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  • 1.
    Albert, Frederic
    et al.
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Humaine, Université de Provence, Marseille, France.
    Bergenheim, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Surgery, Central Hospital Karlstad, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Ribot-Ciscar, Edith
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Humaine, Université de Provence, Marseille, France.
    Roll, Jean-Pierre
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Humaine, Université de Provence, Marseille, France.
    The Ia afferent feedback of a given movement evokes the illusion of the same movement when returned to the subject via muscle tendon vibration2006In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 172, no 2, p. 163-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to further investigate the contribution of primary muscle spindle feedback to proprioception and higher brain functions, such as movement trajectory recognition. For this purpose, complex illusory movements were evoked in subjects by applying patterns of muscle tendon vibration mimicking the natural Ia afferent pattern. Ia afferent messages were previously recorded using microneurographic method from the six main muscle groups acting on the ankle joint during imposed "writing like" movements. The mean Ia afferent pattern was calculated for each muscle group and used as a template to pilot each vibrator. Eleven different vibratory patterns were applied to ten volunteers. Subjects were asked both to copy the perceived illusory movements by hand on a digitizing tablet and to recognize and name the corresponding graphic symbol. The results show that the Ia afferent feedback of a given movement evokes the illusion of the same movement when it is applied to the subject via the appropriate pattern of muscle tendon vibration. The geometry and the kinematic parameters of the imposed and illusory movements are very similar and the so-called "two-thirds power law" is present in the reproduction of the vibration-induced illusory movements. Vibrations within the "natural" frequency range of Ia fibres firing (around 30 Hz) produce clear illusions of movements in all the tested subjects. In addition, increasing the mean frequency of the vibration patterns resulted in a linear increase in the size of the illusory movements. Lastly, the subjects were able to recognize and name the symbols evoked by the vibration-induced primary muscle spindle afferent patterns in 83% of the trials. These findings suggest that the "proprioceptive signature" of a given movement is associated with the corresponding "perceptual signature". The neural mechanisms possibly underlying the sensory to perceptual transformation are discussed in the general framework of "the neuronal population vector model".

  • 2.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Department of Integrative Medical Biology and Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Short-term olfactory sensitization involves brain networks relevant for pain, and indicates chemical intolerance2017In: International journal of hygiene and environmental health, ISSN 1438-4639, E-ISSN 1618-131X, Vol. 220, no 2, p. 503-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance is a medically unexplained affliction that implies deleterious reactions to non-toxic everyday chemical exposure. Sensitization (i.e. increased reactivity to repeated, invariant stimulation) to odorous stimulation is an important component in theoretical explanations of chemical intolerance, but empirical evidence is scarce. We hypothesized that (1) individuals who sensitize to repeated olfactory stimulation, compared with those who habituate, would express a lower blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) response in key inhibitory areas such as the rACC, and higher signal in pain/saliency detection regions, as well as primary and/or secondary olfactory projection areas; and (2) olfactory sensitization, compared with habituation, would be associated with greater self-reported chemical intolerance. Moreover, we assessed whether olfactory sensitization was paralleled by comparable trigeminal processing – in terms of perceptual ratings and BOLD responses. We grouped women from a previous functional magnetic imaging study based on intensity ratings of repeated amyl acetate exposure over time. Fourteen women sensitized to the exposure, 15 habituated, and 20 were considered “intermediate” (i.e. neither sensitizers nor habituaters). Olfactory sensitizers, compared with habituaters, displayed a BOLD-pattern in line with the hypothesis, and reported greater problems with odours in everyday life. They also expressed greater reactions to CO2 in terms of both perceived intensity and BOLD signal. The similarities with pain are discussed.

  • 3.
    Bring, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Statistics.
    Bring, Annika
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Measuring gait - how the choice of measure can affect the statistical results and the clinical interpretation2017In: European Journal of Physiotherapy, ISSN 2167-9169, E-ISSN 2167-9177, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 8-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of this study was to illustrate how the choice of gait measure could affect the statistical analysis of data and the resulting clinical conclusions. Methodology: A descriptive design in which the results from different tests from 10 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus illustrates the potential to generate different clinical conclusions. Major findings and principal conclusion: The results illustrate how the choice of measure can affect the statistical results and the clinical interpretation of a study. It is possible to have the paradoxical situation in which one group has a better walking ability if the variable speed is used but the other group has a better walking ability if the variable time is used. An important message is that the choice of measurement and the transformation of data are not primarily statistical issues. If the statistical results are to be useful for clinical decisions, the variables used must be directly related to the utility for the subjects. An understanding of the clinical relevance of different outcomes is required. The distinction between when numbers are purely descriptive and when numbers represent a valuation is subtle and difficult to comprehend.

