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  • 1.
    Aasum Hultberg, Rosanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Det är väl på sätt och vis det heteronormativa samhället som har gjort mig till transperson […]”: En enkätstudie med transpersoner2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim was to study transgender persons’ experiences of, and reactions upon, attitudes and social norms in relation to their gender identity. Another question that was relevant to answer was how transgender persons are affected by the hetero norm. The method used to collect data was through questionnaires published on the internet. The only requirement to participate was to be a transgender over 18 years old, and when the survey closed, 35 respondents had answered it. The questionnaire consisted of both quantitative and qualitative questions. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis.

    The results indicate that transgender persons living conditions are largely affected by norms, and that they encounter a considerable amount of negative attitudes due to their gender identity. To "pass" as either man or woman turned out to be something that made it easier for transgender people to evade negative attitudes.

    One hope is that this study can provide knowledge to different instances in the community to open up to be more open to critical thinking around norms.

    The conclusion was that persons with a transgender identity are affected by societal norms and by heteronormativity. It takes a lot of courage to be able to be one self but everything boils down to how strong a person are and the availability of support and role models in the surrounding society. 

  • 2.
    Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Iranian Petroleum Health Research Institute, Tehran, Iran .
    De Leon, Antonio Ponce
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Universidade do Estado de Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Kassaian, Seyed Ebrahim
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Karimi, Abbasali
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Department of Psychology, Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Jalali, Arash
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Socioeconomic status and in‑hospital mortality of acute coronary syndrome: can education and occupation serve as preventive measures?2015In: International Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 2008-7802, E-ISSN 2008-8213, Vol. 6, 36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) can greatly affect the clinical outcome of medical problems. We sought to assess the in-hospital mortality of patients with the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) according to their SES.

    METHODS: All patients admitted to Tehran Heart Center due to 1(st)-time ACS between March 2004 and August 2011 were assessed. The patients who were illiterate/lowly educated (≤5 years attained education) and were unemployed were considered low-SES patients and those who were employed and had high educational levels (>5 years attained education) were regarded as high-SES patients. Demographic, clinical, paraclinical, and in-hospital medical progress data were recorded. Death during the course of hospitalization was considered the end point, and the impact of SES on in-hospital mortality was evaluated.

    RESULTS: A total of 6246 hospitalized patients (3290 low SES and 2956 high SES) were included (mean age = 60.3 ± 12.1 years, male = 2772 [44.4%]). Among them, 79 (1.26%) patients died. Univariable analysis showed a significantly higher mortality rate in the low-SES group (1.9% vs. 0.6%; P < 0.001). After adjustment for possible cofounders, SES still showed a significant effect on the in-hospital mortality of the ACS patients in that the high-SES patients had a lower in-hospital mortality rate (odds ratio: 0.304, 95% confidence interval: 0.094-0.980; P = 0.046).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study found that patients with low SES were at a higher risk of in-hospital mortality due to the ACS. Furthermore, the results suggest the need for increased availability of jobs as well as improved levels of education as preventive measures to curb the unfolding deaths owing to coronary artery syndrome.

  • 3.
    Abbott, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Patterning of children's sedentary time at and away from school2013In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, Vol. 21, E131-E133 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:

    Sedentary behavior in children is positively associated with an increased risk of both obesity and insulin resistance. Children spend a considerable portion of their awake time in sedentary behavior; however, the pattern of accumulation is not known. Thus the objective of this study was to describe the patterning of sedentary behavior of children at and away from school.

    Design and Methods:

    The patterns of sedentary time in a sample of 53 children (28 girls) aged 10-12 years during school-term time were examined. Children wore an accelerometer for 1 week. Total sedentary time, prolonged sequences (bouts) of sedentary time, and frequency of active interruptions to sedentary were examined on school days and weekends and within school time and non-school time on school days.

    Results:

    The data did not support our hypothesis that children accumulated more sedentary time on school days when compared with weekend days (mean [SD]: 64.4% [5.3] vs. 64.9% [9.0], P = 0.686). However, when comparing school time with non-school time on school days, children accumulated more sedentary time at school (66.8% [7.3] vs. 62.4% [5.2], P < 0.001) and spent more time at school in sustained sedentary sequences, that is, uninterrupted sedentary time for 30 min or more (75.6 min [45.8] vs. 45.0 min [26.8], P < 0.002). The children also recorded less breaks per sedentary hour within school time when compared with non-school time (8.9 h−1 vs. 10.2 h−1, P < 0.001).

    Conclusion:

    Reducing total sedentary time spent both in and out of school remains an important challenge. Interrupting sedentary time more often in the “working” (school) day could also reap important musculoskeletal and metabolic health rewards for children.

  • 4.
    Abdi, Parvin Monika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Har elever tillräckligt med tid för att äta?: En undersökning på högstadieelevers upplevelser av skolmåltiden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Meal at school is a part of the school studies and it is important for health, but is also a prerequisite for both learning and enjoyment.  The school meal can provide students an opportunity to recover from their studies but sometimes students perceive the meal situation as stressful. It is important that the food environment at school works well for school children, so they do not have to rush during the meal and they can get the opportunity to eat in peace. The purpose of this study was to investigate how students perceive lunch break at school. If they feel they get enough time to eat and how they feel during the meal situation in the school restaurant. The research approach of this study was qualitative and the method of data collection was focus groups. Data were analyzed as a content analysis. The aim of the study were secondary school students in grade 7 and 9, one class from each grade was selected. The study was conducted at a secondary school in a municipality in Sweden with approximately 210 000 inhabitants. The results of the study show that students at secondary school feel they have enough time to eat lunch, but the lunch break is too short. The meal environment in the school restaurant is perceived as very messy and stressful. The meal situation was experienced as more stressful at grade 7 students than 9th grade students.  The conclusion was that students need longer lunch break and meal environment is perceived as stressful.

  • 5.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Culture, Religion and Spirituality in Coping: The Example of Cancer Patients in Sweden2006Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has shown significant associations (negative and positive) between religious and spiritual factors and mental health. Much of this research, however, has been conducted in the US, where religion is an integrated part of most people’s lives. Other studies on religious and spiritually oriented coping conducted outside the US have also focused on religious people. Yet many are non-believers, and many believers do not consider themselves religious, i.e. religion is not an important part of their life. There are also societies in which the dominant culture and ways of thinking dismiss the role of religion in people’s lives. Research on religious coping rarely takes these people into consideration. Thus, the following questions arise: How are religion and spirituality involved in coping when non-believers or non-religious people face difficult events? How do culture and ways of thinking affect people’s choice of religious and spiritual coping methods? Proceeding from a cultural approach to coping and health, this book attempts to address these questions by looking at the coping strategies of Swedish cancer patients.

