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  • 1.
    Brink, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Olsson, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Patienters erfarenheter av egenvård vid diabetes mellitus typ 22022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is a common disease that is increasing worldwide and usually affects people over 50 years of age, but is increasingly seen at younger ages. The risk of contracting it depends on both heredity and lifestyle, where physical activity, good diet and avoiding tobacco are some factors that can prevent contracting DMT2. Carrying out good self-care is important for the disease to be under control and not worsen. Purpose: To describe people's experiences of self-care in diabetes mellitus type 2. Method: A descriptive literature study where the database search was done in Pubmed. Thirteen primary studies generated content for the study results. Results: Three main themes emerged in the study, which were, Knowledge when performing self-care in people with DMT2, The importance of lifestyle changes in self-care in people with DMT2 and Obstacles in performing self-care in people with DMT2. In these main themes, seven subthemes emerged, Knowledge an important importance in managing self-care, The nurse's knowledge affects the person's self-care, New routines a challenge for self-care, The importance of support from relatives and people with the same illness for the maintenance of self-care, The economy affects the maintenance of self-care, Other diseases affect self-care and Stigma affects self-care. Conclusion: People's experiences of self-care in DMT2 showed that self-care management was challenging. The literature study can contribute to increased understanding and at the same time be a tool for the nurse, people with DMT2 and their surroundings and contribute to good experiences of self-care in DMT2.

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  • 2.
    Dannison, Phawlay
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Rezaei, Mustafa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Personers upplevelser av att leva med typ 2 diabetes.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Bakgrund: Diabetes mellitus typ 2 (DMT2)är en av den vanligaste sjukdomarna och den ökar mer och mer på grund av ohälsosam livsstil. Faktorer som höjer risken för att utveckla DMT2 är livstillfaktorer som till exempel tobak, minskad fysisk aktivitet, stillasittande liv, matvanor och fetma. Sjukdomen behandlas med hälsosam kost, fysisk aktivitet och medicinering.

    Syftet: Syftet med studie var att beskriva personers upplevelser av att leva med DTM2.

    Metod: Litteraturstudie med en beskrivande design som bygger på 13 kvalitativa artiklar.

    Resultat: personerna upplever en psykologisk påverkan som visar sig som oro, rädsla, nedstämdhet och oro över framtiden. Personerna upplever också olika sociala begränsningar. Egenvården som främst består av medicinering, kost och fysisk aktivitet upplevs som mycket viktig. Kunskap och stöd av närstående och vårdpersonalen upplevs som viktig.

    Slutsats: Personer med DMT2 känner sig nedstämda och upplever oro. Genom att få stöd från närstående och vårdpersonal underlättas personernas självhantering av sjukdomen. Personerna upplever att umgänget med andra personer minskas på grund av sociala begränsningar. Olika copingstrategier samt egenvård spela stor roll för personer med diabetes typ 2. Mer kunskap inom området vore önskvärt för att ge ett adekvat bemötande.

    Nyckelord: diabetes mellitus typ 2, dagligt liv, upplevelser.

     

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  • 3.
    Gizachew, Sirgut
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Människors upplevelser av att leva med typ 2 diabetes2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
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  • 4.
    Gustafsson, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Vallberg, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av egenvård hos diabetes typ-2 patienter2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes mellitus type-2 is one of the most common public diseases worldwide, in Sweden it is estimated that about 300,000 people suffer from the disease. A large part of the treatment for people with type 2 diabetes is to change their eating habits, physical activity and to medicate themselves, this is called self-care. A large part of nurses' work with type 2 diabetes patients is to motivate and provide support to the patients so that they comply with the lifestyle advice given as far as possible. How patients experience their self-care looks different, some believe that because the disease is genetic it is not something that could be controlled while others thought that self-care and the disease could be difficult to manage and that support from health care is important.

     

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the nurse's experiences of self-care in

    diabetes mellitus type-2 patients

     

    Method: A literature study with descriptive design that includes a total of 10 articles of qualitative approach from the database Pubmed.

     

    Results: 

    The results showed that nurses often perceived their patients as unjustified in their self-care and that they had difficulty following the lifestyle advice given, this was a common theme. Nurses used various methods to improve the self-care and motivation of their patients. It also emerged from the results that the nurses experienced stress and reduced job satisfaction, related to the fact that they could not provide the good diabetes care they wanted as they felt that they did not get any hearing from the patient.

     

    Conclusion: The present literature study shows that nurses may need support and tools to provide the right self-care support to their patients. This can thus lead to the nurses feeling more satisfied with the work they have accomplished and thus also promote job satisfaction.