  • 4.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Willander, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Simon, Rozalyn
    A review of the methodology, taxonomy, and definitions in recent fMRI research on meditation2022In: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 13, p. 541-555Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: As meditation is increasingly employed for the promotion of good health, there is a growing interest in using neuroimaging methods to investigate the neural mechanisms by which meditation acts. In the wake of this rising interest, criticism regarding the lack of clarity concerning theory, definitions, and taxonomy, as well as deficient or poorly reported methodology, has arisen. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in current neuroimaging research on meditation and to provide guidelines for future studies.

    Methods: We made a literature search for articles published during 2016–2019 using the search phrases “meditation” and “functional magnetic resonance imaging or fMRI”. Inclusion criteria were limited to meditation studies using resting-state fMRI or such task-based fMRI examinations that were specifically targeting meditative states in healthy participants. Text analysis was performed using Nvivo 12 Mac (QSR International).

    Results: Twenty-eight articles were included from which we identified four different intention-based dimensions of meditation practice: The present moment, Wholesome qualities to cultivate, Unwholesome qualities to avoid, and Attitudes. Half of the studies do not make assessments of subjective experience. The results were related to networks and brain regions describing cognitive, affective, somatic, and self domains of brain function. Most studies describe meditation-related brain function in terms of “processes”.

    Conclusions: We defined five areas of potential improvement regarding research methodology: (1) Provide clear and unambiguous definitions of constructs and practices, (2) Include measures of subjective experience, (3) Perform correct assessment of processes, (4) Combine methodologies for more substantiated conclusions, (5) Avoid the risk of overinterpretation.

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  • 5.
    Evstigneeva, Maria
    et al.
    Saint Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Aleksandrov, Aleksandr
    Saint Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Concurrent cognitive task may improve motor work performance and reduce muscle fatigue2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 2893-2896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance of certain cognitive tasks either during physical load or in rest pauses between boosts might lead to slowing of muscle fatigue and fatigue related decline in performance. Seventeen right-handed healthy volunteers (age 24±1.4, 8 males) participated in this study, aiming to investigate the effect of the level of the cognitive information processing – 1) passive perception of audio stimuli, 2) active stimuli discrimination, 3) active stimuli discrimination following motor response - on motor task performance (handgrip test 30% and 7% of MVC) and muscle fatigue development. Cognitive tasks show the following effects on motor work: i) Perceived fatigue during 30 % MVC (fatiguing) condition developed slower if participant pressed button in response to deviant acoustic stimuli, as compared to passive listening. Counting task, an active task without motor component, took the intermediate position and did not differ significantly from two other cognitive tasks. ii) MVC after 30% MVC (fatiguing) condition tended to decrease stronger when accompanied with passive listening in comparison with both active tasks. iii) Motor task performance during 30% MVC (fatiguing) condition was better for active cognitive task with motor component than for passive task. Active task without motor component took the intermediate position and did not differ significantly from both the other cognitive tasks.

