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  • 1.
    Abdalla Mohamed Ahmed, Fayad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Energy Audit in Educational Buildings: Case study of Fridhemsskolan in Gävle2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The global share from buildings towards energy usage in residential and commercial buildings have been increasing constantly reaching between 20% to 40% in developed countries and has overtook the other major sectors: industrial and transportation. Energy demand reduction in the building sector is important for Sweden to achieve national energy aims for reduced energy use in the future.  For this reason, energy efficiency measures in buildings today is one of the main objective for energy policy towards 2020 goals.

     

    This project moves on the same path to find energy efficiency potential in Fridhemsskolan buildings in Gävle, Sweden by performing energy audit using IDA-ICE software to simulate energy performance for the buildings under study. In addition, measurements have been made on three of the school buildings named Hus 1, Hus 2 and Hus 3.

     

    The results include different energy efficiency retrofits on each building and economic analysis of these retrofits for each building individually and for the whole buildings together. The presented measures are reducing working hours of the ventilation system in Hus 2, change of CAV system with VAV system in (Hus 1 and Hus 2) and lights changing to LED, s efficient lights and building envelope improvement which includes walls and roof extra insulation and windows replacement.

     

    Replacement of the CAV system in Hus 1 and Hus 2 were not economically beneficial when considering their high cost compared to energy reduction that can be achieved by applying them. On the other hand, energy retrofits analysis showed that combination of the following energy efficiency measures is the most effective and profitable: extra insulation (walls and roof), windows replacement and lights change to LED in the three buildings. In addition to these measure is reducing running hours of the ventilation system in Hus 2.

     

    Implementation of the recommended energy efficiency measures will save 120, 737 kWh/ year of the district heating and 21, 962 kWh/year electricity consumption with capital investment of 417, 396 SEK and 98, 957 SEK/ year cost saving with payback period of 4.2 years. These figures represent 40.3% and 18.1% reduction in district heating and electricity energy use respectively.

     

    Since reducing working hours of ventilation system measure has no capital investment and have the highest figure of energy reduction it reduces payback period significantly. In case the amount of money saved by this measure doesn’t consider; payback period for the other measures which require capital investment will be 13.5 years and the energy saving in terms of cost will be 30, 874 SEK/ year. 

  • 2.
    Abeurathna, Nuwan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering. KTH.
    Design and Construction of a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System for full scale combustion test facility2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of major concerns in gas turbine industry is to reduce emissions.  Tow kind of approaches could be identified in the industry to reduce emissions, namely Primary Emission Reduction approach and Secondary Emission Reduction approach. The primary approach concerns emission prevention in combustion, while secondary approach is all about emission cleanup before releasing to the atmosphere.

    Combustion flame temperature highly influences on emissions specially NOx formation.  NOx emission is lower when the combustor operates close to lean flammability limit. Incorporating catalyst to combustor is one of methods to extend flammability limit.  Heat and Power Division at KTH-Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden has developed a test facility to test performances of catalyst in combustion.

    The combustion test facility available at Heat & Power Davison at KTH, consists of high pressure air compressor and air flow control system, air preheating unit and control system, fuel flow control system, combustor unit, and exhaust gas analyzer system. But lack of proper user interface to control and monitor the operation of the test facility through a computer work station was a major concern from experimenters.

    The purpose of the thesis work is to design and construction of supervisory control and data acquisition system for the full scale catalytic combustion test facility.  Labview 2012 is used as the main platform for implementing data acquisition and control system for the test facility. Thermocouples, pressure transducer signals, air flow meter signal are connected to Keithley 2701 data acquisition system and then connected to the computer. Fuel flow controllers are directly connected to the computer via serial port. Air flow control actuator signal is given through ADAM digital to analogue converter.

    Developed GUI is more convenient for users in terms of easy control of air flow, fuel flow and gas sampling probe systems, and monitoring of temperature, pressure measurements and exhaust gas species systems. And also GUI provides web interface to select correct conversion factor, and also to view live data recording. The developed GUI can be accessed through online to monitor the operation. 

  • 3.
    Agborsangaya, Etchu Oben
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Omoregie, Iyobosa Frank
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Does Culture Influence Decision Making in Project Teams?: A Multi Case Study in Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In the contemporary society in which companies operate there is increasing interest in understanding the effects and changes of culture on projects in connection to decision making. This is evident of the fact that most companies are using groups or teams composed of mixed culture to perform their tasks and develop their activities into different geographical regions by adopting project management as a “way of working” other than a tool or technique. The objective of this study is to explore the cultural influence decision making in project teams through a multi case study of applying Hofstede’s dimensions of culture model to selected Swedish firms. 

  • 4.
    Agostini, Lara
    et al.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lazzarotti, Valentina
    Carlo Cattaneo University LIUC, Italy.
    Manzini, Raffaella
    Carlo Cattaneo University LIUC, Italy.
    Nosella, Anna
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Open innovation with scientific partners and patenting: the moderating role of the internal context for innovation2017In: Proceedings of IFKAD 2017: Knowledge Management in the 21st Century: Resilience, Creativity and Co-creation, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Aguilera, Rafael
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Implementation of a ceramic coating based upon the concept of emissivity2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6.
    Amunarriz Ollokiegi, Endika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Electric heated windows: thermal comfort and energy use aspects2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Anastasopoulou, Kyriaki
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Creation of a Low Energy Building with the help of Energy Simulation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this Thesis Project, the creation of a Low Energy building was examined in order to investigate how complex was to select the suitable parameters and systems of the dwelling, aiming to achieve the lowest possible energy consumption in one year period. All the technologies implemented into the system intended to be as energy efficient and profitable as possible. Another objective of this study was also to present the potential of the system to produce a part of the consumed energy, through renewable energy sources, approaching by this way also the standards of a Zero Energy Building. Firstly, the floor plan of the 150 m2 detached house, was drawn in the designing program AutoCAD. In continuation, this 2D floor plan was imported into the simulation program as well as all the initial input data so as for the Base model of the building to be created For the analysis of the building, the Simulation Program IDA ICE 4.7 was used. Gradually, alternations and adjustments were made into the Base model. Different models were created planning to analyze their results and conclude to the proper solution. All the simulations run for one year time period in order to present the total energy usage, system’s losses and demands in each case. In addition, as for the current study, the location of the construction was Athens, all building’s characteristics were chosen to comply with the Greek Regulation for Low Energy Buildings. Finally, through the procedure followed after having accomplished a series of simulations, the final annually energy demands managed to be within the required limits.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Victor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Pappersfria informationsflöden: En fallstudie om implementeringsprocessen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although computers have been around for a long time and are used more and more, the use of paper inoffices remains. One of the reasons is that there are not good enough digital tools to get rid of paper from work. In this qualitative case study, the office department of ABB Components is investigating on how the implementation processes for a paperless information flows can be introduced in ways that generate benefits of working digitally.