  • 6.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Hard and Heavy Music: Can It Make a Difference in the Young Cancer Patients' Life?2009In: Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy, ISSN 1504-1611, Vol. 9, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study on the basis of which this article is written was to examine, from the patients’ perspective, the role music plays as a coping method when facing cancer. Here, using music as a coping method refers to using music (listening to and/or playing music individually or participating in a music therapy program) frequently in order to deal with the significant demands presented by cancer. A semi-structured interview with 17 cancer patients who have used music (listened to or played music) in order to cope with their illness was applied. Five of interviewees were men and twelve women. The youngest informant was 24 and the oldest 73 years old. In the paper presented in this conference I will discuss the result of my study concerning the effects of hard and heavy music in coping with cancer. The result of study shows that hard and heavy music as a coping method:

    - by calling in question the cultural demands of having control over their feelings, helps the young cancer patients to obtain their control,

    - by questioning what are conventionally defined as meaning of life, helps the young cancer patients to find a meaning,

    - by calling in question  the cultural requests of being calm and collected helps the young cancer patients to get their tranquility,  

    - by cheering unhealthy behaviors like using drug and having violent sex helps the young cancer patients to recover their mental health.

    All this due to the possibility the heavy and hard music provides for the young cancer patients to get self-confidence by putting away the false mask one wear and be who she/he really is.

  • 7.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Ljungqvist, ArneSvedsäter, GöranUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Doping and public health2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Doping – the use of performance-enhancing substances and methods – has long been a high-profile issue in sport but in recent years it has also become an issue in wider society. This important new book examines doping as a public health issue, drawing on a multi-disciplinary set of perspectives to explore the prevalence, significance and consequences of doping in wider society. It introduces the epidemiology of doping, examines the historical context, and explores the social, behavioural, legal, ethical and political aspects of doping. The book also discusses possible interventions for addressing the problem on organisational and societal levels.

  • 8.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Ljungqvist, Arne
    Svedsäter, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Introduction: Doping and Public Health2016In: Doping and Public Health / [ed] Nader Ahmadi, Arne Ljungqvist, Göran Svedsäter, Abingdon: Routledge, 2016, 1, , 151 p.1-10 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Svedsäter, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    "The winner takes it all": Individualization and Performance-Enhancing Drugs and Methods in Sport and in Society2016In: Doping and Public Health / [ed] Nader Ahmadi, Arne Ljungqvist, Göran Svedsäter, Abingdon: Routledge, 2016, 1, , 151 p.38-48 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A common misconception in today's society is that everything is (or should be) rational and goal-oriented, which we summarized earlier as pragmatic rationalism. We call this pragmatic rationalism a misconception because it misses a historical fact that individuals' actions are and have never been governed entirely by rational motives. Emotional, ethical and existential considerations influence human actions extensively. Solidarity, willingness to share and even self-sacrifice and prioritizing the good of others before one's own are values that have survived many different economic cultures. Even today's extremely individualized society with its focus on reaching success and winning at any price cannot completely suppress these values. There is an inherent contradiction between the crude egoism of modern individualism and its historical development that largely has its origin in the care of humans.

  • 10.
    Alfredsson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Kulturella aktiviteters betydelse för äldres känsla av sammanhang: En enkätundersökning på två äldreboenden i Mellansverige2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was any association between participation in cultural activities and sense of coherence among seniors living in two nursing homes.

    Methods: A questionnaire based on Antonovskys SOC-13-questionaire was used, with added self-formulated questions including gender, age, level of physical function and participation in cultural activities. The questionnaire was distributed to 76 people 65 years and older without dementia at two nursing homes in central Sweden and 40 respondents answered the questionnaire. The material was processed and analyzed in the statistic computer program SPSS, where descriptive statistics were prepared and a chi-square analysis and logistic regression analysis was performed.

    Results: No statistically significant relationship between participation in cultural activities and sense of coherence could be seen. However, there was a correlation between the level of function and SOC scores. The lower level of function, i.e. the more help the respondent needed in everyday life, the lower sense of coherence.

    Conclusion: Functional level seems to have greater impact on an individual's sense of coherence than participation in cultural activities in the given study population.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Ellinor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Har ett idrottsmedlemskap som barn någon betydelse för den fysiska aktiviteten som vuxen?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether students' memberships in sports clubs has affected their attitudes towards physical activity and physical activity level. It was a qualitative descriptive survey based on individual interviews. Results showed that there was a pattern between the former sports membership and current patterns of physical activity.  For instance, those who liked playing football at a young age, continue to adopt the same type of exercise today. This pattern applies to other types of physical activity, with or without club membership. In addition, many respondents thought that a club membership at a young age could have an impact on their physical activity as adults. This was mainly due to the positive feeling that sportsmen perception, that physical activity was something good and fun. Social cohesion in sport was the one thing that many of those interviewed believed was a major reason why sports, was perceived as positive.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Äldre motionärers upplevelser av motionsträning: en beskrivande intervjuundersökning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Older people's experiences of exercise training: a survey based on a descriptive design.

    Course: Public Health: Theory and method of application and degree, 30 credits. University of Gävle, health education program.

    Author: Helena Andersson

    Purpose: According to earlier research the western population is aging. This may affect, the older peoples`s physical disability in one form or another. The consequences may be that the need off care can increase. However elderly can prevent a variety of age-related diseases by being physically active. The study will examine how older people view physical activity and participation of other social activities. This is to improve understanding of older people's health and what can be done in the future.

    Method: The study was conducted using a qualitative approach, in which four semi-structured interviews were conducted with older adults who exercise regularly. The interviews were based on a thematic interview guide with specific themes that gave informants space to talk freely about the issues raised. The sample consisted of three women and one man where the youngest was 63 and the oldest 74 years old.

    Results: Exercise was the highest priority of this group of people. It was in the connection with social interaction that the exercise became complete according to the informants. The place for exercise was found to be important; to train with others, seemed to generate joy, power, energy and motivation. This meant that all informants were rarely sick, which also was something that was pointed out. They exercise to obtain more healthy years.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Izabelle
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Är Instagram en pådrivande faktor till utvecklande av Ortorexi?: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys om hur flödet av bilder på Instagram påverkar unga kvinnors kroppsuppfattning, fysiska aktivitet och matvanor i relation till fenomenet ortorexi.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore if young women aged 18-20 years experienced that Instagram affected their body image, their physical activity and their eating habits in relation to the phenomenon orthorexia. The method for the study was a qualitative content analysis based on semi-structured interviews with four young women with the age of 18-20 years old. The results showed that Instagram affected young women's body image, their physical activity and their eating habits. Primarily body image and physical activity were most affected, eating habits were less affected. The results showed that there were both a positive and a negative impact, but by far a negative impact. Respondents experienced feelings like anxiety and guilt when, for example, a training session did not go as planned or after they had eaten an unhealthy meal. Their mindset and emotions that came forward in the results were partly linked to the phenomenon of orthorexia. The young women were adversely affected by the pictures and videos on Instagram and also by other social media. They exposed themselves to develop mental and physical ill health. Society should consider prioritizing the young women to prevent them from falling into the mindset that is similar to the phenomenon of orthorexia. 