  • 6.
    Evstigneeva, Maria
    et al.
    St. Petersbutg State University.
    Aleksandrov, Alexander
    St. Petersbutg State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Interaction between cognitive task and muscle work: Concurrent cognitive task may improve motor work performance and reduce muscle fatigue2012In: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 85, no 3, p. 381-381Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Grinberg, Adam
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Strong, Andrew
    Umeå universitet.
    Strandberg, Johan
    Umeå universitet.
    Selling, Jonas
    Umeå universitet.
    Liebermann, Dario G.
    Tel-Aviv University, Israel.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health, Psychology and Sports Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Umeå universitet.
    Häger, Charlotte K.
    Umeå universitet.
    Electrocortical activity associated with movement-related fear: a methodological exploration of a threat-conditioning paradigm involving destabilising perturbations during quiet standing2024In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Musculoskeletal trauma often leads to lasting psychological impacts stemming from concerns of future injuries. Often referred to as kinesiophobia or re-injury anxiety, such concerns have been shown to hinder return to physical activity and are believed to increase the risk for secondary injuries. Screening for re-injury anxiety is currently restricted to subjective questionnaires, which are prone to self-report bias. We introduce a novel approach to objectively identify electrocortical activity associated with the threat of destabilising perturbations. We aimed to explore its feasibility among non-injured persons, with potential future implementation for screening of re-injury anxiety. Twenty-three participants stood blindfolded on a translational balance perturbation platform. Consecutive auditory stimuli were provided as low (neutral stimulus [CS–]) or high (conditioned stimulus [CS+]) tones. For the main experimental protocol (Protocol I), half of the high tones were followed by a perturbation in one of eight unpredictable directions. A separate validation protocol (Protocol II) requiring voluntary squatting without perturbations was performed with 12 participants. Event-related potentials (ERP) were computed from electroencephalography recordings and significant time-domain components were detected using an interval-wise testing procedure. High-amplitude early contingent negative variation (CNV) waves were significantly greater for CS+ compared with CS– trials in all channels for Protocol I (> 521-800ms), most prominently over frontal and central midline locations (P ≤ 0.001). For Protocol II, shorter frontal ERP components were observed (541-609ms). Our test paradigm revealed electrocortical activation possibly associated with movement-related fear. Exploring the discriminative validity of the paradigm among individuals with and without self-reported re-injury anxiety is warranted.

  • 8.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Johansson, Jenny
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Nyberg, Fred J
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Growth hormone improves spatial memory and reverses certain anabolic androgenic steroid-induced effects in intact rats2013In: Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0022-0795, E-ISSN 1479-6805, Vol. 216, no 1, p. 31-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth hormone (GH) has previously been shown to promote cognitive functions in GH deficient rodents. In this study we report effects of GH on learning and memory in intact rats pretreated with the anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone. Male Wistar rats received nandrolone decanoate (15 mg/kg) or peanut oil every third day for three weeks and were subsequently treated with recombinant human GH (1.0 IU/kg) or saline for ten consecutive days. During the GH/saline treatment spatial learning and memory were tested in the Morris water maze (MWM). Also, plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) were assessed and the gene expression of the GH receptor, Igf1, and Igf2 in hippocampus and frontal cortex was analyzed. The results demonstrated a significant positive effect of GH on memory functions and increased gene expression of Igf1 in the hippocampus was found in the animals treated with GH. In addition, GH was demonstrated to increase the body weight gain and was able to attenuate the reduced body weight seen in nandrolone treated animals. In general, the rats treated with nandrolone alone did not exhibit any pronounced alteration in memory compared to controls in the MWM, and in many cases GH did not induce any alteration. Regarding target zone crossings, considered to be associated to spatial memory, the difference between GH and steroid treated animals was significant and administration of GH improved this parameter in the latter group. In conclusion, GH improves spatial memory in intact rats and can reverse certain effects induced by AAS.

  • 9.
    Hedborg, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Anderberg, Ulla Maria
    Uppsala University.
    Muhr, Carin
    Uppsala University.
    Stress in migraine: personality-dependent vulnerability, life events, and gender are of significance2011In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 116, no 3, p. 187-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim. The individual's experiences of stress as well as constitutional factors, including high neuroticism and female gender, are known determinants for migraine. The present aim was to further elucidate factors of personality and stress, including life events, in relation to gender in migraine. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed on 150 persons, 106 women and 44 men, suffering from at least two migraine attacks a month. All obtained a doctor-defined migraine diagnosis based on a structured face-to-face interview concerning their health situation and current and prior stress. All of them also answered validated questionnaires regarding personality traits (SSP), life events, and perceived ongoing stress. Results. The personality trait inventory showed high mean scores for stress susceptibility and low mean scores for aggressiveness and adventure seeking, both for women and for men, as well as high mean scores for psychic and somatic anxiety in women. Stress susceptibility, the overall most deviant trait, correlated strikingly with current level of stress in both sexes. In women, stress susceptibility also correlated strongly with experiences of negative life events. Tension-type headache, anxiety, and depression were approximately twice as prevalent in women compared to men. Conclusions. The present study confirms previous research, showing that stress is an important factor in migraine. Stress susceptibility, life events, and concomitant psychosomatic illnesses should be considered important when evaluating individuals with migraine, and gender aspects need to be taken into account.