    The result of this study will be based on data collected from interviews and observations carriedout in the office. By identifying which processes using paper in the office, different tools have been developed to facilitate the implementation. The result of this study suggests that the implementation of a paperless information flows must be a well-planned change process where tools are developed to compensate for the earlier use of paper.

    With the introduction of paperless information flows, the use of consumables will decrease and the location it takes to store these papers will disappear. This leads to more cost-effective work and less waste paper. In order for this concept to lead to a more beneficial routine it needs to be redesigned for the implementation.

  • 9.
    Aslani, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science. Division of Visual Information and Interaction, Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wiering, Marco
    Institute of Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Engineering, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.
    Continuous residual reinforcement learning for traffic signal control optimization2018In: Canadian journal of civil engineering (Print), ISSN 0315-1468, E-ISSN 1208-6029, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 690-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic signal control can be naturally regarded as a reinforcement learning problem. Unfortunately, it is one of the most difficult classes of reinforcement learning problems owing to its large state space. A straightforward approach to address this challenge is to control traffic signals based on continuous reinforcement learning. Although they have been successful in traffic signal control, they may become unstable and fail to converge to near-optimal solutions. We develop adaptive traffic signal controllers based on continuous residual reinforcement learning (CRL-TSC) that is more stable. The effect of three feature functions is empirically investigated in a microscopic traffic simulation. Furthermore, the effects of departing streets, more actions, and the use of the spatial distribution of the vehicles on the performance of CRL-TSCs are assessed. The results show that the best setup of the CRL-TSC leads to saving average travel time by 15% in comparison to an optimized fixed-time controller.

  • 10.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI), Linköpings universitet.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI), Linköpings universitet.
    Öppen och sluten på samma gång: Att integrera kunskap över företags gränser2015In: Kunskapsintegration och innovation i en internationaliserande ekonomi / [ed] Hans Andersson och Christian Berggren, Stockholm: Makadam förlag , 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Exploiting supplier innovativeness through knowledge integration2013In: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730, E-ISSN 1741-5276, Vol. 61, no 3-4, p. 237-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms are increasingly involving and relying on networks of suppliers and other external partners in their innovation processes. A successful exploitation of suppliers' technology and competencies is however challenging, not least in situations characterised by technological uncertainty. The main purpose of this study is to analyse how supplier innovativeness may be leveraged through internal knowledge integration capabilities in involving suppliers. The analysis is based on a survey of firms in Europe and North America. The study shows that innovative suppliers do contribute to a firm's innovation performance in terms of time–to–market and level of innovation in products/services. The main result is that an internal knowledge integration capability in terms of proficiency in supplier management and cross–functional decision making boosts innovation performance, in particular when technological uncertainty is high.

  • 12.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI) / Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap (PIE), Linköping universitet.
    Laursen, Keld
    Department of Innovation and Organizational Economics, Copenhagen Business School.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Managing knowledge integration across multiple boundaries in open innovation2015In: 16th International CINet Conference: "Pursuing Innovation Leadership", 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Lazzarotti, Valentina
    LIUC University Cattaneo.
    Pellegrini, Luisa
    University of Pisa.
    Manzini, Raffaella
    LIUC University Cattaneo.
    3D open innovation: Practices and outcomes2013In: Proceedings of the 14th international CINet conference, 9-11 September, 2013, Nijmegen, Netherlands., 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet.
    Open innovation - Comparing global and local approaches2014In: The 25th annual POMS conference, Atlanta, 9-12 May, 2014: Celebrating 25th Anniversary Conference : Online proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of the growing interest in open innovation, one of the core questions that remain unanswered is how different kinds of openness affect innovation performance. Moreover, the impact of the geographical dispersion of partners also needs further investigation, while there is a tension between the motives for global search and the needs for proximity in innovation processes. In this paper we will research the relationship between openness and performance outcome in manufacturing companies when taking the localisation of partners into account. The study is based on survey data from 415 companies. The openness is defined by three dimensions: partner breadth, partner depth and phase depth. Performance is measured in terms of cost, risk and time-to-market, innovativeness and economic performance. The results of this study confirm and illustrate the localisation dilemma. For manufacturing companies using a global approach, it seems advisable to collaborate more intensively with a reduced number of partners. In contrast, the companies applying a more spatially balanced approach could collaborate with an increased number of partners and still be innovative and cost efficient. This implies that different localisation strategies for external partner collaborations require different integration approaches in order to be successful.

  • 15.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet.
    Open innovation: Global or local?2014In: Proceedings of the 21th EurOMA conference, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Söderberg, Lennart
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Outsourcing Maintenance – Not always a good idea?2013In: Proceedings of the 20th International Annual EurOMA conference, Dublin, Ireland, 9-12 June 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Cost innovation in global supply chains: the case of Huawei Technologies2016In: International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, ISSN 1742-7967, E-ISSN 1742-7975, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 189-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost innovation has been used to describe how firms offer a variety of customised and high-tech products at low prices. Insights into how this trade-off is overcome by supply chain design are lacking. This paper analyses the global supply chain strategies and practices of Huawei Technologies, and specifically how these contribute to cost innovation capability. The paper is based on interviews with managers at Huawei headquarters in Shenzhen, plus managers at two European supply chain centres. The case study shows that even though Huawei does not possess specifically unique supply chain solutions, there are some features that drive Huawei towards cost innovation in its supply chains. Some of them concern low-cost operations based on the location of main R&D, manufacturing and suppliers to China, in combination with a strong customer orientation, an integrated supply chain organisation and a balanced outsourcing strategy.