  • 14.
    Andersson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Att arbeta som jourtjej: krav och rekrytering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 15.
    Andersson, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Arbetsrelaterad stress och dess inverkan på möjligheten till att vara fysiskt aktiv, hos ett urval av grundskolelärare: Intervjuundersökning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Andersson, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Matvanor och sömn hos vårdpersonal vid nattarbete2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Andersson, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Öga-nacke/skuldra problem hos en grupp synskadade män och kvinnor i åldrarna 17-92 år: En kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of self-reported visual and neck/shoulder complaints among individuals with a low vision diagnosis. The study also aimed to examine whether there was an association between the degree of self-rated visual and the neck/shoulder complaints. There was a questionnaire survey that was conducted on patients that visits an eye center in a county in central Sweden. There were a total of 18 people participated in the survey, between 17-92 years old. The questionnaire contained 22 questions and was analyzed with SPSS. The results showed how the distributions of answers were to the questions about the respondents’ vision respectively of respondents’ musculoskeletal problems. Results also showed that there was an association between the degree of self- rated visual difficulties and the degree of self- rated neck/shoulder disorder. The results in this study support the hypothesis that a relationship exists between visual and musculoskeletal problems.

  • 18.
    Andreassen Devik, Siri
    et al.
    Centre of Care Research, Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Norway; Department of Nursing, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Department of Nursing, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Centre of Care Research, Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Norway; Department of Nursing, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Department of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Stjørdal, Norway.
    "Picking up the pieces" - Meanings of receiving home nursing care when being old and living with advanced cancer in a rural area2015In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 10, no 1, 28382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural home nursing care is a neglected area in the research of palliative care offered to older cancer patients. Because access to specialized services is hampered by long distances and fragmented infrastructure, palliative care is often provided through standard home nursing services and delivered by general district nurses. This study aimed to illuminate the lived experience and to interpret the meaning of receiving home nursing care when being old and living with advanced cancer in a rural area in Norway. Narrative interviews were conducted with nine older persons, and a phenomenological hermeneutic approach was used to interpret the meaning of the lived experience. The analysis revealed three themes, each with subthemes: being content with what one gets, falling into place, and losing one's place. The phrase picking up the pieces was found useful to sum up the meaning of this lived experience. The three respective themes refer to how the pieces symbolize the remaining parts of life or available services in their environment, and how the older persons may see themselves as pieces or bricks in a puzzle. A strong place attachment (physical insideness, social insideness, and autobiographical insideness) is demonstrated by the informants in this study and suggests that the rural context may provide an advantageous healthcare environment. Its potential to be a source of comfort, security, and identity concurs with cancer patients’ strong desire for being seen as unique persons. The study shows that district nurses play an essential role in the provision of palliative care for older rural patients. However, the therapeutic value of being in one's familiar landscape seems to depend on how homecare nurses manage to locate it and use it in a more or less person-centred manner. Communication skills and attentiveness to psychosocial aspects of patient care stand out as important attributes for nursing in this context.

  • 19.
    Aspelin, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Employment status, gender and self-reported health2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 20.
    Awuba, Jude
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    HIV/AIDS in Cameroon: Rising gender issues in policy-making matters2007In: African Journal of Health Sciences, ISSN 1022-9272, Vol. 14, no 3-4, 118-128 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature review investigated gender differentials in HIV/AIDS in Cameroon and to which extent gender was taken into account in the country’s current policy on HIV/AIDS. The review found that in Cameroon women were at increased risk of being infected with HIV/AIDS compared to men and that apart from biological vulnerability, socio-cultural as well as economic factors accounted for those differences. In addition, the review found that at the policy level, the government has drawn up plans to reduce the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS among women. However, although the current policy acknowledged the need for tackling gender differentials in HIV/AIDS transmission; little has been done at the level of implementation. The current policy needs to be implemented in a more effective manner and a multisectorial approach should be explored in order to curb the current trend of the feminization of HIV/AIDS in Cameroon.

  • 21.
    Aziz, Bahoz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Erfarenhter och uppfattningar kring arbete med hälsofrämjande kulturinsatser för asylsökande och nyanlända barn och ungdomar: En intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe experiences and perceptions of ongoing work with health promotion cultural inserts in four different associations in Gavle municipallity for asylum seekers and newly arrived children and adolescents. The method used was a descriptive empirical qualitative interview with a phenomenological research effort. Five interviews were conducted with four women and one man, from four associations in Gavle municipality. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed with a thematic analysis. The result showed that the staff's perceptions about their work were that the work being conducted was a good method of promoting well-being and contributing to a sense of context for remedying mental ill health. Cooperation with community actors was also a key in their work and made it possible to reach the children and adolescents who were the target group for health-promoting cultural activities. The difficulties perceived were lack of economics, information and structural changes, which made it difficult to implement, follow up and continue their work. The conclusion was that the work with health promoting activities was perceived as a method of integration as well as promoting health. There was also a consensus that the work performed had a good effect in bringing children and young people's families closer to the Swedish society. The obstacles discovered were structural changes, lack of information and too little of economy. One key to success was the cooperation in the local community which made it possible to reach the group.

     

     

  • 22.
    Begum, Afroza
    et al.
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Rahman, A. F.
    Center for Injury Prevention and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Epidemiology, Bangladesh University of Health Sciences, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, A.
    Center for Injury Prevention and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Reza Khankeh, H.
    Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Department of Health Sciences, Section of Public Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Prevalence of suicide ideation among adolescents and young adults in rural Bangladesh2017In: International Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 0020-7411, E-ISSN 1557-9328, Vol. 46, no 3, 177-187 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicide is a leading cause of death world-wide. However, adolescent suicidal behavior is a neglected public health issue, especially in low-income countries such as Bangladesh. The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation among adolescents in a rural community and to examine factors associated with suicidal ideation. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2013 among 2,476 adolescents aged 14–19 years, selected randomly from a rural community of Bangladesh. An adapted version of the WHO/SUPRE-MISS questionnaire was used to collect data in the Raiganj sub-district. A two stage screening was performed to identify the suicidal ideation cases. It was found that the life-time prevalence for suicidal ideation was 5 percent among adolescents. The majority of the adolescents with suicidal ideation were females 66 (52.8%), unmarried 103 (82.4%), and students 92 (73%). Suicidal ideation was statistically significantly associated with age, education, occupation, living with parents or others, and house ownership. Respondents who were aged 18–19 years, had secondary school certificate (SSC) and secondary school certificate (HSC) or higher education, were day laborers, had own house, and do not lived with parents had odds ratios of 2.31 (CI 1.46–3.65), 2.38 (CI 1.51–3.77), 4.15 (CI 2.41–7.14), 0.28 (CI 0.13–0.60), 0.14(CI 0.05–0.35), and 1.80 (CI 1.07–3.03), respectively. Among adolescents, the prevalence of life-time suicidal ideation was moderately high. Age, education, occupation, house ownership, and living with parents were statistically significantly associated with suicidal ideation. It is important to design and implement effective community based suicide prevention programs for adolescents in Bangladesh.

