district heating demand but by some energy audit methods. Front part of the building has 2 floors, and the left part has one floor. The whole building is composed by classrooms, offices, gymnasium and dining-room.

    First, data related to energy is collected, such as installed power of facility, power utilization factor and the running hours of these facilities. Then, calculation can be taken to decide if the building is working properly and healthy. At last, present and discuss the situation, suggestions to improve energy condition are offered.

    Total demand of District Heating in year 2006 is 1088 MWh, and electricity is 304 MWh. Problems for this school need to solve is too cold in winter and to hot in summer.

    In this article some suggestions are made to save the energy consumption and work out the indoor climate problems. After all processes is done and evaluated 10 MWh electricity and more than 300 MWh district heating could be saved.

  • 19.
    Lopez, Carlos
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Analysisof a DH system in Sörbyskolan: School placed in Gävle2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electricity and district heating are the most important energy carriers for the residential and service sector in Sweden. Today, district heating supplies about half of the total heating requirement of residential and commercial premises in Sweden. The aim of this paper is the analysis of the heating system of a school, placed in Gävle, Sweden. The heat is delivered to the school by a district heating network.

    First of all, the Heat Balance must be done, with the purpose of obtain the best knowledge of the present situation in the school. The calculations about the transmission and ventilation losses and the internal heating generated have been showed. After this, the point of view has been focused on the district heating system itself. It is means, the distribution pipe system inside the school. The efficiency and accuracy of the net will be analysed and discussed.

    Three possible ways to improve the net will be showed. The first of all is the most simple: just take the pipe system and try to reduce the waste heat, the heat losses; the second choice is to make a new connection to the district heating network, joining all the buildings with one connection for each building –five more- instead of only the connection that exists at the moment when this paper was written; the third option seems as a different model of the second, it is means to divide all the school in two bigger parts and make another connection to the district heating network with the purpose of dividing the heating system in two equal parts.

    Thanks to the heat balance done in the school and in the district heating system, it is possible to know the waste of heat. Mainly, these losses are found in the district heating net. The amount of waste is around 17%, a really high amount of energy wasted, which must be reduced. According to the data of the company Gävle Energy, the waste in old buildings like the school which is under study in this paper, usually is between 15% and 20% of the supplied energy. So, this showed the accuracy of the method used to make this paper.

    According to the possibilities of improvement, it will depend on the ultimate decision of the Gävle Fastigheter, company which owns the school, to choose the way that could be better for their own interest. However, in this paper the prices and possible pay-back times are showed, in order to provide better information.

    Although the best solution has a total cost of 1750000 Swedish crowns (186289 €) and a pay-back time of 21 years –talking about making five new connections-, another cheaper possibility is also commented: improving the isolation of the pipe system, with a cost of 549000 SEK (58441 €) and a pay-back time near 7 years.

  • 20.
    Lozano, Francisco J.
    et al.
    Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Organisational Sustainability, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
    Freire, Paulo
    LaProma (Laboratório de Produção e Meio Ambiente), São Paulo, Brazil.
    Jiménez-Gonzalez, Concepción
    GlaxoSmithKline; North Carolina State University, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ortiz, María Gabriela
    Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico.
    Trianni, Andrea
    Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Carpenter, Angela
    University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Viveros, Tomás
    University of Leeds, United Kingdom; Process and Hydraulics Engineering Department, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Col. Vicentina, México D.F., Mexico.
    New perspectives for green and sustainable chemistry and engineering: approaches from sustainable resource and energy use, management, and transformation2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 227-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The special volume on green and sustainable chemistry and engineering has fourteen papers that were considered relevant to the present day issues and discussion, such as adequate use of raw materials and efficient energy, besides considering renewable sources for materials and energy; and changing economical canons towards circular economy. Businesses, governments and Society are facing a number of challenges to tread the sustainability path and provide wellbeing for future generations. This special volume relevance provides discussions and contributions to foster that desirable future. Chemicals are ubiquitous in everyday activities. Their widespread presence provides benefits to societies’ wellbeing, but can have some deleterious effects. To counteract such effect, green engineering and sustainable assessment in industrial processes have been gathering momentum in the last thirty years. Green chemistry, green engineering, eco-efficiency, and sustainability are becoming a necessity for assessing and managing products and processes in the chemical industry. This special volume presents fourteen articles related to sustainable resource and energy use (five articles), circular economy (one article), cleaner production and sustainable process assessment (five article), and innovation in chemical products (three articles). Green and sustainable chemistry, as well as sustainable chemical engineering and renewable energy sources are required to foster and consolidate a transition towards more sustainable societies. This special volume present current trends in chemistry and chemical engineering, such as sustainable resource and energy use, circular economy, cleaner production and sustainable process assessment, and innovation in chemical products. This special volume provides insights in this direction and complementing other efforts towards such transition.