  • 10.
    Jerez-Hanckes, C.
    et al.
    Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez Diagonal Las Torres, Peñalolén, Santiago, 2700, Chile.
    Pettersson, Irina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics.
    Rybalko, V.
    B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering of NASU, 47 Nauky Ave., Kharkiv, 61103, Ukraine.
    Derivation of cable equation by multiscale analysis for a model of myelinated axons2020In: Discrete and continuous dynamical systems. Series B, ISSN 1531-3492, E-ISSN 1553-524X, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 815-839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We derive a one-dimensional cable model for the electric potential propagation along an axon. Since the typical thickness of an axon is much smaller than its length, and the myelin sheath is distributed periodically along the neuron, we simplify the problem geometry to a thin cylinder with alternating myelinated and unmyelinated parts. Both the microstructure period and the cylinder thickness are assumed to be of order ε, a small positive parameter. Assuming a nonzero conductivity of the myelin sheath, we find a critical scaling with respect to ε which leads to the appearance of an additional potential in the homogenized nonlinear cable equation. This potential contains information about the geometry of the myelin sheath in the original three-dimensional model. 

  • 11.
    Kappe, Camilla
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Tracy, Linda M.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för neurokemi.
    Patrone, Cesare
    Karolinska institutet.
    Iverfeldt, Kerstin
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för neurokemi.
    Sjöholm, Åke
    Karolinska institutet.
    GLP 1 secretion by microglial cells and decreased cns expression in obesity2012In: Journal of Neuroinflammation, E-ISSN 1742-2094, Vol. 9, article id 276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a strong risk factor for developing neurodegenerative pathologies. T2D patients have a deficiency in the intestinal incretin hormone GLP-1, which has been shown to exert neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties in the brain. Methods: Here we investigate potential sources of GLP-1 in the CNS and the effect of diabetic conditions on the proglucagon mRNA expression in the CNS. The obese mouse model ob/ob, characterized by its high levels of free fatty acids, and the microglia cell line BV-2 were used as models. mRNA expression and protein secretion were analyzed by qPCR, immunofluorescence and ELISA. Results: We show evidence for microglia as a central source of GLP-1 secretion. Furthermore, we observed that expression and secretion are stimulated by cAMP and dependent on microglial activation state. We also show that insulin-resistant conditions reduce the central mRNA expression of proglucagon. Conclusion: The findings that microglial mRNA expression of proglucagon and GLP-1 protein expression are affected by high levels of free fatty acids and that both mRNA expression levels of proglucagon and secretion levels of GLP-1 are affected by inflammatory stimuli could be of pathogenic importance for the premature neurodegeneration and cognitive decline commonly seen in T2D patients, and they may also be harnessed to advantage in therapeutic efforts to prevent or treat such disorders.

  • 12.
    Laukka, Petri
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Linnman, Clas
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Pissiota, Anna
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Frans, Örjan
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Faria, Vanda
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Michelgård, Åsa
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Uppsala Imanet AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    In a nervous voice: Acoustic analysis and perception of anxiety in social phobics' speech2008In: Journal of nonverbal behavior, ISSN 0191-5886, E-ISSN 1573-3653, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 195-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of anxiety on nonverbal aspects of speech using data collected in the framework of a large study of social phobia treatment. The speech of social phobics (N = 71) was recorded during an anxiogenic public speaking task both before and after treatment. The speech samples were analyzed with respect to various acoustic parameters related to pitch, loudness, voice quality, and temporal apsects of speech. The samples were further content-masked by low-pass filtering (which obscures the linguistic content of the speech but preserves nonverbal affective cues) and subjected to listening tests. Results showed that a decrease in experienced state anxiety after treatment was accompanied by corresponding decreases in a) several acoustic parameters (i.e., mean and maximum voice pitch, high-frequency components in the energy spectrum, and proportion of silent pauses), and b) listeners' perceived level of nervousness. Both speakers' self-ratings of state anxiety and listeners' ratings of perceived nervousness were further correlated with similar acoustic parameters. The results complement earlier studies on vocal affect expression which have been conducted on posed, rather than authentic, emotional speech.