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  • 5. Hemgren, Barbro
    et al.
    Mamhidir, Anna-Greta
    Sammanfattning av diabeteskurs september 1991 - maj 19921992Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Huang, Zhen
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Sjöholm, Åke
    Karolinska institutet.
    Pancreatic islet blood flow is selectively enhanced by captopril, irbesartan and pravastatin, and suppressed by palmitate2006In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 346, no 1, p. 26-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diabetic patients are often treated with a lipid lowering statin and an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor antagonist against hypertension or albuminuria. These drugs may also improve glucose tolerance, but the mechanism for this remains elusive. We now studied whether these drugs and the fatty acid palmitate influence insulin secretion in vivo in rats through effects on islet blood perfusion. Whole pancreatic blood flow was markedly increased by captopril and irbesartan, and decreased by palmitate. Islet blood flow was significantly and preferentially enhanced by captopril, irbesartan, and pravastatin, and suppressed by palmitate. Both captopril and irbesartan raised serum insulin concentrations significantly. However, glycemia was not affected in any group. In conclusion, the present study suggests that a local pancreatic RAS and pravastatin may be selectively controlling pancreatic islet blood flow and thereby influencing insulin secretion. The antidiabetic actions of statins and RAS inhibitors might in part occur through the beneficial direct islet effects shown here. Conversely, free fatty acids that are elevated in type 2 diabetic patients may contribute to an impaired nutritive islet blood flow and thereby further aggravate the diabetic state by limiting the supply of insulin needed to curb hyperglycemia.

  • 7.
    Huang, Zhen
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Jansson, Leif
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk cellbiologi.
    Sjöholm, Åke
    Karolinska institutet.
    Vasoactive drugs enhance pancreatic islet blood flow, augment insulin secretion and improve glucose tolerance in female rats2007In: Clinical Science, ISSN 0143-5221, E-ISSN 1470-8736, Vol. 112, no 1-2, p. 69-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pravastatin, irbesartan and captopril are frequently used in the treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes. These drugs also exert beneficial metabolic effects, causing an improved glucose tolerance in patients, but the precise mechanisms by which this is achieved remain elusive. To this end, we have studied whether these drugs influence insulin secretion in vivo through effects on islet blood perfusion. Captopril (3 mg/kg of body weight), irbesartan (3 mg/kg of body weight) and pravastatin (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) were injected intravenously into anaesthetized female Wistar rats. Blood flow rates were determined by a microsphere technique. Blood glucose concentrations were measured with test reagent strips and serum insulin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Pancreatic blood flow was markedly increased by pravastatin (P<0.001), captopril (P < 0.05) and irbesartan (P<0.01). Pancreatic islet blood flow was significantly and preferentially enhanced after the administration of captopril (P<0.01), irbesartan (P<0.01) and pravastatin (P<0.001). Kidney blood flow was enhanced significantly by pravastatin (P < 0.01), irbesartan (P < 0.05) and captopril (P < 0.01). Captopril and pravastatin also enhanced late-phase insulin secretion and positively influenced glycaemia in intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests. In conclusion, the present study suggests that a local pancreatic renin-angiotensin system and pravastatin treatment may be selectively controlling pancreatic islet blood flow, augmenting insulin secretion and thereby improving glucose tolerance. Our findings indicate significant gender-related differences in the vascular response to these agents. Since statins and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors are frequently used by diabetic patients, the antidiabetic actions of these drugs reported previously might occur, in part, through the beneficial direct islet effects shown in the present study.

  • 8.
    Kotsa, K.
    et al.
    Diabetes Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1st Department of Internal Medicine, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Grammatiki, M.
    Diabetes Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1st Department of Internal Medicine, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Xergia, S.
    Division of Physiotherapy, European University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Catrina, S. B.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery (MMK), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tsaklis, P.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery (MMK), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Physiotherapy, Alexander TEI, Thessaloniki, Greece .
    Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity towards fatigue of type 2 diabetes patients with macro-angiopathy and peripheral neuropathy (pilot study)2017In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 60, p. S446-S447Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Mamhidir, Anna-Greta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Lundman, Berit
    Having control over type 2 diabetes means daring to be free2004In: Journal of Diabetes Nursing., ISSN 1368-1109, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 12-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we describe the process of assuming control from the patient's perspective. A qualitative study into the meaning of control and freedom of people with type 2 diabetes was conducted. Insight into the responsibility and loss of freedom that diabetes entails created emotional strain, but learning to know the body's reactions and how to test blood glucose gave a feeling of security. Participants emphasised personal choice in everyday life at the same time as feelings of fear and guilt about lapses in self care. A positive view of life made it easier for people with diabetes to find a suitable lifestyle and establish a feeling of freedom. An encouraging approach to caring for people with diabetes helped to build self-confidence and freedom.

  • 10. Olarte, O.
    et al.
    Van Moer, Wendy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Barbe, K.
    Van Ingelgem, Y.
    Hubin, A.
    FREQUENCY DOMAIN IDENTIFICATION OF GLUCOSE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS AT PHYSIOLOGICAL LEVELS2013In: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, ISSN 1520-9156, E-ISSN 1557-8593, Vol. 15, p. A68-A68Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Saadoon, Huda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sundin, Linnea
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Egenvård vid diabetes typ 2- En beskrivande litteraturstudie: Personer med diabetes typ 2 erfarenheter2024Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The nurse's specific competence is nursing. Person-centered care focuses on seeing each patient as a unique person with individual needs. In the case of diabetes, the nurse has an important educational and supervisory function to strengthen the patient's ability to manage the disease, also providing information and assessing patient needs as well as providing theoretical and practical training to all diabetes patients to facilitate self-care.