  • 21.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Analysing the use of tools, initiatives, and approaches topromote sustainability in corporations2019In: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, E-ISSN 1535-3966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in sustainability from the corporate sector is evidenced by over 13,000 companiesin 160 countries that have signed the United Nations Global Compact. In thiscontext, a number of tools, initiatives, and approaches (TIAs), e.g., circular economy,corporate social responsibility, eco-efficiency, life cycle assessment, and sustainabilityreporting have been developed by and for corporations to engage and promote sustainabilitywithin their systems. Each of the TIAs has advantages when addressingsustainability issues and the company system's elements, but it has disadvantages indealing with their complexities and interactions. Relying only on one TIA results in alimited contribution to sustainability, whereas using too many TIAs wastes resourcesand energy. The Corporate and Industrial Voluntary Initiatives for Sustainability(CIVIS) has been proposed to better combine the TIAs. A survey was developed toinvestigate the use of 24 TIAs. The survey was sent to a database of 5,299 organisations(of which 3,603 were companies), from which 202 responses were obtained.The responses were analysed using ratio analysis, principal component analysis, andcluster analysis. The responses show that some TIAs are well known and providegood results when used, for example, corporate social responsibility, corporate sustainability,and Global Reporting Initiative reports. The analyses show a number ofgroups of the TIAs that can help to better combine them. The paper updates theCIVIS framework in order to provide clearer guidance on how to combine the TIAs. Acombination of between four and six initiatives appears to be most effective way topromote sustainability. The TIAs can help to promote sustainability in corporations,but they need to be combined correctly in order to address holistically the fourdimensions of sustainability, the system elements, and stakeholders, while avoidingduplication of tasks and wasting resources.

  • 22.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Removal of airborne particles of different sizes in classrooms using portable air cleaners2007In: Roomvent 2007, 13-15 June 2007 Helsinki, Finland: Scanvac Conference : proceedings, abstract book, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Portable electrostatic air cleaners (precipitators) were tested in six different classrooms during ordinary lessons. The number concentration of airborne particles in the classrooms was measured using optical particle counters, which separated the particle recordings into six different size fractions in the range 0.3 μm to >25 μm. It was found that the effectiveness of the air cleaners in cleaning the classroom air was decreasing significantly with increasing particle size. For the smallest particles measured, 0.3-0.5 μm, the measured effectiveness was 76 %, whereas for the particle size fraction 10-25 μm it was only 33 %. This reduced effectiveness for the large particles can be explained by the removal process of particle deposition onto room surfaces. The removal rate due to deposition seems to be competitive with the removal rate of the air cleaners as regards large particles. It appears that the deposition effect often needs to be taken into account in effectiveness assessments for particulate air cleaners.

  • 23.
    Norberg, Peter
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Lindahl, Lars G
    Abrahamsson, Jörgen
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    En metod för framställning av agglomerat av utfällt silikamaterial, ett mikroporöst material innefattande sådan agglomerat och användning därav2007Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande uppfinning avser en metod att producera ett material som innefattar agglomererade partiklar av utfälld kiseldioxid, innefattande framställning av en lösning av åtminstone ett metallsalt (M), där metalljonen/-jonerna är tvåvärd(a) eller flervärd(a). En lösning av alkalimetall (M) silikat med ett molförhållande SiO2/M2O om 0.5 - 100 framställs. Lösningarna blandas och blandningen omrörs, och ett koagel tillåts bildas. Koaglet uppsamlas och behandlas för att tillhandahålla ett material som har en torrsubstans om >15, företrädesvis >97%. Ett material som kan erhållas med processen tillhandahålles också.

