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  • 1.
    Ahlin, Catharina
    et al.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Klang-Söderkvist, Birgitta
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Erika
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björkholm, Magnus
    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Department of Health Sciences, Haugesund, Norway.
    Assessing nursing students’ knowledge and skills in performing venepuncture and inserting peripheral venous catheters2017In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 23, p. 8-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Venepuncture and the insertion of peripheral venous catheters are common tasks in health care, and training in these procedures is included in nursing programmes. Evidence of nursing students’ knowledge and skills in these procedures is limited. The main aim of this study was to assess nursing students’ knowledge and skills when performing venepuncture and inserting peripheral venous catheters. Potential associations between level of knowledge and skills, self-training, self-efficacy, and demographic characteristics were also investigated. The assessment was performed by lecturers at a university college in Sweden using the two previously tested instruments "Assess Venepuncture"€ and "Assess Peripheral Venous Catheter Insertion". Between 81% and 100% of steps were carried out correctly by the students. The step with the highest rating was "€œUses gloves", and lowest rating was "€˜Informs the patients about the possibility of obtaining local anaesthesia"€™. Significant correlations between degree of self-training and correct performance were found in the group of students who registered their self-training. No associations between demographic characteristics and correct performances were found. Assessing that students have achieved adequate levels of knowledge and skills in these procedures at different levels of the nursing education is of importance to prevent complications and support patient safety.

  • 2.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Sociology/Social work.
    Kultuuriperspektiiviline uurimus Rootsi vähipatsientide religioossetest ja vaimsetest toimetulekumeetoditest (A study of the religious and spiritual coping methods among Swedish cancer patients from a cultural perspective)2010In: Inimene, tervis ja haigused - Terviseteemaline artiklikogumik "Medica" (Human, Health and Illnesses. Health-concerned article collection "Medica") / [ed] Piret Paal & Mare Kõiva, Tallinn: Teaduskirjastus (Science Publishers) , 2010, 1, p. 185-216Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Andersson, I.
    et al.
    Obesity Unit, Huddinge University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rössner, Stefan
    Obesity Unit, Huddinge University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Meal pattern and risk factor evaluation in one-year completers of a weight reduction program for obese men - the "Gustaf" study2000In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 247, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate changes in meal patterns and in obesity related risk factors after 1 year of treatment in obese men. Design: Data from two 24-h dietary recalls, performed at base-line and after 1 year of treatment, were related to changes in medical risk factors. Setting: Academic obesity unit. Subjects: Sixty-three men, aged 44 (eight) years (mean [SD]) and Base- line Body Mass Index (BMI) 37.4 (4.6) kg m-2, who had completed 1 year of treatment. The men were subdivided by tertiles according to weight change: tertile I (n = 21), mean +0.3 kg, tertile II (n = 21), mean -5.8 kg and tertile III (n = 21), mean -14.2 kg. Main outcome measures: Weight loss, changes in meal patterns and in obesity related medical risk factors. Results: The reported mean energy intake decreased after treatment in tertiles II and III by 700 (1300) kcal (P < 0.05) and 700 (900) kcal (P = 0.001), respectively. In tertile III the energy-% from fat decreased (P < 0.05) with a reciprocal increase in energy-% from protein (P < 0.05). The frequency of snacks of a low nutritional quality decreased (P < 0.01) in tertile III together with an increase in energy-% from 'hot meals of good quality' (P < 0.05). Obesity related risk factors (anthropometry, blood pressure, serum lipid concentrations, blood glucose and plasma insulin) improved in a beneficial way only in tertile III. Conclusions: The weight loss in the successful tertile III men was to a great extent explained by fewer low quality snacks but more energy from high quality meals. These changes reflected the behaviour modification strategy recommended.

  • 4.
    Andreassen Devik, Siri
    et al.
    Centre for Care Research Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Norway; Department of Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Centre for Care Research Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Norway;Nord Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway.
    Wiik, Guri Bitnes
    Nord Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway.
    Hellzén, Per Ove
    Centre for Care Research Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Norway; Department of Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Meanings of being old, living on one`s own and suffering from incurable cancer in rural Norway2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Berglind, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Willmer, Mikaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Persson, Margareta
    Department of Nursing, Umeå Universiy, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wells, Michael
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An eHealth program versus a standard care supervised health program and associated health outcomes in individuals with mobility disability: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.2018In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Young adults with mobility disability (MD) are less likely to engage in regular physical activity (PA) compared with their able-bodied peers and inactive adults with a MD are more likely to report one or more chronic diseases compared to those who are physically active. Despite the vast amount of research published in the field of PA interventions over the past decades, little attention has been focused on interventions aiming to increase PA among individuals with MD. Thus, we propose to compare the effects of an eHealth program compared to a usual care supervised health program on levels of PA and other health behaviors.

    METHODS: The current intervention will use a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design with two treatment groups (an eHealth program and a usual care supervised health program) in young adults with newly acquired MD. In total, 110 young adults (aged 18-40 years) with a MD, acquired within the past 3 years, will be recruited to participate in a 12-week intervention. The primary study outcome is accelerometer-measured time spent in moderate to vigorous PA. Secondary outcomes includes health-related quality of life, depression, stress, fitness, body composition, diet, musculoskeletal pain, motivation to exercise and work ability.