  • 18.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Rapid innovators in emerging economies: An illustration of diversity in two Chinese firms2015In: Proceedings of the 22nd EurOMA Conference, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Bergman, Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Evaluation of ventilation for an office building: Situated in Gävle, Sweden2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the CO

    2-emissions and electricity prices are ever increasing many companies have tried to reduce their energy consumption in order to reduce both CO2-emissions and the cost of using energy. Therefore, in this article an office building situated in Sweden have been investigated with its current ventilation flow and what saving poten-tials can be made from heat recovery and a different ventilation flow in regards to health, energy and cost. Empirical data have been collected to be able to calculate ener-gy savings made by heat recovery and new ventilation flow. A ventilation flow of 25 l/s per office were chosen and that the conference room should have at least 3 l/s per m² the dining room and locker was not investigated thoroughly and therefore a ventilation flow from the recommendations of Sweden was followed. The total flows became, 530 l/s respectively 630 l/s for the top and bottom floor. A rotating heat exchanger with an es-timated efficiency of 80% was used for heat recovery and through the two methods combined an energy reduction up to 96,4 % for heating and 83,4 % from the electricity could be reduced.

  • 20.
    Bernsten, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Arbetsmiljö och Byggnadsinformationsmodellering (BIM): identifiera mål och strukturera målstruktur i anläggningsbranschen enligt värdefokuserat tänkande2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen identifieras mål och en målstruktur föreslås för beslutsmöjligheten avseende hur man ska arbeta med Arbetsmiljö i Byggnadsinformationsmodellering (BIM) för verksamhetsområde Stora Projekt på Trafikverket. Syftet med uppsatsen är att utifrån Keeney:s (1992) teori om värdefokuserat tänkande identifiera mål och strukturera dessa i målstrukturer. Underlagen till uppsatsen kommer från olika dokument på Trafikverket, intervjuer och personal på Trafikverket samt deltagande i utbildningsinsatser som Trafikverket har avseende BIM. En målstruktur föreslås samt diskuteras. Den målstruktur som presenteras är ofullständig och därmed förloras en del av den fulla potentialen med värdefokuserat tänkande, men det kan ligga till grund för fortsatt arbete hos Trafikverket. Rekommendationen är att målstrukturen utvecklas.

  • 21.
    Bjerkén, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Nordlander, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Genomlysning av ett lager ur ett Leanperspektiv - fokus på effektivitet och värdekapande aktiviteter: En fallstudie på Svenska Fönster2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to examine how Lean can make the utilization of inventory more effective and, from a Lean perspective, examine how the value-adding activities related to inventory can increase. To examine this, a case study was perfomed at Svenska Fönster. The conclusions of this study are that Lean can advantageously be applied on inventory to increase the efficiency. 

  • 22.
    Björelind, Karl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Malmberg, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Arbetsmetodik för effektivisering av intern materialförsörjning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Handling of materials sets different requirements depending on its characteristics. In order to meet internal demands of high delivery service at a low cost, it is important to design an effective supply of materials. New technology and the application of IT-systems can provide opportunities to streamline materials supply by increasing service levels and reducing costs.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to design and evaluate a working methodology in order to achieve effective internal supply of materials from goods receipt to production.

    Methods: A theoretical framework formed the basis to identify significant areas to achieve effective internal materials supply. In parallel, a case study was conducted at a company operating in the elevator industry. Data collection was primarily based on different types of interviews and observations to create an understanding of the company´s materials supply. The data obtained were mainly compared with the theoretical framework in the analysis phase of the developed working methodology. Conclusions was drawn, based on the analysis phase. Ethical aspects were taken into account throughout the work of this study.

    The developed working methodology: Based on significant identified areas, from the theoretical framework, a working methodology was developed to achieve effective internal materials supply, consisting of six phases: Prerequisites, Description of the current situation, Analysis of the current situation, Design of improvement proposals, Implementation and Follow-up. Four of these phases were applied on a company with the aim of designing improvements proposals with the potential to achieve effective internal materials supply. Finally, the applied phases of the working methodology were evaluated to highlight its strengths, challenges and possibilities of development as well as the further application.

    Conclusion: The significant areas and other supportive digital solutions were not considered sufficient enough to generate effective internal materials supply and thereby there was a necessity for an organized approach to utilize these areas. In order to support this, complements were required in form of a working methodology with a number of structured phases, including important considerations, which must be followed methodically in order to design improvement proposals which can achieve a more effective internal materials supply. The improvement proposals that were designed included, for instance, a new procedure for materials call-off, new principles for buffers, reduction of internal transports and automatic suggestion of place of storage.

  • 23.
    Björklund, Elina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Gimström, Nina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Effektivitetsförbättringar i interna serviceprocesser: En fallstudie inom massa- och pappersindustrin2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Effective and reliable delivery of services provides long-term performance to an organization. Inorder to create effective and reliable deliveries, activities that do not create value for the customer,namely the wastes, need to be reduced or eliminated. Value Stream mapping is a Leanmanagement tool that aims to clean processes from the wastes. With this as a starting point, studieshave previously been conducted to customize the tool for use on service processes. The studyresulted in Service value stream management, a model implemented in six steps. When the modelis applied in service processes, there is a wide variety of problems that may occur, it is therefore considered not possible to collect all problems in order to provide suggestions for improvements.

    This study aims to investigate whether the tool can be modified to better suit an internal serviceprocess in the pulp and paper industry. The literature review that has been conducted, revealedthat the existing model does not contain certain, according to the theory, important elementsadapted for Lean service. Beside the waste and tools that the model already consists of, fourrelevant wastes and twelve tools were found during the literature review. Other interestingcomponents that emerged through the literature review, were the views of what an organizationshould learn about and how successes should be measured. In order to fulfill the purpose of ourstudy, the Lean tool Service value stream management, was tested with the additions found duringthe literature review. The test was conducted at an internal service process at a case company tosee if there is evidence to add or remove some of the new wastes, tools or components to themodel. At the case company, data was collected through interviews and observations as well asthrough a survey. The study resulted in the 5K-model which consists five steps to eliminate andreduce wastes. With this model, organizations in the pulp and paper industry should be able tocreate higher efficiency in their internal service processes. To visualize and measure efficiency, amathematical formula was developed that could be considered useful even outside the 5K model.