  • 24.
    Norell, Pontus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Prospects for biodiesel in Gävleborg County: Feedstocks and production2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing emissions from the transport sector have become a global concern as these emissions contribute to climate change. One way to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transport sector is to replace fossil fuels with biofuels. The diesel engine is important for transports in society, especially since it is more efficient and more powerful compared with the gasoline engine. Therefore, replacing fossil diesel with biodiesel is one feasible option for achieving short and long-term emission targets. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are the two kinds of biodiesel being used in Sweden. The raw materials are vegetable and animal oils and fats and the production method is esterification for FAME and hydrotreatment for HVO. HVO is more similar to fossil diesel and higher blends can be used in existing diesel engines if the vehicle manufacturer has approved it whereas FAME requires vehicle modifications when used in higher blends. Both HVO and FAME can be used as drop-in fuel with fossil diesel, but only up to 7% for FAME according to regulations. The Swedish consumption of HVO has increased rapidly in recent years. In 2017 it was more than 20% of the total globally produced HVO that year. Furthermore, the dependence on imported raw materials is heavy. Only 3% of the raw materials for FAME and only 5% of the raw materials for HVO sold in Sweden were of Swedish origin in 2017.

    Since the feedstocks used for biodiesel production are of limited availability and have competing uses, it is important to increase the knowledge of local resources. The County of Gävleborg has many large forest-related industries. The actors at different levels of the supply chain have important roles in the challenges to reduce fossil fuel dependence. The overall aim of this report is to investigate the current status and future prospects of biodiesel feedstocks and production technologies for FAME and HVO from a regional perspective. This is achieved by two separate approaches. First, a literature review is done through which potential feedstocks and production processes are described. The feedstocks are categorized into different generations. Second, ongoing and upcoming activities related to biodiesel production in Gävleborg County are explored through interviews with regional actors. The interviewees are representatives from companies with activities in Gävleborg County: Setra, BillerudKorsnäs, Iggesund, Rottneros and Colabitoil.

    Raw materials belonging to the first generation compete with food production. For biodiesel these raw materials are different types of vegetable oils. The main ones worldwide are palm oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil. These raw materials can be used as feedstock for both FAME and HVO. In Sweden the agricultural activity is relatively low and even lower in Gävleborg County. The extensive use of land and competition with food production makes these type of raw materials for biodiesel production questionable. But arguments can be made that the vegetable oils have good traceability and this can lead to better control to ensure a sustainable biodiesel value chain.

    Second-generation raw materials are non-food based. There are a variety of different types. Some are already being used and some are potential biodiesel feedstocks for the future. The ones presented in this report are animal fats, fish oils, waste cooking oils (WCO), pyrolysis oil, lignin and crude tall oil (CTO). Animal fats and fish oils can also be considered first-generation raw materials since they might be edible. There are strict health regulations for human food and the fats and oils that do not live up to the regulations can be used for other purposes. Animal fats and fish oils can also be used as animal feed and production of different chemicals. It is not obvious which use is best, but generally it seems that biodiesel and other energy uses are regarded as the least valuable in comparison. An important issue to consider is that the availability of animal fats and fish oils depends on the demand for meat.

    WCO is a feedstock for biodiesel which is currently used by Colabitoil in their pilot plant for HVO. It seems that the profitability of using WCO is dependent on the production capacity of the WCO producers and the distance between them since these two factors affect the fuel consumption during collection. It is optimal to have one big WCO producer in order to minimize the collection costs. In theory, there could be a situation in which there are so many small producers that more fuel is required for collection than is gained in biodiesel production.

    Pyrolysis oil from biomass is an interesting future source for biodiesel. It is a heterogeneous mixture of compounds and contains a lot of oxygen. Pyrolysis oil is definitely a raw material that needs catalytic hydrotreatment for upgrading. It is therefore considered an HVO feedstock and not feasible for FAME. This study did not clarify how much pyrolysis oil will end up as diesel fuel and how much will end up as gasoline or other products. A pyrolysis plant for production of pyrolysis oil from sawdust might be built at Setra’s sawmill Kastet in Gävle. The pyrolysis oil will then be used as a feedstock for diesel and gasoline fuels in Preem’s refinery.