  • 13.
    Leitman, David I
    et al.
    Program in Cognitive Neuroscience and Schizophrenia, Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, USA; Program in Cognitive Neuroscience, The City College of the City University of New York, New York, NY, USA; Brain Behavior Laboratory, Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Laukka, Petri
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Juslin, Patrik N.
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Saccente, Erica
    Program in Cognitive Neuroscience and Schizophrenia, Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, USA.
    Butler, Pamela
    Program in Cognitive Neuroscience and Schizophrenia, Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, USA; Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
    Javitt, Daniel C.
    Nathan S Kline Inst Psychiat Res, Program Cognit Neurosci & Schizophrenia, Orangeburg, NY, USA; Program in Cognitive Neuroscience and Schizophrenia, Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, USA; Program in Cognitive Neuroscience, The City College of the City University of New York, New York, NY, USA; Brain Behavior Laboratory, Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
    Getting the Cue: Sensory Contributions to Auditory Emotion Recognition Impairments in Schizophrenia.2008In: Schizophrenia Bulletin, ISSN 0586-7614, E-ISSN 1745-1701, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 545-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with schizophrenia show reliable deficits in the ability to recognize emotions from vocal expressions. Here, we examined emotion recognition ability in 23 schizophrenia patients relative to 17 healthy controls using a stimulus battery with well-characterized acoustic features. We further evaluated performance deficits relative to ancillary assessments of underlying pitch perception abilities. As predicted, patients showed reduced emotion recognition ability across a range of emotions, which correlated with impaired basic tone matching abilities. Emotion identification deficits were strongly related to pitch-based acoustic cues such as mean and variability of fundamental frequency. Whereas healthy subjects' performance varied as a function of the relative presence or absence of these cues, with higher cue levels leading to enhanced performance, schizophrenia patients showed significantly less variation in performance as a function of cue level. In contrast to pitch-based cues, both groups showed equivalent variation in performance as a function of intensity-based cues. Finally, patients were less able than controls to differentiate between expressions with high and low emotion intensity, and this deficit was also correlated with impaired tone matching ability. Both emotion identification and intensity rating deficits were unrelated to valence of intended emotions. Deficits in both auditory emotion identification and more basic perceptual abilities correlated with impaired functional outcome. Overall, these findings support the concept that auditory emotion identification deficits in schizophrenia reflect, at least in part, a relative inability to process critical acoustic characteristics of prosodic stimuli and that such deficits contribute to poor global outcome.

  • 14.
    Mansouri, Shiva
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Barde, Swapnali
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ortsäter, Henrik
    Karolinska institutet.
    Eweida, Mohamed
    Södersjukhuset .
    Darsalia, Vladimer
    Karolinska institutet.
    Langel, Ülo
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för neurokemi.
    Sjöholm, Åke
    Karolinska institutet; University of South Alabama, AL, USA.
    Hökfelt, Tomas
    Karolinska institutet.
    Patrone, Cesare
    Karolinska institutet.
    GalR3 activation promotes adult neural stem cell survival in response to a diabetic milieu2013In: Journal of Neurochemistry, ISSN 0022-3042, E-ISSN 1471-4159, Vol. 127, no 2, p. 209-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 2 diabetes impairs adult neurogenesis which could play a role in the CNS complications of this serious disease. The goal of this study was to determine the potential role of galanin in protecting adult neural stem cells (NSCs) from glucolipotoxicity and to analyze whether apoptosis and the unfolded protein response were involved in the galanin-mediated effect. We also studied the regulation of galanin and its receptor subtypes under diabetes in NSCs in vitro and in the subventricular zone (SVZ) in vivo. The viability of mouse SVZ-derived NSCs and the involvement of apoptosis (Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3) and unfolded protein response [C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) Glucose-regulated protein 78/immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein (GRP78/BiP), spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) phosphorylation] were assessed in the presence of glucolipotoxic conditions after 24h. The effect of diabetes on the regulation of galanin and its receptor subtypes was assessed on NSCs in vitro and in SVZ tissues isolated from normal and type 2 diabetes ob/ob mice. We show increased NSC viability following galanin receptor (GalR)3 activation. This protective effect correlated with decreased apoptosis and CHOP levels. We also report how galanin and its receptors are regulated by diabetes in vitro and in vivo. This study shows GalR3-mediated neuroprotection, supporting a potential future therapeutic development, based on GalR3 activation, for the treatment of brain disorders.