  • 24.
    Blanco-Portela, Norka
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Management, Universitaria Agustiniana, Colombia.
    Benayas, Javier
    Department of Ecology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Pertierra, Luis R.
    Department of Biology, Geology, Physics and Chemistry, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. Organisational Sustainability, Ltd., Cardiff, UK.
    Towards the integration of sustainability in Higher Education Institutions: a review of drivers of and barriers to organisational change and their comparison against those found of companies2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 166, p. 563-578Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there have been a considerable number of efforts to integrate sustainability into Higher Education Institutions (HEIs); however, there are still challenges that need to be overcome. A process that has received an increasing attention has been the Organisational Change Management for Sustainability. This article is aimed at reviewing the main drivers of the integration of sustainable practices and the barriers to change slowing or stopping it. A systematic literature review was carried out using Web of Science de Thomson Reuters and in Scopus databases focusing on retrieving all papers on sustainability in HEIs published between 2000 and 2016. The drivers of and barriers found for the integration of sustainability in HEIs were compared to those previously described for companies. The similarities on drivers to change found in HEIs and companies were greater for external ones. A lower number of barriers to change were reported in the literature for HEIs than those reported for corporations, nonetheless, it was found that HEIs and companies have several common barriers to change. The article proposes a list of main drivers of and barriers to change, some general and others context specific. The findings on the drivers of the integration of sustainable practices in HEIs can serve to identify additional good practices at companies and vice versa. The barriers to change detected for the process of integration can help into anticipating, preventing and overcoming them. This knowledge can help institutions better plan and use their resources in working to becoming more sustainable.

  • 25.
    Blomqvist, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Sundby, Dennis
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energianalys av fastighet Brynäs 12:1: Energikartläggning med effektiviseringsåtgärder inriktning mot ventilation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use in Sweden and the world is expected to increase and the residential and services account for 40% of total world energy demand. It is important that the energy efficiency of existing buildings and optimizing its systems as a lower energy benefits both the environment and the economy. A building's ventilation system account for a large proportion of a property's energy use, and there is often great potential for the system to be optimized and streamlined.

    A property owner does not want properties that are vacant. Vacant premises mean less income in rent and in some cases there will be increased energy costs for the empty space in form of heating and ventilation, for the property owner to pay. Systems that can completely shut off or controlled depending on ventilation requirements needed for the latter cost will be reduced completely when the premises are vacant and that the total energy will decrease when a tenant moves out.

    Ventilating purpose is to divert moisture, heat, particulates and carbon dioxide so that a good indoor climate is created for the people staying in the building. The most common ventilation principle for public buildings is to vent air with a constant air flow through a CAV system. With demand-based ventilation in the form of a VAV system, huge savings can be made when one adjusts airflow to the actual ventilation requirement instead of ventilating the building with a constant maximum flow. An installation of a VAV system in the form of CO2 or presence control, reduces ventilation energy consumption, while the quality of the indoor environment is maintained.

    The work that has been carried out includes an energy survey of the property Brynäs 12:1 as an energy survey helps to understand a building's energy use, and identifies potential energy savings. The energy use for the building subsystems have been identified and analyzed in order to develop proposals for cost cutting measures. The results of the energy audit revealed that there was great potential for savings for ventilation units TA1, TA2 and TA3's electricity and heat use. If the measures for ventilation as presented in the work, such as flow and time reduction is taken, an energy saving of 333 MWh/year is achieved, which is 28% of the property's total annual energy consumption. 

  • 26.
    Borgvall, Albin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Rodestrand, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvecklad value stream mapping för en varierande produktion mot kundorder: En fallstudie vid Karl Hedin Emballage AB2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Today’s high demand on customer specific products has led to an upstream of organizations that are adapting an make-to-order production strategy. Seeing that these organizations compete by obtaining low lead-times and the ability to present unique and affordable products, a need has been created to use lean-based methods in attempt to reduce waste, create an efficient production, thus to gain competitive advantage. The issue is that lean-methods are not developed for these types of organizations. 

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compile a model that describes how an organization that is characterized by make-to-order strategy and with a high variety in products manufactured in low volumes can implement value stream mapping to create an efficient production and thus gain competitive advantage.

    Methodology: The study is carried out through a case-study on a company that manufacture based on the specification of customer-orders. To perform a value stream mapping, relevant literature was collected and studied. Consequently, interviews and observations were conducted and constitute the empirical data. Subsequently the literature review along with the empirical data constitutes the conclusions and findings.   

    Results: The case company is characterized by a complex manufacturing of unique products with crossing information- and material flows which complicates value stream mapping. The processes consist of manual cutting, semi-manual cutting, plywood cutting, component manufacturing, and assembling. Processes with similar operations were spread throughout the manufacturing plant and the assembly points were identified as bottle-necks.  

    Conclusion: A model that describes how an organization that is characterized by make-to-order strategy and with a high variety in products manufactured in low volumes can implement value stream mapping has been compiled. Furthermore, additional aspects have been identified that are significant in the implementation of value stream mapping within this form of production.

  • 27.
    Bujosevic, Daniela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Renman, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Godstransporter längs ostkusten för en hållbar utveckling: En fallstudie på Yilport2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A large proportion of climate affecting emissions from Sweden is due to the transportation sector. Railway transportation accounts for less than one percent of the carbon dioxide emissions while road and truck transportation accounts for the largest part. This clearly shows that the choice of transportation has a significant effect in achieving environmental sustainability.

    This thesis is a case study with the aim of identifying barriers against using railways instead of road transportation for freight transport between a small port terminal and a nearby inland terminal. To answer the purpose, observation was conducted on the terminals and semi-structured interviews with three forwarding companies was performed. A theoretical framework was developed through literature studies and the information gathered was then put against the compiled empiricism in an analysis.

    The conclusion of this study implies that freight forwarders cannot influence the choice of transportation due to customer requirements. The customer always demands to have goods delivered at the lowest price possible and by that the environmental factors are not prioritized and that is an obstacle for using railway transport. Beyond the factor mentioned other factors that prevent the use of railways in relatively short distances are related to its lead time, flexibility and frequency.

  • 28.
    Bäck, Elvira
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Pyhälä, Sanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Processkartläggning av servicesystem: För första återkoppling till kund och utformning av en förbättringsmodell2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Strukturering och planering har länge varit känt som viktiga faktorer som påverkar hur en verksamhet ska fungera. Förståelsen för detta har inte alltid varit densamma. Längre tillbaka fanns inte kunskap om vad detta gav. Forskning har under åren genomförts angående planering och strukturering och olika resultat har framkommit. Efter dessa resultat har principer vuxit fram som har haft påverkan på arbetssätten. Längre tillbaka låg fokus på produktivitet medan det idag har flyttats till människan och dess välbefinnande.