    Purpose: To describe people with diabetes type 2 experience with self-care.

    Method: A descriptive literature study including 9 qualitative scientific articles. The scientific articles were found through searching the database PubMed.

    Main result: Social contexts can mean difficulties with maintaining one's diet and feelings of guilt. It is a psychological burden for people with type 2 diabetes. Several barriers to self-care were presented. Using the mobile app resulted in many of the users learning to interpret blood sugar values and identify patterns in activity level, diet and blood sugar level and the relationship between them to keep blood sugar at a satisfactory level. Sufficient knowledge of the disease, secondary diseases, and measures to influence the disease enable adaptation regarding the lifestyle.

    Conclusion: Nurses should work person-centered and to be able to do that it is good that they get an insight into how diabetes type 2 can affect the person's life and that there is more to self-care then what comes to mind when you hear the word.

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  • 12.
    Sjöholm, Åke
    et al.
    Gävle Cent Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Div Endocrinol & Diabetol, Gävle, Sweden..
    Pereira, Maria João
    Uppsala universitet, Klinisk diabetologi och metabolism.
    Nilsson, Thomas
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala kliniska forskningscentrum (UCR).
    Linde, Torbjörn
    Uppsala universitet, Njurmedicin.
    Katsogiannos, Petros
    Uppsala universitet, Klinisk diabetologi och metabolism.
    Saaf, Jan
    Vastmanland Hosp Koping, Dept Internal Med, Koping, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Jan W.
    Uppsala universitet, Klinisk diabetologi och metabolism.
    Type B insulin resistance syndrome in a patient with type 1 diabetes2020In: Endocrinology, diabetes & metabolism case reports, ISSN 2052-0573, Vol. 2020, no 1, article id 190157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Type B insulin resistance syndrome (TBIRS) is a very rare autoimmune disorder with polyclonal autoantibodies against the insulin receptor, resulting in severe and refractory hyperglycemia. Described here is a patient who within a few months after the onset of autoimmune type 1 diabetes increased her insulin requirements more than 20-fold; despite this she had considerable difficulty maintaining a plasma glucose value of <40-60 mmol/L (720-1100 mg/dL). On suspicion of TBIRS, the patient was started on tapering dose of glucocorticoids to overcome the autoimmune insulin receptor blockade, resulting in an immediate and pronounced effect. Within days, insulin requirements decreased by 80-90% and plasma glucose stabilized around 7-8 mmol/L (126-144 mg/dL). The presence of antibodies to the insulin receptor was detected by immunoprecipitation and binding assays. After a 4-month remission on low maintenance dose prednisolone, the patient relapsed, which required repeated plasmaphereses and immune column treatments with temporarily remarkable effect. Mixed and transient results were seen with rituximab, mycophenolic acid and bortezomib, but the glycemic status remained suboptimal. Lack of compliance and recurrent infections may have contributed to this.

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  • 13.
    Österberg, John
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rahim, Namir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    En beskrivning av hur personer med diabetes typ 2 upplever att genomgå livsstilsförändringar till följd av sjukdomen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Diabetes är en av de sjukdomar som är mest växande globalt. I Sverige är det över 400 000 människor som lever med diabetes. Diabetessjukdomen finns i olika former och de vanligaste formerna är diabetes typ 1 och diabetes typ 2. Risken att bli drabbad av den sjukdomen ökar vid fetma, tobaks- och alkoholkonsumtion. Därför kan det bli nödvändigt att genomföra livsstilsförändring för att förbättra den mentala och fysiska hälsan hos personer som lever med diabetes typ 2.

     

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva hur personer med diabetes typ 2 upplever att genomgå livsstilsförändringar till följd av sjukdomen. Syftet var också att beskriva datainsamlingsmetoderna i de inkluderade artiklarna i resultatet.

     

    Metod: En litteraturstudie med en deskriptiv design som baserades på 14 kvalitativa vetenskapliga artiklar.

     

    Huvudresultat: Resultatet för denna litteraturstudie baserades på möjligheter och svårigheter som påverkade upplevelsen av att genomgå livsstilsförändringar hos personer med diabetes typ 2. Utifrån möjligheter har fyra subteman identifierat: Kost och motion som motivationsfaktorer, erhållen kunskap, betydelsen av stöd från omgivningen och att ta personligt ansvar. I huvudteman svårigheter presenterades dessa subteman: Kost- och motions påverkan på det sociala och vardagliga livet, brist på kunskap samt krav och inre kamp.

     

    Slutsats: Flera personer fick blandade känslor utifrån upplevda möjligheter och svårigheter som de har stött på under livsstilsförändringen. Det blir viktigt att sjukvårdspersonal får en bättre helhetsförståelse kring patienters olika upplevelser av att genomgå en livsstilsförändring för att kunna optimera en personcentrerad vård, egenvårdsinsatser och tillgodose patienters egenvårdsbehov.

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