    DISCUSSION: There is a lack of RCTs investigating effective ways to increase levels of PA in young adults with MD. Increased levels of PA among this physically inactive population have the potential to substantially improve health-related outcomes, possibly more so than in the general population. The trial will put strong emphasis on optimizing exercise adherence and investigating feasibility in the two treatment programs. The Ethical Review Board (EPN) at Karolinska Institutet has approved the study (2017/1206-31/1).

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN), reference number ISRCTN22387524 . Prospectively registered February 4, 2018.

  • 6.
    Bieber, A.
    et al.
    Medical Faculty, Institute for Health and Nursing Science, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.
    Stephan, A.
    Medical Faculty, Institute for Health and Nursing Science, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.
    Verbeek, H.
    School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Alzheimer Center Limburg, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Verhey, F.
    School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Alzheimer Center Limburg, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Kerpershoek, L.
    School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Alzheimer Center Limburg, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Wolfs, C.
    School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Alzheimer Center Limburg, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    de Vugt, M.
    School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Alzheimer Center Limburg, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Woods, R. T.
    Dementia Services Development CentreWales, Bangor University, Bangor, UK.
    Røsvik, J.
    Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health, Vestfold Hospital Trust, and Department of GeriatricMedicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Selbaek, G.
    Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Ageing and Health, Vestfold Hospital Trust, and Department of GeriatricMedicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Sjölund, Britt-Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Neurobiology, Care sciences and Society, Karolinska Institut, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wimo, A.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care sciences and Society, Karolinska Institut, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hopper, L.
    School of Nursing and Human Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.
    Irving, K.
    School of Nursing and Human Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.
    Marques, M. J.
    CEDOC, Chronic Diseases Research Centre, Nova Medical School/Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Gonçalves-Pereira, M.
    CEDOC, Chronic Diseases Research Centre, Nova Medical School/Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Portolani, E.
    Alzheimer’s Research Unit-Memory Clinic, Brescia, Italy.
    Zanetti, O.
    Alzheimer’s Research Unit-Memory Clinic, Brescia, Italy.
    Meyer, G.
    Medical Faculty, Institute for Health and Nursing Science, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.
    Access to community care for people with dementia and their informal carers: Case vignettes for a European comparison ofstructures and common pathways to formalcare [Zugang zu professioneller Unterstützung für Menschen mit Demenz und ihre Angehörigen: Fallvignetten für den europäischen Vergleich von Strukturen und Zugangswegen zu professioneller Pflege]2018In: Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie (Print), ISSN 0948-6704, E-ISSN 1435-1269, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 530-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    People with dementia and their informal carers often do not receive appropriate professional support or it is not received at the right time.

    Objectives

    Description and comparison of common pathways to formal community dementia care in eight European countries as a part of the transnational Actifcare project.

    Materials and methods

    The German team was responsible for creating an individual case scenario as a starting point. The research teams in Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and the United Kingdom were then asked to describe a common pathway to formal dementia care by writing their own vignette using the provided individual case scenario.

    Results

    A transnational qualitative content analysis was used to identify the following categories as being the most important: involved professionals, dementia-specific and team-based approaches, proactive roles, and financial aspects. General practitioners (GPs) are described as being the most important profession supporting the access to formal care in all the involved countries. In some countries other professionals take over responsibility for the access procedure. Dementia-specific approaches are rarely part of standard care; team-based approaches have differing significances in each of the countries. Informal carers are mainly proactive in seeking formal care. The Nordic countries demonstrate how financial support enhances access to the professional system.

    Conclusion

    Enhanced cooperation between GPs and other professions might optimize access to formal dementia care. Team-based approaches focusing on dementia care should be developed further. Informal carers should be supported and relieved in their role. Financial barriers remain which should be further investigated and reduced.

  • 7.
    Bildtgård, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Social Work, Stockholm University.
    Öberg, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    New intimate relationships and informal care obligations in later life2013In: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 53, no Suppl. 1, p. 413-414Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8. Bildtgård, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Öberg, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    New sexual relationships in later life: the case of late modern Sweden2013In: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 53, no Suppl., p. 300-300Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Björkman, Annica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Olsson, Annakarin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Wahlberg, Anna-Carin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Access to structural empowerment in telephone advice service: an interview study with registered nurses2017Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Björkman, Annica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    When all other doors are closed: Telenurses' experiences of encountering care seekers with mental illnesses.2018In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1392-1400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe the telephone nurses' experiences of encountering callers with mental illnesses. Telenursing services are solely staffed with telenurses, who with the support of a decision support system (CDSS) independently triage callers based on the severity of the main symptoms presented by the care seeker. The system focuses on somatic symptoms, while information regarding mental health and mental illnesses is limited. Information about telenurses' experiences of encountering care seekers with mental illnesses is scarce, despite the increase in mental illnesses in the population. The study used a descriptive design with a qualitative approach. Twenty telenurses were interviewed, and the data were then analysed using inductive qualitative content analysis. The results are elaborated in the following three categories: (i) Experiences of encountering care seekers with mental illnesses; (ii) Experiences of facing difficulties and challenges; and (iii) Experiences of facing dissatisfaction and threats. Encountering care seekers with mental illnesses is metaphorically addressed as 'when all other doors are closed'. Encountering care seekers with mental illnesses was perceived as time-consuming and did not adequately correspond to the resources given by the service. Even though telenurses strive to achieve agreement, there is a collision between human needs and organizational structures. The study pinpoints the lack of resources for and education about mental illnesses and the limitations of the decision system, which needs to be updated in order to provide all care seekers care on equal terms.