     

    Framgångsrika företag har genom åren studerats för att kartlägga deras framgång. Utifrån dessa data har sedan företag försökt att kopiera rakt av till sin egen verksamhet, något som sällan har lyckats. Eftersom det inte finns någon optimal lösning för alla utan varje företag eller organisation behöver se till sina behov och anpassa arbetssätten efter dessa.

    Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka vilka delar som är viktiga i ett servicesystem för att få en välfungerande verksamhet.

    Vid kontakt med det valda företaget hade de problem med att uppnå en kundåterkoppling inom rimligt antal dagar. Därför är det av intresse att se över vilka delar som är viktiga i ett servicesystem för att genom en förbättring av systemet uppnå en bättre kundåterkoppling.

    Med detta menas att se över processen från det att en motor inkommer eller en kund lägger en beställning till dess att kunden har fått ett svar, en återkoppling, med kostnad och tidsplan. Förbättringsmodellen som tas fram teoretiskt över ett system ska avgränsas till serviceinriktade och bortse från producerande.

    För att göra det möjligt att besvara syftet har observationer, intervjuer och litteraturstudier genomförts. Dessa metoder har på olika sätt bidragit till att framställa en förbättringsmodell för servicessystem, som svarar på syftet. Den slutgiltiga förbättringsmodellen innehåller fyra hörnstenar vilka är: information, logistik, Lean och kvalité. Information och logistik framkom från fallstudien och Lean och kvalité framkom under litteraturstudierna. Alla fyra hörnstenar uppmärksammades i både fallstudien och litteraturstudien, de belystes dock lite olika.  

    Då förbättringsmodellen var framtagen jämfördes den mot ABB i Storvik för att se om den fungerar mot ett verkligt företag och inte bara är teoretisk tillämpbar. Efter denna jämförelse drogs slutsatsen att den är användbar som modell för servicesystem

  • 29.
    Bäckström, Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Domanders, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Effektivisering av materialförsörjning inom tillverkande industri: En fallstudie på Företaget2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How companies choose to design their supply chain is important for their competitiveness. Supplier relationships are becoming increasingly important to maintain a market position. A key factor for success is to deliver material in the right quantity, at the right time and to the right place. Other factors that play an important role are quality standards, leadership and above all, customer first. The customer should be placed at the top of the value chain, and be treated with respect. Markets are driven by short lead time and companies cannot rely on brand loyalty.

    The purpose of this study is to develop a general model for analysis and improvement of the supply chain for manufacturing companies, with focus on components from external suppliers. The model is created based on a literature review and to examine this, the model was tested at Företaget. The empirical data is mainly conducted by interviews, complemented by one observation. The analysis model consists of seven areas based on Supply Chain Management, Logistics and Lean. A key factor to analyze these seven areas is to map the current situation. The results have been filtered through the analysis model and have led to suggestions for improvement. These suggestions are only recommendations and the companies choose what to take further into action.

    Företaget is one of Sweden’s leading window manufacturers with two strong brands, Produkt 1 and Produkt 2. Most of the production process is carried out in Edsbyn and the size of the factory is as big as ten football pitches at 65,000 squares meters. Wooden-aluminum windows are an increasing trend and stands for two thirds of the sales. The study is focusing on one selected component which is the flow for aluminum profiles.

    The conclusion shows that supply chain management, logistics and Lean play an important role while building an efficient supply chain. Relationship, communication and information sharing with suppliers are of great importance and needs to be constant developed and improved. Leadership is a key element to get all the areas to work and it is the leaders that characterize the culture of the company. The study has resulted in a number of improvement suggestions for Företaget. One suggestion for improvement is to develop a routine for documentation when a deviation occurs in the final assembly. This will enable the follow-up and help to find the main cause for appearance.

  • 30.
    Cannavá, Catharina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Salvo, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Metodik för analys och förbättring av företags mål2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: For business profitability and competitiveness, the establishment of

    good overall and operational goals is important. However, most companies lack

    important goals in the business and no methodology have been found to analyse

    and improve company's overall and operational goals. The purpose of this study is

    to develop a methodology to analyse and improve the design of company's overall

    and operational goals.

    Methods: A case study with an abductive approach has been applied in the study.

    In order to answer the study's purpose and questions, a literature review and empirical

    collection were performed. The literature review shaped the theoretical

    framework and the empirical data collection charted the current situation of the

    company. The empirical data consisted of 16 semi structured interviews and 5 observations.

    Analysis of theory and empirics underlies the methodology that was

    designed.

    Methodology: The methodology developed consists of three phases: current situation,

    analysis and improvement proposals. First the current situation will be

    gathered. Then, analysis of what can be improved, with regard to significant factors

    such as: if there are multidimensional overall goals, whether there is a connection

    between overall and operational goals, and whether man has been taken

    into account when designing goals and measurements. Finally, improvement suggestions

    will be given to the company based on the analysis performed.

    Conclusion: The theoretical contribution of the study is the developed methodology

    as well as essential aspects within the methodology. The practical contribution

    to the Company AB is a unique report, where concrete improvements are presented

    in an exclusive chapter. In order to evaluate the methodology’s usefulness

    and utility with further methodology studies, the methodology needs to be applied

    to one or more companies.

  • 31.
    Celander, Sanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Att bygga i trä eller lättbetong: en jämförelse mellan väggkonstruktioner2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hudiksvall Municipality will build a new preschool. The goal is that the pre-school should reflect the municipality's environmental goals and meet building regulations. The wall structures that are compared in the report is an insulated wooden frame and a frame of lightweight concrete blocks from H + HWall structures are compared within the areas of U-values, air tightness, thermal storage capacity, fire ratings, moisture, durability, emissions and environment. In these categories the two wall structures will be rated in a scale from 1 to 5 and then the categories are weighted against each other. The weighting is based on Hudiksvall Municipality's assessment of the categories importanse for their final selection.The results of the comparison show that the concrete structure is recommended for the construction of pre-school with 27.55 points against the wooden structures 23.70 points. The highest possible score after weighting is 34 points.