    Lignin is one of the main components of wood. In the production of pulp by the sulfate process lignin is separated from the pulp as a component in the black liquor. The lignin is then primarily burned for energy purposes in the recovery boiler. The three pulp mills within Gävleborg County all use the sulfate process. At the pulp mill owned by Rottneros in Vallvik a plant for extraction of lignin and a plant for conversion into a lignin oil might be built. This pulp mill has a surplus of energy and therefore a potential to extract some of the lignin. The lignin will be processed together with a bio-based carrier oil to the lignin oil. This lignin oil will then be used as a feedstock for gasoline and diesel fuel in Preem’s refinery. It was not clarified in this study what the source of the bio-based carrier oil will be. Additionally, the composition of the lignin oil was not revealed and therefore it could not be determined what share of it can be used for biodiesel production. Lignin oil is very interesting as a feedstock due to the large amount of lignin that is available in the forests. However, the interviews with the two other pulp mills (i.e., Iggesund and BillerudKorsnäs) showed that the availability is limited by other factors. These two pulp mills are integrated with production of paper products and therefore they have no surplus of energy. If lignin is extracted the energy has to be replaced by other sources. An eventual extraction of lignin is associated with reconstruction of different parts of the plant and thereby large investment costs.

    CTO is a by-product from pulp mills that use the sulfate process. It is of limited availability and consists mainly of fatty acids and rosin acids. The fatty acids can be converted to biodiesel. One way to utilize the components of CTO is to fractionate it into different product streams through distillation. These product streams include one stream with fatty acids, one stream with rosin acids and one stream called pitch. The pitch can be seen as a residue. There are two main refineries to which the three pulp mills in Gävleborg County deliver their CTO: Sunpine in Piteå and Kraton in Sandarne. Sunpine produces tall oil diesel and other products from the CTO, and the tall oil diesel is used for HVO production by Preem. Kraton produces different chemicals from the CTO. For all three pulp mills an important factor is to get tall oil pitch back from Sunpine and Kraton to be used for energy purposes.

    A potential source of lipids for biodiesel production was mentioned in the interview with Colabitoil. This was the conversion of lignocellulosic material into lipids by microbes. A particularly suitable feedstock for the microbes would be waste fibers from pulp and paper industries. This still appears to be at the research stage, but it will be interesting to follow the development since it has promising opportunities if it can be achieved at a commercial scale.

    Third-generation feedstocks for biodiesel are oils obtained from microalgae. Microalgae are potentially superior to the other raw materials. Biodiesel from microalgae is not commercially available so it is up to the future to determine its destiny. Due to the cold climate of Gävleborg County it is questionable if it is a good place for large-scale cultivation of microalgae.

    The optimal feedstock for FAME are triglycerides. Therefore, first-generation raw materials are wanted. Catalytic hydrotreatment can handle more complex raw materials and the feedstock range can thereby be increased to second-generation feedstocks. There is no producer of FAME in Gävleborg County, but there is a company (Colabitoil) that distributes HVO produced by Neste. Colabitoil also has a pilot plant for HVO production and might build a large-scale production plant in the future. The activities in Norrsundet, which Colabitoil is part of, has a potential to provide synergy effects if different companies settle there. There can then be knowledge-sharing and utilization of different by-products between the companies.

    There are two aspects about the limitations of the report that should be mentioned. First, the environmental performance of the different raw materials and production technologies is not considered. This is an important issue since the main purpose of biofuels is to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels. Second, it cannot be ruled out that there could have been intentional or unintentional bias in the interviews, even though there is no reason to suspect this. Additionally, it is very tricky to assess the certainty behind different statements from different persons since they have different backgrounds and different expectations about the future. Apart from this, the aim of the report was met to a large extent by shedding light on the future prospects of biodiesel through the challenges, uncertainties and success factors related to projects that the different actors described in the interviews. The challenges are technical and financial. The uncertainties are related to political stability but also to the environmental permit and future availability of raw materials. The success factors are the high demand for transport fuels and cooperation with other companies.

  • 25.
    OrdeÑana, Ianire
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    REDUCTION OF THE COSTS IN A HOUSE IN VALBO THAT USES ELECTRICITY AS ENERGY SOURCE: Study of the installation of a heat pump or connection to the district heating2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The analyzed building in this project is located in Valbo, 9016 Stiftelsev 6. This house is a property of Gavlegårdarna, and it is being used as a house for disabled people. The building consists on five apartments, with one patient in each apartment. Some social workers help those patients in everything they need, making their living in the house as easy as possible.

    The aim of this project is to find out the best option of reducing the energy consumption in this house. There are some alternatives to reduce the energy or the energy costs as; efficiency measures, load management and energy conversion.

    This project is focused on the energy conversion for reducing the energy consumption. As it is the best option for obtaining a considerable reduction in the annual costs.

    First of all the energy balance of the house is analyzed. By studying the energy balance it is possible to find out how the energy consumption of the house is divided. On one hand there is the heat supplied and on the other hand the heat losses.