  • 23.
    Bengtson, Hannah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Det var kul att se klassen samarbeta: En kvalitativ fokusgruppstudie om högstadieelevers upplevelser av ett hälsoprojekt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate high school students' experiences of a health project. A high school class in Uppsala participated in a health project during the spring of 2015. 19 of 22 students agreed to participate in this study and the qualitative method used for data collection was focus group interviews. Students were asked to discuss their experiences, thoughts and feelings about the health project and whether they have experienced their own influence on the content of the project. Using content analysis nine themes were found that formed four categories. Knowledge, cooperation and cohesion, conception of identity, influence and participation.

    The results showed that the majority of students do not feel they have markedly increased health knowledge. In contrast, the main results of the project seemed to consist of improved cooperation and shared stance in the class. The students expressed their need for further work of cooperation, in the form of collaborative exercises. One important thing that came up during the interviews was whether the class understood their identity and status of the school. Students' perception as to why their class was selected for the project was based on the class's bad reputation in the school and among teachers.

  • 24.
    Berglund, Tina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Krav-, kontroll- och stöd i arbetslivet: En intervjustudie om chefsstödets roll för mellan- och första linjens chefer inom kommunal verksamhet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur chefsstödets roll påverkar upplevda krav och kontroll i arbetet, samt om chefsstöd har en stressreducerande effekt hos mellan- och första linjens chefer inom kommunal verksamhet. Metoden som användes var en kvalitativ metod med semistrukturerade intervjuer där fem stycken mellan- och första linjens chefer valdes ut för studien. Resultatet visade på att chefsstödet roll gällande krav och kontroll inte har så stor inverkan på de intervjuade mellan- och första linjens chefer men att chefstödet roll gällande stressreduktion var väldigt viktig. I resultatet framkom dock en uppfattning om att ifall chefsstödet inte funnits så hade kraven ökat och kontrollen minskat som ett resultat. Slutsatserna som dragits är att såväl mellan- som första linjens chefer anser att chefsstödet har en betydande roll för dem i den valda kommunen.

  • 25.
    Bergsman, Ann-Christin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlsson, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    En empirisk tvärsnittsstudie om snabbmatskonsumtion och medieanvändande hos ungdomar i nionde klass – en kvantitativ studie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background; The purpose was to investigate BMI, fast-food consumption, soft drink intake, media use among adolescent in ninth grade and if there was a correlation between fast-food consumption and media use. Method; The present study was a part of the project "Food and Health 2007".  Through a quantitative method 359 adolescents in ninth grade (182 boys, 177 girls) in ten random selected schools in a county in central Sweden answered questions through surveys. Result; The boys' BMI was on average 21 and for girls 20.4 and the majority of the youths were of normal weight. Just over a third of young people ate fast food and french fries more than two to three times a month. About a third of young people drank soda once a week and a fifth reported that they drank soft drinks two to three times per week. The majority of young people watched TV between one to three hours per day and a majority declared they never used video games. More than half spend two to three hours or more per day at the computer. A correlation was found between fast food consumption and media usage. Conclusion; Youth of this study had a normal BMI and a relatively good diet, but a higher soft drink consumption. The group of overweight/obese drank soft drinks more than those who were underweight but both groups consumed fast food less often. Computer use was relatively high among young people but they almost never played video games. A positive significant correlation was found between fast food consumption and media usage.

  • 26.
    Berneholt, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Bara vara mig själv: En intervjustudie om skolmiljö och välbefinnande bland en klass mellanstadieelever i södra Norrland2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper was to explore the students experiences of the school climate and how it affects their well-being. Semi-structured interviews with an interview guide were used as a method. The sample was of six students in the age of 11-13 from one middle school class. The results showed among other things that almost everyone felt safe at school and expressed different definitions of safety such as feeling welcome and feeling like they can be themselves. The students felt supported by the teachers, other students and also their parents. Some things the school should change according to the students were the classrooms which were too small and with inefficient soundproofing, the school yard which was boring, and the fact that the students sometimes wanted more adult supervision during school breaks. The conclusion is that the school climate can affect student’s well-being and that a small school can have both pros and cons regarding the school climate. More qualitative research may result in a better understanding of the way the school climate affects the students.

  • 27.
    Björklund, Erika
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Constituting the Healthy Employee?: Governing gendered subjects in workplace health promotion2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With a post-structural approach and an analytical focus on processes of governmentality and biopower, this study is concerned with how discourses of health are contextualized in educational practice and interaction between educators and participants in workplace health promotion (WHP) interventions. Of concern are issues of the discursive production, regulation and representation of power, knowledge and subjects as gendered beings in workplace health promotion interventions. The methods for generating data are participant observation, interviews and gathering of documentation pertaining to four different workplace health promotion interventions. Based on these data, the thesis offers an analysis of the health discourses drawn on in the interventions and the technologies of power and of the self by which the participants are governed and invited to govern themselves in the name of health. It also asks what practices and positions that thus come to be made available or not to the participants. Two health discourses are identified: the biomedical discourse and the wellness discourse. Both discourses are drawn on in all four studied interventions, the biomedical discourse being the dominating discourse drawn on. The biomedical discourse is informed by scientific ‘facts’ and statistics and is underpinned by a notion of risk. The wellness discourse is informed by an understanding of health as a subjective embodied experience and is underpinned by a notion of pleasure. Drawing on these discourses, the responsibility for health is placed with the participants and the healthy participant/employee is constituted as a rationally motivated risk-avoider and disciplined pleasure seeker who is both willing and able to actively make ‘good’ choices regarding their lifestyle. Furthermore, and informed by essentialist and heteronormative ideas about gender, the ideal healthy person is modelled on a male norm, representing women as the deviant Other.

  • 28.
    Björklund, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Är användningen av Instagram ett nytt självskadebeteende?: En tvärsnittsstudie om Instagram-användares reflektioner.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Björklund, M. (2017). Is the use of Instagram a new self-harm behaviour? A cross-sectional study of Instagram users’ reflections. Bachelor thesis in Public Health Science. Department of Occupational and Public Health Science. Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies. University of Gävle, Sweden.

     

    The aim of the study was to investigate the use of Instagram among Swedish internet users. A further aim was to investigate whether there was an association between the increased use of Instagram and mental health.

    The method used was a cross-sectional study with questionnaires. Both quantitative and qualitative questions were included in the survey, which were presented as descriptive statistics as well as thematic analysis with quotes. The selection was a convenience selection and snowball selection, where the surveys were disseminated via the author Facebook.

    The result showed that the majority used Instagram several times a day and many of them were found to be in the risk group of mental illness. Many users found that the images exposed in Instagram contributed to comparisons between themselves and the photos resulting in body dissatisfaction.