  • 32.
    Chen, Yanguang
    et al.
    Department of Geography, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Hierarchical scaling in systems of natural cities2018In: Entropy, ISSN 1099-4300, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 20, no 6, article id 432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hierarchies can be modeled by a set of exponential functions, from which we can derive a set of power laws indicative of scaling. The solution to a scaling relation equation is always a power law. The scaling laws are followed by many natural and social phenomena such as cities, earthquakes, and rivers. This paper reveals the power law behaviors in systems of natural cities by reconstructing the urban hierarchy with cascade structure. Cities of the U.S.A., Britain, France, and Germany are taken as examples to perform empirical analyses. The hierarchical scaling relations can be well fitted to the data points within the scaling ranges of the number, size and area of the natural cities. The size-number and area-number scaling exponents are close to 1, and the size-area allometric scaling exponent is slightly less than 1. The results show that natural cities follow hierarchical scaling laws very well. The principle of entropy maximization of urban evolution is then employed to explain the hierarchical scaling laws, and differences entropy maximizing processes are used to interpret the scaling exponents. This study is helpful for scientists to understand the power law behavior in the development of cities and systems of cities. © 2018 by the authors.

  • 33.
    Cho, Y J
    et al.
    The University of Reading, UK.
    Awbi, Hazim B.
    University of Reading, UK.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    Fresh AB, Sweden.
    The characteristics of wall confluent jets for ventilated enclosures2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34. Cho, Youngjun
    et al.
    Awbi, Hazim B.
    University of Reading, UK.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    Comparison between wall confluent jets and displacement ventilation in aspect of the spreading rate on the floor2005In: Indoor Air 2005 : proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Coen, Michael
    et al.
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Weisman, Luke
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Thomas, Kavita Elisheba
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    Groh, Marian
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    A Context Sensitive Natural Language Modality for an Intelligent Room1999In: Managing Interactions in Smart Environments: 1st International Workshop on Managing Interactions in Smart Environments (MANSE’99), Dublin, December 1999 / [ed] Nixon, Paddy, Lacey, Gerard and Dobson, Simon, London: Springer-Verlag , 1999, p. 68-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a natural language interface to a highly interactive space known as the Intelligent Room.

  • 36.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Colding, Magnus
    Colding Digital Teknik AB, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The smart city model: A new panacea for urban sustainability or unmanageable complexity?2018In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite several calls in this journal of debating the rapid growth of the literature on “smart cities”, such a debate has in large been absent. Smart cities are often un-critically launched as a sustainable way of developing cities. When cities become increasingly complex as its features are wired into the Internet, theories for their understanding is lagging behind. As it is prospected that a greater number of people and things will become connected by Information and Computer Technology, the complexity of urban systems will over time increase. Historical insights reveal that as complexity in societies increase, growth in energy consumption tends to follow. In this paper, we discuss whether complexity carried too far could lead to diminishing returns of energy saving and create unmanageable urban systems. As part of initiating such a debate, this commentary asks whether the smart cities development has a bearing on the issue whether a society can erode its capacity of sustaining itself? We pose this question against the backdrop that no one actually knows what type of society the smart cities model in the end will generate.

  • 37.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Beijerinstitutet för ekologisk ekonomi, Stockholm; Stockholm resilience centre, Stockholms unviersitet, Stockholm.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH arkitekturskolan .
    Andersson, Erik (Contributor)
    Gren, Åsa (Contributor)
    Borgström, Sara (Contributor)
    Ekosystemtjänster i Stockholmsregionen: Ett underlag för diskussion och planering2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Continuous improvement capability in the Swedish engineering industry2007In: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730, E-ISSN 1741-5276, Vol. 37, no 3-4, p. 272-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports findings from the Swedish part of the 2nd International Continuous Improvement Survey. Based on Bessant's evolutionary model of continuous improvement behaviour, the continuous improvement capability level of the Swedish engineering industry is estimated. The data analysis shows that there is a need for progression towards higher continuous improvement capability levels. Therefore, the specific abilities to develop in order to support such a move forward are clarified. In addition to being an illustration of manufacturing practices in Sweden from a continuous improvement perspective, this article contributes to the field of Operations Management by being the first attempt to replicate the work of Bessant via a large-scale survey study. The model is found valid and it shows that development of continuous improvement abilities contribute to the enhancement of plant performance.

  • 39.
    Dahlén, Liselotte
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Hur strategiska beslut fattas i Försvarsmakten2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen jämförs Försvarsmaktens sätt att fatta strategiska beslut med några av de beslutsmodeller och roller som beskrivs inom beslutsteorin. Syftet med uppsatsen är att utifrån teorier inom beslutsteori och kognitiv psykologi förstå logiken bakom Försvarsmaktens strategiska besluts­processer. Underlaget kommer dels från litteratur inom områdena, från intervjuer samt i viss mån från myndighetsdokument. 

  • 40.
    Derevyanchuk, E. D.
    et al.
    Penza State University, Penza, Russia.
    Shestopalov, Yury
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Derevyanchuk, Natalia V.
    Penza State University, Penza, Russia.
    Reconstruction of Electromagnetic Parameters of a Thin Anisotropic Dielectric Slab2018In: 2018 Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS-Toyama), 2018, p. 1968-1972Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconstruction of electromagnetic parameters of artificial materials is an urgent problem [1], [2]. In practice, as a rule, these parameters cannot be directly measured. Therefore, methods of mathematical modeling must be applied. Conventional waveguide measurement equipment employs network analyzers and dielectric samples having the simplest shape of a parallelepiped adjusted to the walls of a standard rectangular waveguide. Such setups open the way to use well-developed analytical-numerical techniques [3], [4] of determining permittivity and other parameters of the inclusion using accurate closed-form solutions and asymptotic approximations. This work is a continuation of the series of papers [3], [4] devoted to the analysis of inverse problems of finding permittivity and permeability of layered materials. We apply a specially developed mathematical and numerical technique that combines analytical and numerical approaches providing the results with guaranteed accuracy. Particularly, we develop the methods [3] of determining permittivity and permeability tensors of anisotropic materials in a rectangular waveguide.