    As it was said before this project is focused in the reduction of the energy consumption by means of converting to another energy supplying method. Two alternatives have been studied: the installation of a heat pump and the connection to the district heating of Gävle.

  • 26.
    Petrovic, Bojana
    et al.
    Department of Energy and Construction Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Department of Energy and Construction Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Department of Energy and Construction Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Life cycle assessment of a wooden single-family house in Sweden2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 251, article id 113253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the reasons behind the large environmental impact from buildings the whole life cycle needs to be considered. Therefore, this study evaluates the carbon dioxide emissions in all stages of a single-family house in Sweden from the production of building materials, followed by construction and user stages until the end-of-life of the building in a life cycle assessment (LCA). The methodology applied is attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) based on ‘One Click LCA’ tool and a calculated life span of 100 years. Global warming potential (GWP) and primary energy (PE) are calculated by using specific data from the case study, furthermore the data regarding building materials are based on Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). The results show that the selection of wood-based materials has a significantly lower impact on the carbon dioxide emissions in comparison with non-wood based materials. The total emissions for this single-family house in Sweden are 6 kg CO 2 e/m 2 /year. The production stage of building materials, including building systems and installations represent 30% of the total carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, while the maintenance and replacement part represents 37%. However, energy use during the in-use stage of the house recorded lower environmental impact (21%) due to the Swedish electricity mix that is mostly based on energy sources with low carbon dioxide emissions. The water consumption, construction and the end-of-life stages have shown minor contribution to the buildings total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (12%). The primary energy indicator shows the largest share in the operational phase of the house. © 2019

  • 27.
    Riñones Diez, Gonzalo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Qualitative analysis of the possibilities of a suggested device for waste compression and grain size reduction at source2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the possibilities of developing and installing a mechanical wastetreatment device – proposed by the author – intended to be used in residences or wastecollecting points. The device would perform the job of waste classification, grain sizereduction and volume compression off the main municipal waste families at theproduction place, thus, reducing the energy and economic cost in the collection andtransportation processes.

    In the study, the most common sorted types of leftovers produced in municipalities arecategorized and then, separately analysed the treatment to which it is subjected each ofthe type of waste sorted in the Household Solid Waste (HSW). For this purpose, theselection sub-processes they go through before recycling, compost or disposing arespecified and described. The study aims to specify which are the current characteristicsof the collected waste input so as the processing is feasible and correct.

    The current characteristics are compared to the reduced grain size and specific volumethat would bring the Proposed Waste Pre-Treatment (PWPT). This way, it is determinedif the PWPT characteristics are suitable to their integration in the current waste treatmentsystem. Explanations are given regarding the problems found when searching for usabledata about energy consumption as well as cost of collection and transportation of waste.

    The present investigation provides strong evidence that the PWPT device is notapplicable in a widespread way to all types of HSWs, as the characteristics of reducedgrain size and specific volume obtained can not be integrated into the current wastetreatment systems of most of residue types. In case wanting to search for means to reduceenergy consumption as well as cost of collection and transportation of waste, othersolutions for each type of waste should be investigated; these are briefly discussed in thethesis.

  • 28.
    Rozario, Jewel Augustine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Hamid, Osman Abdelkader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    A systematic approach to assess the relocation of the business centres to a logistics platform: A case study on DHL Freight AB (Sweden)2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The relocation of logistic companies’ from the inner centres to the logistic platforms significantly affects both the supply chain management and the urban sustainability development. Recently the concept of city logistics and intermodality has received a significant attention from both academics and decision makers. City logistics play a pivotal role to ensure the liveability of urban areas but, in parallel, urban freight transport also has a significant effect on the quality of life in the urban settings. Optimization of urban freight transportation have an important input in the context of sustainability and liveability of cities and urban areas reducing traffic congestion, decreasing road accidents, alleviating CO2 emissions and noise impacts.

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the relocation of a case logistics company from the city centre to a suburban area. To do this, a wide range of literature reviews pertaining the influence of peripheral logistics platform on the city sustainability were investigated. It seems that there are not well-defined models which can make a comprehensive and quantitative assessment in the context of sustainability for the relocation of business premises. Further investigation was done by conducting a case study on DHL, field observation of traffic flow. Based on all the collected information from the relevant sources, a mixed methods research was applied including a qualitative approach and a quantitative approach. A systematic approach was therefore developed in the context of sustainable development which can be used as an assessment tool for the major factors that enlighten the decision makers to consider the relocation of the logistics companies.