    The conclusion was that the use of Instagram several times a day was associated with a decreased level of well-being. The majority of the Instagram users compared themselves with other people and more thought of their appearance, when they were exposed to the images in Instagram.

  • 29.
    Björklund, Ove
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Åbo Akademi.
    Söderlund, Maud
    Åbo Akademi.
    Nyström, Lisbet
    Åbo Akademi.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Åbo Akademi.
    Unemployment and Health: Experiences Narrated by Young Finnish Men2015In: American Journal of Men's Health, ISSN 1557-9883, E-ISSN 1557-9891, Vol. 9, no 1, 76-85 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that the experiences and consequences of unemployment can affect people differently depending on, for example, age and gender. The purpose of the present study was to describe young Finnish men's experiences of being unemployed as well as how their experiences of health emerged. Fifteen young unemployed Finnish men in the age range 18 to 27 years were interviewed face to face. Purposive sampling was used to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analyzed using both manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The present results showed that the young men were strongly negatively affected by being unemployed. They described how they had slowly lost their foothold. They also described feelings of shame and guilt as well as a flight from reality. The present results show that even young men who have only experienced shorter periods of unemployment, in this study periods between 2 and 6 months, are negatively affected, for example, with regard to their identity and emotional life. Further research is needed to describe and elucidate in more detail the effects of unemployment on men of different ages and living in different contexts.

  • 30.
    Björn, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Föräldrars kunskap om och attityder till vaccin mot humant papillomvirus: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since of January 2010 vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) is a part of the Swedish child vaccination program. The decision to vaccinate can be difficult for the parents to make. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe parental knowledge and attitude towards vaccine against human papillomavirus and how that influenced their decision to vaccinate their children. Design: Mixed methods research with integrated design. Method: A descriptive literature review. A systematic search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL and 12 studies were identified. The studies had quantitative and qualitative design. Results: Parents were positive towards the HPV-vaccine. Many parents lacked knowledge and felt they didn´t have enough information about the vaccine. There was concern about the safety and side effect. Many got their information from media but the preferred source of information was caregivers. Parents who had gotten information from caregivers were more positive towards the vaccine. The recommended age for vaccination was considered too low and there was concern that a vaccination would have an effect on their daughter’s sexual behavior. Among the parents who had made the choice to vaccinate that concern was lower. Social norms and religion affected the parents in their decision to vaccinate. Lower education was a predictor in the decision to vaccinate. Experience of abnormal pap-smears or cervicularcancer also affected the intention to vaccinate.

     

    Search words: MeSH-therms accept*, attitudes, behavior, beliefs, decision, HPV-vaccine, intent*, knowledge, parents.

  • 31.
    Blom, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Hur miljön i hemmet kan påverka elevernas frukostintag: En enkätundersökning bland niondeklassare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the environment at home could affect the pupils breakfast intake; what they choose to eat, if the eat and why they eat breakfast. A quantitative method was used and the data was collected by a questionnaire. In total 64 pupils from ninth grade in public school participated in the study. The result showed that most of the pupils ate breakfast regularly and often ate alone at the kitchen table. Though some of them ate very little and a meager breakfast. Most of the pupils were positive to being served breakfast at school because they often were too tired to eat at home and can eat in the company of friends. The conclusion was that most pupils ate breakfast often and a few ate rarely. The kitchen table was the preferred place to eat breakfast and they often ate alone. Popular choices for breakfast were oatmeal, sandwiches or soured milk/yoghurt with cereals.

  • 32.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Umeå Univeristet.
    Rehn, Börje
    Institutionen för Samhälls medicin och Rehabilitering, Fysioterapi, Umeå universitet.
    Fysisk aktivitet och hälsa för personer med utvecklingsstörning2015In: Fysioterapi, ISSN 1653-5804, no 1, 26-31 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hälsa är en förutsättning för att kunna förverkliga sina mål i livet. Personer med utvecklingsstörning, cirka 90 000 i Sverige, har nedsatt hälsa jämfört med personer utan utvecklingsstörning och det leder till att denna grupp har svårare att uppfylla sina mål. Personer med utvecklingsstörning drabbas i större utsträckning av övervikt, typ 2-diabetes, hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar, högt blodtryck, benskörhet och depression. Undersökningar visar också på nedsatt fysisk aktivitet, motorik, syreupptagningsförmåga, muskelstyrka och postural balans hos denna grupp. Dessa sjukdomar och nedsatta förmågor går att påverkai positiv riktning med fysisk aktivitet. Fysioterapeuter som har bred kunskap om hälsa och anpassning av fysisk aktivitet kan vara till stor hjälp vid prevention, bedömning och träning.

  • 33.
    Bodin, Andrea
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Äldre anhörigvårdares uppfattningar kring stöd och övriga underlättande faktorer: en intervjustudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bodin, A. (2013) Elderly informal caregivers perception about support and other relieving factors. Bachelor’s thesis in public health. The faculty of health and occupational studies, University of Gävle, Sweden.

     

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to describe widow’s/widower’s perception of the support they had been offered or missing from society and relatives/friends during their time as informal caregiver to their spouse. The purpose was also to describe other possible relieving factors.

     

    The method used was qualitative semi structured interviews that were held with 4 women and 2 men. Data was analyzed according to Graneheim & Lundman (2004). Two themes were identified; “Experiences of support from society, relatives and family” and “Other relieving factors”.

     

    The main results showed that the way information is given is important both when it comes to approach and procedure. A contact person is desirable. Support that benefits the informal caregiver’s social life is highly appreciated by the informants.

     

    The conclusion is that the feeling of support is crucial and is connected to the way personnel is treating the informal caregiver. The ideal solution could proposedly be for the society to introduce a long-term course, giving adequate information and discussing the majority of aspects of being an informal caregiver, such as care, the spouse’s state of ill-health and how to preserve your own quality of life.

     

  • 34.
    Bodling, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Sarah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    A descriptive study of self-perceived attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS in Cambodia2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bodling, S. & Larsson, S. (2010). A descriptive study of how people with HIV/AIDS in Cambodia experience attitudes regarding the disease from people around them. Essay for bachelor degree in Public Health 15 hp, Department of Occupational and Public Health, University of Gävle.

    Cambodia is the most HIV-afflicted country in Southeast Asia. The level of knowledge about the virus among the people is low and because of the poor conditions few people have access to testing and treatment. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has been followed by a stigmatization against people living with the disease and negative attitudes are common. The aim of this study was to identify self-perceived attitudes experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS in Lvea Em, Cambodia.

    In this study, a qualitative interview method was used. Ten interviews were conducted with ten Cambodian men and women, aged 25-48 years. They lived in different villages in the district of Lvea Em, outside Phnom Penh. The contact-organization Asian Outreach Cambodia (AOC) provided us with the informants. Most interviews were conducted in the informant’s own homes. One of the staff from the AOC also worked as an interpreter during the interviews. Since HIV/AIDS can be a sensitive topic, particular consideration was given to ethical considerations. To evaluate the results from the study a content analysis was used.