  • 41.
    Derovyanchuk, E. D.
    et al.
    Penza State University, Penza, Russia.
    Smirnov, Y. G.
    Penza State University, Penza, Russia.
    Shestopalov, Yury
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Reconstructing Permittivity and Permeability of Multi-Sectional Anisotropic Diaphragms2018In: 2018 Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS-Toyama), 2018, p. 1963-1967Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A great variety of new and artificial materials have been created during the last decades, such as metamaterials, various composites and many others. To analyze and determine the characteristics of such materials advanced mathematical methods are applied. This work is devoted to the developing the technique for reconstruction of electromagnetic parameters of multi-sectional anisotropic diaphragms in a waveguide of rectangular cross section. To solve this inverse problem we make use of the method of rotation applied for anisotropic materials and reconstruct the quantities to be determined, including the diaphragm positions, from the values of the transmission coefficient measured at different frequencies. The efficiency and accuracy of computations are validated in the course of analytical-numerical solution to the inverse problem. The developed techniques and obtained results can be implemented in practical measurements when anisotropic materials and media with unknown properties are investigated with the aid of commonly used waveguide devices and analyzers.

  • 42.
    Domingues, Ana Rita
    et al.
    Department of Management, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; CENSE, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal .
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Organisational Sustainability, Ltd., Cardiff, United Kingdom .
    Ceulemans, Kim
    University of Victoria, Gustavson School of Business, Centre for Social and Sustainable Innovation, Victoria, BC, Canada .
    Ramos, Tomás B.
    CENSE, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Caparica, Portugal .
    Sustainability reporting in public sector organisations: exploring the relation between the reporting process and organisational change management for sustainability2017In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 192, p. 292-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability Reporting has become a key element in different organisations. Although there have been a number of academic publications discussing the adoption of sustainability reports in the public sector, their numbers have been quite low when compared to those focussing on corporate reports. Additionally, there has been little research on the link between sustainability reporting in Public Sector Organisations (PSOs) and Organisational Change Management for Sustainability (OCMS). This paper focuses on the contribution of sustainability reporting to OCMS. A survey was sent to all PSOs that have published at least one sustainability report based on the GRI guidelines. The study provides a critical analysis of the relation between sustainability reporting and OCMS in PSOs, including the drivers for reporting, the impacts on organisation change management, and the role of stakeholders in the process. Despite still lagging in sustainability reporting journey, PSOs are starting to use sustainability reporting as a communication tool, and this could drive organisational changes for sustainability.

  • 43.
    Dominic, Chris
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Supply and demand chain integration: A case study conducted in the packaging industry2013In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, no 1, p. 51-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of this work was to study the packaging supplier and the integration of integrating packaging suppliers into the supply and demand chain (SDC). The packaging industry has been analyzed using a structured market analysis, and the companies studied have been positioned in an integration model for packaging suppliers. In addition, case studies were conducted to study the development of the packaging industry and its integration within the SDC in the Scandinavian region.

    The analysis shows that there are gaps in the business relations between the packaging companies studied and the SDC. Most of the packaging suppliers were not integrated into the SDC. Valuable information, available in the network, seldom reaches the packaging supplier who holds the knowledge necessary to create and offer innovative packaging solutions.

    The article provides an empirical exploration into the field of packaging, logistics and SDC integration and an original conceptual framework that could serve as a theoretical framework for future research work applied in the packaging industry and an interesting business model to the increase understanding of packaging supply chain integration.

  • 44.
    Duvner, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Fallgropar vid offentlig upphandling ur ett beslutsteoretiskt perspektiv2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Upphandlingsprocessen kan ses som en form av beslutsprocess. Inom beslutsteori har det under flera år forskats om psykologiska fällor och misstag vid beslutsfattande. Det finns en hel del teorier om hur dessa fällor och misstag kan undvikas. Syftet med denna studie är att jämföra fallgropar vid beslutsfattande med fallgropar vid offentlig upphandling samt analysera hur resultaten från den beslutsteoretiska forskningen kan användas som stöd i upphandlingsarbetet. Resultatet visar att likheterna är många och att resultatet från den beslutsteorietiska forskningen på ett enkelt sätt kan konkretiseras och användas i upphandlingsarbetet.

  • 45.
    Edman Wallér, Jon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Värdering av vårdhygienisk kvalitet på sjukhusavdelningar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårdrelaterade infektioner är bland de vanligaste orsakerna till vårdskador i svensk sjukvård. Att förebygga vårdrelaterade infektioner kräver ett målmedvetet arbete med hygienrutiner i alla delar av vårdkedjan och att de vårdgivande enheterna får tydlig och konkret återkoppling på sitt vårdhygieniska arbete. Syftet med detta magisterarbete var att ta fram en modell för att, med hjälp av beslutsteoretiska metoder, sammanfatta de kvalitetsmätningar som görs på ett svenskt sjukhus (Södra Älvsborgs Sjukhus, Borås) för att ge en återkoppling av den vårdhygieniska kvaliteten hos sjukhusets avdelningar. Arbetet genomfördes som ett aktionsforskningsprojekt, där teori och praktik samspelar i ett cykliskt förlopp för att lösa ett specifikt problem. Slutresultatet blev en färgkodad matris över mätvärden kopplade till olika jämförelsenivåer. Modellen ger en helhetsbild där detaljer samtidigt framgår tydligt, men saknar den viktning av olika aspekter som är vanlig inom beslutsteoretiska bedömningsinstrument. En tydlig utmaning var att beslutsteoretiska modeller kan upplevas som abstrakta och svårförståeliga för en lekman, vilket till viss del begränsar deras användning som ett återkopplingsverktyg.

  • 46.
    Ekberg, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Madani, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Optimering av tillverkningskvantiteter2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att öka lönsamheten hos ett tillverkande företag är det viktigt att ha optimala tillverkningskvantiteter så att resurserna utnyttjas optimalt. Hur ett tillverkande företag utnyttjar produktionen påverkar effektiviteten i produktionssystemet, lagret och hos personalen. Syftet med denna studie är att hitta en metod för att optimera tillverkningskvantiteter så att kostnaden per produkt blir så låg som möjligt. I denna studie har vi använt oss av företagets distributör i Indien som ett exempel för hur en manuell produktion ser ut i dagslägen och jämför hur kostnaderna skulle se ut om denna produktion skulle ske maskinellt.