    A systematic approach was developed by this thesis which facilitates the assessment of key factors that impact the relocation decision in the context of all the three sustainable aspects: economic, social and environmental development. These impacts represent traffic congestion, time and distance of transportation, emission, cost optimization and transport mobility.

  • 29.
    Ruoyu, Jia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Meiling, Wan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
     Energy audit on the Brynässkolan2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Building energy consumption has presented itself as one of the biggest proportion inenergy industries. Focus could really be placed on this field with a view to conservingenergy. One popular way to achieve ideal energy identification is to conduct an energyaudit. An energy audit is of interest in pinpointing energy losses. For small households,it could be a way of reducing energy spending, while for large companies it could beone crucial way to decrease energy expenditure and improve efficiency in operation.The Brynässkolan has been in use for many years and performing the audit is anattempt to increase its energy efficiency and ultimately cut down cost. Byinvestigating the school building’s climate envelope and lighting and measuringventilation unit we gained knowledge about its energy losses. We came up with someenergy-saving plans, among which some are inapplicable, the others are feasible.Finally some constructive suggestions are presented to the school administration.

  • 30.
    Uche, Eugene
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Oparah, Charles
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Using GIS for Analysis of the Runway Extension of Margaret Ekpo International Airport, Calabar, Nigeria2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the proposed extension of the existing runway of Margaret Ekpo International Airport, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. The process involves the application of Geographic Information System (GIS) and several geospatial techniques for analysis and result presentation.

    The aim of the study was achieved with the following resources: satellite imagery downloaded from the Landsat webpage and processed to generate a land use map of the study area; a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) covering the study area which was downloaded from the Consortium for Spatial Information’s (CSI) webpage and observed ground spot heights along the straight path of the proposed runway extension covering a total length of 2.5km and 200m wide. These datasets were modified, processed and assigned the same coordinate system in order to make them conformal for analysis. A GIS was created with the foregoing resources in conjunction with other geospatial applications such as ERDAS Imagine and Surfer 8 to carry out the analysis.

    The analysis covered the environmental impacts of the proposed project, its effects on already existing human settlements and the huge cost implications based on certain conditions like the mandatory straight path which has to be maintained as an extension of the existing runway. Other factors considered are; the land use of the extension area, the economic benefits of the project, the accessibility of the area, noise pollution as well as the safety and security issues involved.

    A summary of the result of our analysis shows features such as residential settlements, roads, swampy areas, valleys and areas of high elevation which will act as obstructions along the proposed  runway path. Also, the total surface area of the proposed runway and the volume of earth material required were calculated. The results achieved from this study shows that GIS and other geospatial tools are indispensable resources in complex planning processes such as facility maintenance and management.      

  • 31.
    Urtasun, Cristina
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Energy audit and saving analysis of a building: Study of heat pump installation and district heating connection2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The object of analysis in the present document is a residential house in Sätra. This building has a hydronic space heating system with radiators spread around the house and a heating recovery system ventilation which also use water for reheating. Water for space heating, ventilation and hot tap water is nowadays heated in an electric boiler.The aim of this project is to make a diagnosis of the current situation, evaluate different alternatives for supplying hot water to the house, and to study costs and possible savings by comparing the actual facilities with the proposals done.

  • 32.
    Åkerström, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Alsade, Noor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Nudging för att minska köttkonsumtion: En studie för att förändra studenters beteende2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of the study is to investigate whether nudging is an effective method for changing behavior among students at Gävle University. The study will investigate whether two nudging methods (information campaign and nudge) can change the students' behavior, while comparing which method gives better effect to changing behavior and reducing meat consumption. First, a literature study will investigate wheater meat affects the climate and how much greenhouse gas emissions from meat can potentially be reduced by students at the Högskolan i Gävle using information campaigns and nudge. To further answer the purpose, two surveys and two nudging methods have been conducted at the Högskolan i Gävle. The first survey study was conducted to measure how much meat and the type of meat consumed by students, then two nudging methods have been used in order to change behavior and reduce or change the choice of meat among students. The second survey study was conducted to investigate whether the campaigns have changed behavior and reduced or changed the choice of meat among students. Results show that nudging has had an effect and behavior has changed. Nudge has reduced meat consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. The survey study contained 6 questions where only question 1 turned out to be significant and can be linked to nudge [KH1] in the interaction, information campaign is a contributing factor to this change.

     

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