    The results showed that there are several negative attitudes connected to people living with HIV/AIDS. The main reason for negative attitudes seems to be fear of contagion. The result also showed some positive attitudes that derive from having HIV, like the discovery of love and care from family members and strengthening of the relationship to them. The results indicate that it is important to target the main underlying causes for stigmatization against people living with HIV/AIDS, but also that it is necessary to focus on the positive attitudes that do exist towards them. We wish that this study may contribute a little in the future work to eliminate the stigma and negative attitudes and also in the work to bring forward and increase the positive attitudes.

  • 35.
    Bogren, Eleonore
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Dahl, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Åtta personalchefers syn på friskvård2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ABSTRACT

    Bogren, E & Dahl, C. 2010.

    Åtta personalchefers syn på friskvård. C-uppsats i Folkhälsovetenskap 15 hp, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv. Högskolan Gävle.

    Purpose

    : The purpose of the study was to investigate staffmanagers opinions about keep- fit activities. To fulfill the purpose of the study following issues been used: What is keep- fit activities, Is staffmanagers opinions that keep- fit activities has effect? Is the staffmanager of the opinion that he/she can influence staffmembers to a better health?

    Method:

    Qualitative interviews has been complished with staffmanagers. The staffmanagers were active in two different districts. Keep- fit activities was the starting point for all interviews.

    Result:

    The result of the study showed that the informants have a major positive attitude to keep- fit activities. Keep- fit activities can be looked at in many different perspectives where working with keep- fit activities contains many different investments. Most part of the informants considerd that it was difficult to reach staffmembers who should need it the most and the staffmanagers role is important in staffmembers health. Most part of the informants could see connections between smaller notifications of illness and keep- fit activities. The informants think that the workingplace can be influenced by a person employed working with healthquestions. In spite of that neither there seemed to be interests or needs to employ somebody.

    Conclusion:

    The staffmanagers opinion to keep- fit activities is mostly positive, staffmanagers role is important, use keep- fit activities generates alertness and health. The result presents that keep- fit activities is of importance for staffmembers health but in how great extent the informants have different meanings about.

    Keywords:

    Health care, Health promotion, Staffmanager and Health

  • 36.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Ballgren, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, CNS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Is health related quality of life among school children associated with level of semantic memory?2010In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 19, 107-107 p., 194/1380Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Boutzas, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Hälsokontroller och beteendeförändring hos byggarbetare: en intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of illness among construction workers is higher than average in other industries, because of accidents and other conditions at work. One of the most important resources to prevent injury and maintain health in the workplace, is the occupational health care. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the construction workers experiences of their occupational health and work environment and about whether occupational health check-ups have had any significance for their behavior change.

    Five male construction workers who had underwent a health check and after that performed a behavior change, was recruited via an occupational care center. Data was collected by face to face and telefon interviews, that were subsequently transcribed and analysed by thematic analyse. The tematic analyse resulted in four main themes: "enabling factors for good health of the construction workers professional”, ”restricted factors to the good health of the construction worker's occupation", "benefits of occupational health promotion" and "concrete results of occupational health check-ups".

     

    The construction workers experienced their occupational health and work environment as both positive and negative. The positive about work was the social contact with colleagues and employers, the negative was that the work environment contributed to poor health due musculoskeletal of injury and stress. Health check-ups contributed to behavior change and pontential prevention of diseases among construction workers.

     

    The health check-ups was considered as being meaningful and enabled a change in behavior after understanding that they must change their lifestyle to avoid disease. Further research is needed on how to improve construction workers occupational health through occupational health services.

  • 38.
    Brenne, Tor S.
    et al.
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet.
    Valderaune, Victor
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet.
    Etterutdanningsnettverket i Namdal: visjon og virkelighet2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Etter 10 år som et forsøk/prosjekt har EiNa endelig fått sin permanente organisering gjennom en partnerskapsavtale. EiNa-partnerskapet har nå medlemmer som dekker det meste av helseog sosialtjenestene i Namdalen. I tillegg er også oppvekstsektorens ansatte tatt inn i målgruppen for EiNas aktivitet. Denne rapporten er del 2 i det evalueringsprosjektet som styret i EiNa initierte i 2009 og som ble gjennomført av Høgskolen i Nord-Trøndelag. Del 1 presenterte virksomheten gjennom 10 år dels som en historiefortelling, dels med dokumentasjon av prosess og avtaler som EiNa er bygd opp omkring og dels gjennom å presentere aktiviteten i oversikter og i statistikk. Denne rapporten tar for seg resultatene av en brukerundersøkelse som ble gjennomført våren 2009.

  • 39.
    Broberg, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Kan någon stoppa oss om vi börjar rulla fram?: Föreställningar som vårdpersonal har om orsaken till övervikt och fetma bland barn och ungdomar upp till 18 år.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the contributing factors for overweight and obesity among children and adolescents based on a treating person perspective. A secondary purpose of this work was to describe the course of events if or when children and adolescents suffer from overweight and obesity are emitted to treatment, and what type of efforts that are deployed

     

    Method: The study utilized a qualitative method. Six interviews were conducted with clinicians who had expertise in treating child and adolescent obesity. The data collection method consisted of semi-structured interviews.

     

    Result: All respondents agreed that treatment of child and adolescent obesity needed to be individualized and adjusted to the child or young person's needs and abilities. The most influencing factors to the obesity problem were deemed to be the heritage and the environment. Half of the respondents feel that it was appropriate for some improvements in treatment, but these may not be implemented in the absence of resources. In order to solve the obesity problem, several efforts must be deployed at different levels in society.

     

    Conclusion: Overweight and obesity among children and adolescents represents a complex public health problem. It is important to prevent and treat obesity among children before its transition to adult obesity when it is more difficult to treat.

  • 40.
    Broeng, Kevin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Undernäring på äldreboenden: En kvalitativ studie om hur nutritionsansvariga arbetar för att förebygga undernäring hos patienter på äldreboenden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Broeng, K. (2015). Malnutrition in the elderly care. A qualitative study about how nutrition managers works preventively against malnutrition with patients in the elderly care. Bachelor thesis in Public Health science. Department of work- and public health science. The academy of health and working life. University of Gävle, Sweden  The aim of the thesis was to describe how nutrition managers in the elderly care works preventively against malnutrition and also to describe the barriers that the nutrition managers considers to be common in the work with preventing malnutrition. Qualitative method with individual semistructured interviews was used and later on, the material was analyzed by a thematic analysis. Four people in the charge for elderlys nutrition in the elderly care was interviewed. The results found that nutrition managers in the elderly care, among other things, works preventively against malnutrition for the elderly by making estimations if the elderly are at risk of malnutrition. The results also found that meals for the elderly are in some cases planned by recommendations by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare and the Swedish National Food Administration (NFA) and also some activities around meals that was planned were based on NFAs recommendations for prevention of malnutrition. Another thing the results found was that a big part of the nutrition managers working with prevention of malnutrition was to teach and motivate the other staff in the elderly care to work preventively against malnutrition, because the nutrition managers perceived that the staff did not have enough motivation and knowledge about the subject.  