    Arbetet är en fallstudie där tillverkningskvantiteter analyseras. Både kvalitativ och kvantitativ forskning har bedrivits för att få en djupare förståelse av problemet. I arbetet ingår bland annat teorier som rör lager, partiformning och kostnader som rör tillverkning och orderhantering. Ett antal observationer och intervjuer har utförts för att för att få en djupare inblick i tillverkning och hantering av produkter hos företag. Empirisk data som nämns är beskrivningar av företagets produktionssystem och lager.

    Denna studie resulterar i att ”företag” bör använda partiformningsmetoden "Ekonomisk orderkvantitet" för optimering av tillverkningskvantiteter. Metoden går ut på att balansera ordersärkostnader och lagerhållningskostnader. Är dessa kostnader likvärdiga uppnås den mest kostnadseffektiva tillverkningskvantiteten. Studien har resulterat i en lathund där den mest optimala tillverkningskvantiteten presenteras beroende på produktefterfrågan per år.

    En analys av distributören Indiens order resulterar i att ”företag” bör producera ordrar likt Indiens beställningar maskinellt istället för omarbetning manuellt vilket sker i dagsläget. Redan vid en tillverkningskvantitet på 120 produkter är maskinell bearbetning mest kostnadseffektivt jämfört med en manuell ombearbetning. 

  • 47.
    Ekenberg, Moa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Lärares användning av begrepp i teknikundervisningen: Hur, när och varför lärare använder begrepp2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Teknik är ett ämne som inte är självklart inom den svenska skolan trots att det har en egen kursplan och är ett självständigt ämne. I och med att teknikämnet inte har samma plats i undervisningen finns det begränsat med forskning om begreppsanvändning i teknikundervisningen. Syftet med den här undersökningen är att kartlägga lärares användning av begrepp i teknikundervisningen. Undersökningen har ägt rum genom en internetbaserad enkätundersökning. Undersökningen visar att lärare använder begrepp på varierande sätt i teknikundervisningen. Begrepp används i sammanhang som är teoretiska, praktiska samt i kombination teori och praktik. Anledningen till att lärare använder begrepp är att tydliggöra teknikämnet, att eleverna ska utveckla sitt språk, för att styrdokumenten säger så samt för att öka elevernas kunskap och lärande. Begrepp är ett viktigt redskap för att berika undervisningen och för att ge eleverna möjligheter till djupare förståelse och kunskap. 

  • 48.
    Elenius, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Beslutsanalys av medicinska åldersbedömningar inom asylprocessen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A framework for a decision analysis method that is based on the principle of maximization of the expected utility regarding alternatives of age assessment for unaccompanied asylum seekers is here presented. Using the framework, different methods (dental, knee joint, hand wrist and the method used by The National Board of Forensic Medicine (RMV) that combines the methods for dental och knee joint) for medical age assessment are compared. These methods are further compared with three benchmark alternatives, (i) to trust the age given by the unaccompanied asylum seeker which results that all are considered to be children, (ii) to consider all the unaccompanied asylum seekers as adults and (iii) the absurd alternative to flip a coin to decide who is a child or an adult.

    For the decision analysis, assumptions and/or estimates for the age distribution of the unaccompanied refugees are needed and estimates for the different methods regarding how probably it is to be considered an adult given the actual age. The outcome of a child that is incorrectly classified is assumed to give the lowest utility and a correct classification (both children and adult) is assumed to give the highest utility. The utility of the outcome of an adult that is incorrectly classified as a child needs to be quantified.

    The age distribution of unaccompanied refugee, considered for age assessment is here assumed to be a combination of two continuous uniform distributions, with the interval 15-18 years (child) and 18-21 years (adult). Two utility models are examined, a discrete model that only consider if the individual is a child or an adult and a continuously linear utility model that consider the age difference from 18 years given an incorrect classification.

    The analyzes carried out demonstrates how the framework can be used in practice. Given the assumptions that are made the conclusion is that the alternative that gives the highest expected utility depends on the prevalence (proportion of adults) together with the valuation of the utility for an incorrect classified adult. Regardless of the valuation, when the prevalence is close to 0 all should be considered to be children, when the prevalence increases should be replaced with a method that largely classifies children correct when the prevalence is further increased should be replaced with a method that largely classifies adults correct and finally, when the prevalence is close to 1 all should be considered as adults.

  • 49.
    Emmerich, Franck
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Anticipating a bid/no-bid decision model for an ICT service company2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report analyses and describes how the bid/no-bid decisions are made at one ICT service company. The analysis is based on current available research within the area of multi criteria decision analysis to enhance the company’s decision process. It proposes how the bid engagement decision can be structured and evaluated. Through a questionnaire at the ICT company, data from its own bids was collected to identify the factors perceived to be relevant to the bid/no bid decision. It is found that the factors can vary depending on industry, market and potentially bid situation, requiring experts’ assessment of which factors to use for each bid situation. Concluding the study, an initial bid model is proposed, but with reservations due to lack of validation in real life situations. A recommendation to expand the existing bid model with probability distribution based risk estimates is made.

  • 50.
    Engblom, Markus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Framgångsrik Implementation av Lean: Förbättrade möjligheter med implementationsmodell2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lean production is the name given to Toyota’s Production System (TPS) by the west. The continuous improvements of their operations through Lean has made Toyota into the largest car manufacturer in the world. This, in turn, has led to several studies regarding both Toyota and their system as to find ways to apply Lean in other organizations. Even so, over 90 percent of all companies fail to implement Lean. Thus it becomes increasingly interesting to research as to how Lean, successfully, should be implemented.

     

    The purpose of this thesis is to construct a model which will aid companies with the implementation process and to further the rate of success. Factors regarding what makes for a successful as well as a failed implementation will be analyzed. 

     

    A case study is used with two different companies in order to analyze empirical data in comparison to earlier research. One company represents a more successful case and the other a less successful one. 

     

    The main findings of this paper is the order of which different aspects of Lean is to be implemented to increase the possibilities for successful implementation. Furthermore the emphasis on a, for Lean, correct leadership within the company that requires genuine understanding and commitment.

     

    The conclusion is displayed as a model where one can see the crucial steps in order to increase the success rate regarding the implementation of Lean. The main points of the model is the importance of support from leaders in combination with an accepting culture where people are of significant importance. The model can be viewed in chapter 6. 

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