  • 15.
    Prytz, Kjell
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Electrolocation of the Weak Electric Fish2004Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Martin, Bernard
    University of Michigan.
    Does the Central Nervous System learn to plan bimanual movements based on its expectation of availability of visual feedback2012In: Human Movement Science, ISSN 0167-9457, E-ISSN 1872-7646, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 1409-1424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The correlation between gaze strategy and kinematics of bimanual movements isassessed using repetitive bimanual object transfers as an experimental paradigm. The hypothesis isthat visual demand in such tasks may be a critical bottleneck determining bimanual coordination.Kinematics and eye-movements were compared before and after practice of this repetitive task.New eye-hand coordination strategies emerged with practice. Also, with practice, a systematicprioritization of the left hand movement to be „primary‟ and the right hand movement to be„secondary‟ emerged. This choice implied that the left hand movement kinematics was similar tounimanual left hand movements, whereas the performance of the right hand task was contingent onsuccessful completion of the primary task. This was revealed by „anticipatory adjustments‟ of theright hand kinematics (Right-hand peak velocity ranged from 100%-70% of the left-hand, and thescaling was dependent on task conditions and the corresponding eye-hand coordination strategiesused). We use this evidence to argue that the CNS, aware of an inherent asymmetry between thetwo hand systems, learns to anticipate the need and availability of visual feedback for successfultask completion, and uses this knowledge to optimize movement coordination - specifically suchthat the right-hand control was modulated to take visual constraints into account.

  • 17.
    Toebes, Marcel
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Hoozemans, Marco
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Dekker, Joost
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Measurement strategy and statistical power in studies assessing gait stability and variability in older adults2016In: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 257-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Gait variability and stability measures might be useful to assess gait quality changes after fall prevention programs. However, reliability of these measures appears limited.

    Aims: The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of measurement strategy in terms of numbers of subjects, measurement days and measurements per day on the power to detect relevant changes in gait variability and stability between conditions among healthy elderly.

    Methods: Sixteen healthy older participants (65.6 (SD 5.9) years), performed two walking trials on each of two days. Required numbers of subjects to obtain sufficient statistical power for comparisons between conditions within subjects (paired, repeated-measures designs) were calculated (with confidence intervals) for several gait measures and for different numbers of trials per day and for different numbers of measurement days.

    Results: The numbers of subjects required to obtain sufficient statistical power in studies collecting data from one trial on one day in each of the two compared conditions ranged from 7-13 for large differences but highly correlated data between conditions, up to 78-192 for data with a small effect and low correlation.

    Discussion: Low correlations between gait parameters in different conditions can be assumed and relatively small effects appear clinically meaningful. This implies that large numbers of subjects are generally needed.

    Conclusion: This study provides the analysis tools and underlying data for power analyses in studies using gait parameters as an outcome of interventions aiming to reduce fall risk.

  • 18.
    Wiesinger, Birgitta
    et al.
    Umeå University and Västernorrland County Council.
    Häggman-Henriksson, Birgitta
    Umeå University and Malmö University.
    Wänman, Anders
    Umeå University.
    Lindqvist, Mikael
    Umeå University.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jaw-opening accuracy is not affected by masseter muscle vibration in healthy men2014In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 232, no 11, p. 3501-3508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a functional integration between the jaw and neck regions with head extension–flexion movements during jaw-opening/closing tasks. We recently reported that trigeminal nociceptive input by injection of hypertonic saline into the masseter muscle altered this integrated jaw–neck function during jaw-opening/closing tasks. Thus, in jaw-opening to a predefined position, the head–neck component increased during pain. Previous studies have indicated that muscle spindle stimulation by vibration of the masseter muscle may influence jaw movement amplitudes, but the possible effect on the integrated jaw–neck function is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of masseter muscle vibration on jaw–head movements during a continuous jaw-opening/closing task to a target position. Sixteen healthy men performed two trials without vibration (Control) and two trials with bilateral masseter muscle vibration (Vibration). Movements of the mandible and the head were registered with a wireless three-dimensional optoelectronic recording system. Differences in jaw-opening and head movement amplitudes between Control and Vibration, as well as achievement of the predefined jaw-opening target position, were analysed with Wilcoxon’s matched pairs test. No significant group effects from vibration were found for jaw or head movement amplitudes, or in the achievement of the target jaw-opening position. A covariation between the jaw and head movement amplitudes was observed. The results imply a high stability for the jaw motor system in a target jaw-opening task and that this task was achieved with the head–neck and jaw working as an integrated system.

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