  • 41.
    Burmeister, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Perceptions of physical activity among ethnic minority women in Sweden.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 42.
    Burström, Bo
    et al.
    Centre of Health Equity Studies, Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Centre of Health Equity Studies, Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Centre of Health Equity Studies, Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Centre of Health Equity Studies, Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Smedman, Lars
    Centre of Health Equity Studies, Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Equitable Child Health Interventions: The Impact of Improved Water and Sanitation on Inequalities in Child Mortality in Stockholm, 1878 to 19252005In: American Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0090-0036, E-ISSN 1541-0048, Vol. 95, no 2, 208-216 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, many of the 10 million childhood deaths each year are caused by diseases of poverty—diarrhea and pneumonia, for example, which were previously major causes of childhood death in many European countries. Specific analyses of the historical decline of child mortality may shed light on the potential equity impact of interventions to reduce child mortality.

    In our study of the impact of improved water and sanitation in Stockholm from 1878 to 1925, we examined the decline in overall and diarrhea mortality among children, both in general and by socioeconomic group. We report a decline in overall mortality and of diarrhea mortality and a leveling out of socioeconomic differences in child mortality due to diarrheal diseases, but not of overall mortality. The contribution of general and targeted policies is discussed.

     

  • 43.
    Byström, Ann
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Attityder och kunskaper kring hållbara matvanor2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Purpose of this study was to examine what knowledge and which attitudes there are about environmental friendly food in the society. To do so an essay were constructed and distributed to five different working places. Altogether there were 50 essays distributed and 43 were returned. The main result; the respondents think that it is important for people to learn how to consume food in a more environmentally friendly way. The majority of the respondents recognized the eco-label KRAV but the European eco-label and Demeter were not recognized in a less extent. Few of the respondents knew what GMO stands for. Over half of the respondents thought that it is pretty important/important or very important to buy ecological food but only one third of them said that they commonly/always buy ecologic food. Slightly more than one third was shore that they could contribute to an environmental friendly development by consuming ecological food. Conclusion: the respondents know too little about what the eco-labels stands for. Far from everyone is convinced that it actually is environmental friendly to buy environmental friendly food.

  • 44.
    Christensen, Christine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    En studie om individers upplevelser av arbetslöshet, mindfulness och stress2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine individuals' experiences of participating in 5 week mindfulness program as a tool for job seekers. Qualitative methods were used to inter­view three students and two mindfulness educators. The informants were asked to an­swer questions about their experiences of having participated or practiced mindfulness in the project.

     

    The results showed that all respondents experienced the project as positive. The partici­pants describe that the project helped them to get out and meet other people and with routines in their life. The par­ticipants also said that unemployment caused alienation and they felt themselves to have poorer health when they were unemployed. Stress has been something that affected eve­ryone in different ways, but that all participants felt the stress when they were unem­ployed. All informants reported that mindfulness was a great tool for stress manage­ment, although some were skeptical about mindfulness when they initiated the project.

  • 45.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pollock, Clare
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Diversity of tasks and information technologies used by office workers at and away-from-work2011In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 54, no 11, 1017-1028 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have been associated with computer use among office workers and lack of variation caused by too little exposure diversity between work tasks has been proposed as an important etiological factor. However there is little information on the diversity of occupations and information and communication technologies (ICT) used by office workers and none which extends beyond the traditional workday. Whilst direct observation is expected to provide the most accurate data, it is resource intensive and self report and sampling alternatives may be a viable alternative.

    Method: This paper describes direct observation and self-report data on the occupations and ICT use of 24 Australian office workers in their natural environments at work and away-from-work, over 12 hours of a working day.

    Results: Participants were observed for a mean [SD] for 642[40] minutes, 67% of which was at the workplace. Productive occupations (405[122] minutes) accounted for 63% of the observation period, compared to 17% for instrumental (106[57] minutes), 12% for self-care (75[46] minutes) and 8% for leisure occupations (54[39] minutes). Non ICT tasks occurred during 44% of the observation period (285[89] minutes); New ICT accounted for 36 % (234[118] minutes), Old ICT accounted for 15% (98[73] minutes), and Combined ICT tasks 4% (24[30] minutes). The proportions of occupations and ICT use differed between work and away-from-work. Computer-based New ICT was most used for work tasks. Observed and self-reported time on occupations and ICT were similar, though with some differences. Self-reported time on occupations and ICT was similar for the first day and the subsequent 4 days.

    Conclusion: The first detailed description of occupations and ICT used by office workers at work and away-from-work shows that the variety of Old, New, Combined and Non-ICT used for performing typical work and non-work tasks offered a diversity of exposures for the workers. This information provides an important step for further investigations into exposure variation in this group, and possible musculoskeletal health risks.

  • 46.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pollock, Clare
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    ITKids Part I: Children's occupations and use of information and communication technologies2011In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 38, no 4, 401-412 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reports in the popular media are that school children use modern information and communication technology (ICT) on a regular basis for a variety of purposes, however little has been documented in the scientific literature about how school children spend their time and the different types of ICT they use.

    Method: This paper describes the observed occupations and ICT use of nine Australian primary school children in their natural environments at school and away-from-school during one school day, and compares self-reported exposures with direct observations. Self-reported discomfort scores were obtained throughout the day.

    Results: The study identified that paper-based ICT (Old ICT) was used mostly for productive occupations at school, while electronics-based (New ICT) was used mostly during leisure in away-from-school locations. Tasks involving no ICT (Non ICT) accounted for the largest proportion of time in both locations during self-care, leisure and instrumental occupations. End-of-day self-reported time performing different occupations was consistent with data from independent observations. Self reported time using Old ICT and New ICT was marginally over-estimated, and time spent using Non-ICT was marginally under-estimated.

    Conclusion: The children in this study used a variety of ICT in the performance of daily occupations in their natural environments. New ICT use was primarily for leisure, but time spent was less than reported among other child studies. Discomfort reports among the participants were low. Children’s self-reports of daily occupations and ICT use has utility as an exposure assessment metric.

  • 47.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pollock, Clare
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    ITKids Part II: Variation of postures and muscle activity in children using different information and communication technologies2011In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 38, no 4, 413-427 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are concerns that insufficient variation in postural and muscle activity associated with modern information and communication technology (ICT) tasks presents a risk for musculoskeletal ill-health among school children. However, scientific knowledge on physical exposure variation in this group is limited.

    Method: Postures of the head, upper back and upper arm, and muscle activity of the right and left upper trapezius and right forearm extensors were measured over 10-12 hours in nine school children using different types of ICT at school and away-from-school. Variation in postures and muscle activity was quantified using two indices, EVAsd and APDF(90-10).

    Results: Paper-based (Old) ICT tasks produced postures that were less neutral but more variable than electronics-based (New ICT) and Non-ICT tasks. Non-ICT tasks involved mean postures similar to New ICT tasks, but with greater variation. Variation of muscle activity was similar between ICT types in the right and left upper trapezius muscles. Non-ICT tasks produced more muscle activity variation in the right forearm extensor group compared to New and Old ICT tasks.

    Conclusion: Different ICT tasks produce different degrees of variation of postures and muscle activity. Combining tasks that use different ICT may increase overall exposure variation. More research is needed to determine what degree of postural and muscle activity variation is associated with reduced risk of musculoskeletal ill-health.

  • 48.
    Csöff, Rosina-Martha
    et al.
    Evangel Hsch Ludwigsburg, Ludwigsburg, Germany.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Lindert, Jutta
    Evangel Hsch Ludwigsburg, Ludwigsburg, Germany.
    Körperliche Beschwerden bei älteren Migranten in Deutschland [Somatic Complaints among Elderly Migrants in Germany]2010In: Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, ISSN 1661-4747, E-ISSN 1664-2929, Vol. 58, no 3, 199-206 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bodily complaints are widespread among the elderly; few surveys investigating bodily complaints among elder migrants exist in Germany and internationally. Our multi-centric cross section study examined bodily complaints among persons between 60 and 84 years dwelling in Stuttgart on the basis of the short version of the Giessen Complaint Questionnaire (GBB-24). In Germany 648 were explored with 13.4% (n = 87) born outside of Germany. Gender distribution was equal among migrants and non-migrants; socioeconomic status was lower among the migrants: 8.0% (n = 7) of the migrants and 2.5% (n = 14) of the non-migrants had at most four years of education; 12.6% (n = 11) of the migrants and 8.2% (n = 46) of the non-migrants held a net income of below 1000 (sic); 26.4% of the migrants and 38.1% (n = 214) of the non-migrants disposed over 2000 (sic) monthly. The incidence of somatic complaints was 65.5% (n = 57) among the migrants and 55.8% (n = 313) among the non-migrants. Women (61.8%) displayed more often somatic complaints than men (51.8%). Somatic complaints increased with age. Except of the group aged between 70-74 years no significant difference between migrants and non-migrants could be shown concerning the incidence of bodily complaints. Outlook: population based studies on bodily complaints among migrants are urgently needed.

  • 49.
    Cutts, F T
    et al.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Keppel St.
    Dos Santos, C
    Ministry of Health Mozambique.
    Novoa, A
    Eduardo Mondlane Faculty of Medicine Mozambique.
    David, P
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Keppel St.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Eduardo Mondlane Faculty of Medicine Mozambique.
    Soares, A C
    Eduardo Mondlane Faculty of Medicine Mozambique.
    Child and Maternal Mortality during a Period of Conflict in Beira City, Mozambique1996In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 25, no 2, 349-356 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Child mortality rates have been declining in most developing countries. We studied child and maternal mortality and risk factors for child mortality in Beira city in July 1993, after a decade of conflict in Mozambique.       

    Methods A community-based cluster sample survey of 4609 women of childbearing age was conducted. Indirect techniques were used to estimate child mortality (‘children ever born’ method and Preceding Birth Techniques [PBT]), and maternal mortality sisterhood method). Deaths among the most recent born child, born since July 1990, were classified as cases (n = 106), and two controls, matched by age and cluster, were selected per case.                 

    Results Indirect estimates of the probability of dying from birth to age 5 (deaths before age 5 years, 5q0 per 1000) decreased from 246 in 1977/8 to 212 in 1988/9. The PBT estimate for 1990/91 was 154 (95% confidence interval(CI): 124–184), but recent deaths may have been underreported. Lack of beds in the household (odds ratio[OR] = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1–3.8), absence of the father (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2–4.8), low paternal educational level (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 0.8–5.4), young maternal age (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.0–3.7), self-reported maternal illness (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2–4.9), and home delivery of the child (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2–4.5) were associated with increased mortality, but the sensitivity of risk factors was low. Estimated maternal mortality was 410/100 000 live births with a reference date of 1982.                 

    Conclusions Child mortality decreased slowly over the 1980s in Beira despite poor living conditions caused by the indirect effects of the war. Coverage of health services increased over this period. The appropriateness of a risk approach to maternal-child-health care needs further evaluation.

  • 50.
    Dahlin, Olov
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap.
    Hälsoparken Fjärran Höjder i Gävle: Sveriges mest uthålliga och integrativmedicinska hälsoanläggning : rapport avseende: förstudie av integrativ hälsomottagning vid Fjärran Höjder : ett projekt finansierat av Gävle Kommun och Region Gävleborg2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet ”Förstudie av integrativ hälsomottagning vid Fjärran Höjder” har genomförts under hösten 2008. Arbetet har varit inriktat på att följa och genomföra den projektbeskrivning som gavs i samband med ansökan om medel. Till stöd i arbetet har projektledaren haft Arbetsgruppen för en integrativ hälsomottagning vid Fjärran Höjder, vilken sammanträtt fyra gånger under projekttiden. Flera av medlemmarna i arbetsgruppen har också deltagit i studieresorna och föreläsningsserien som anordnats. I syfte att undersöka förutsättningarna för en etablering av hälsomottagningen har en attitydundersökning genomförts bland ett antal utvalda vårdtagare och vårdgivare, politiker, anställda och arbetsgivare, samt besökare vid Fjärran Höjder. Undersökningen visar i korthet att det finns ett stöd för anläggandet av en hälsopark vid Fjärran Höjder. De studieresor och den föreläsningsserie med avslutande dialogmöte som genomförts, har syftat till att förankra idén hos de hälsoaktörer som kan tänkas bli involverade i projektet framöver. Arbetet i arbetsgruppen har mycket handlat om att arbeta fram en projektidé, ett program eller en projektplan för den föreslagna integrativa hälsomottagningen. En viktig del i en sådan plan har varit att sätta in mottagningen i ett större sammanhang, det vi nu vill kalla Hälsoparken Fjärran Höjder. Hälsomottagningen skulle då ingå i en större helhet, en miljö vars samtliga delar syftar till att främja hälsan hos parkens besökare. Visioner och mål för hälsoparken har arbetats fram, liksom ett preliminärt förslag till utformning av hälsoparken och verksamhet där vid. I fortsättningen av projektet avses att söka medel från Osherstiftelsen och i det fall projektet får fortsatt stöd från Gävle Kommun och Region Gävleborg även EU-medel, eftersom det krävs egenfinansiering vid sådana ansökningar. Förslag till hur projektet kan vidareutvecklas lämnas i rapportens avslutande del.

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