  • 11.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    Swedish Development Center for Disability Sport, Bollnäs, Sweden.
    Olsson, Josefin
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
    Wallin, Louise
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
    Wester, Anita
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Swedish National Agency for Education, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rehn, Börje
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
    Adolescents with intellectual disability have reduced postural balance and muscle performance in trunk and lower limbs compared to peers without intellectual disability2013In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 198-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For adolescent people with ID, falls are more common compared to peers without ID. However, postural balance among this group is not thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to compare balance and muscle performance among adolescents aged between 16 and 20 years with a mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID) to age-matched adolescents without ID. A secondary purpose was to investigate the influence of vision, strength, height and Body Mass Index (BMI) on balance. A group of 100 adolescents with ID and a control group of 155 adolescents without ID were investigated with five balance tests and three strength tests: timed up and go test, one leg stance, dynamic one leg stance, modified functional reach test, force platform test, counter movement jump, sit-ups, and Biering-Sørensen trunk extensor endurance test. The results showed that adolescents with an ID in general had significantly lower scores in the balance and muscle performance tests. The group with ID did not have a more visually dominated postural control compared to the group without ID. Height, BMI or muscle performance had no strong correlations with balance performance. It appears as if measures to improve balance and strength are required already at a young age for people with an ID.

  • 12.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    Swedish Development Centre for Disability Sport, Bollnäs, Sweden.
    Rehn, Börje
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Validity and reliability of the Dynamic One Leg Stance (DOLS) in people with vision loss2007In: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 129-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tests the concurrent validity and test–retest reliability of a new functional balance test – the Dynamic One Leg Stance (DOLS) in blind subjects and sighted, blindfolded subjects. Twelve blind and 12 sighted men and women between 19 and 61 years volunteered to participate. The correlation between DOLS and the commonly used One Leg Stance balance test (OLS) and the force platform test (FPT) was tested for both the right and left leg. The test–retest reliability of DOLS was analysed using three measurements at least 2 h apart. The correlation between DOLS and FPT and between DOLS and OLS for blind subjects was −0.13 (n.s.) and 0.77 for the left leg and −0.78 and 0.89 for the right leg. For blindfolded subjects, the correlations were −0.56 (n.s.) and 0.93 for the left leg and −0.61 and 0.71 for the right leg. The weighted Kappa values for DOLS were between 0.47 and 0.88 for blind subjects and between 0.47 and 0.72 for blindfolded subjects. Based on these findings, DOLS appears to be a fairly valid and reliable balance test for subjects with vision loss, acquired and experimental. However, further tests of DOLS are necessary.

  • 13.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wester, Anita
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Swedish National Agency for Education, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Elin
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sundkvist, Hillevi
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sundelin, Gunnevi
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rehn, Börje
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Postural stability, physical activity, aerobic capacity and their associations for young people with and without intellectual disabilities2014In: European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, ISSN 1803-3857, E-ISSN 1803-3857, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 22-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies show that people with intellectual disability (ID) appear to have impaired postural stability, a lower level of physical activity, and lower aerobic capacity compared to persons without ID, limitations that could affect their health. This study investigates these physical functions and their associations in a group of young people with ID compared to an age-matched group without ID. In total, this cross-sectional study included 106 high school students (16-20 years): 57 students with mild to moderate ID and 49 age-matched students without ID (control group). Tests were performed for postural stability, level of physical activity, and aerobic capacity. Both females and males with ID had significantly lower estimated maximum oxygen uptake (l O2/min) (p< 0.001 for females and p=0.004 for males) and a lower aerobic capacity expressed relative to body weight (ml O2/ kg*min) (p< 0.001 for females and p=0.012 for males) compared to age-matched peers. Analyses of associations were made using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multivariate linear regression analysis. No significant associations could be found. Physical status appears impaired for young people with ID and functions, such as postural stability, should be evaluated separately.

  • 14.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    Swedish Development Centre for Disability Sport, Bollnäs, Sweden; Umeå universitet.
    Wester, Anita
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rehn, Börje
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Swedish National Agency for Education, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Postural muscle responses and adaptations to backward platform perturbations in young people with and without intellectual disability2014In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 904-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines postural muscle responses to backward perturbations in young people (16-20 years) with and without intellectual disability (ID). The study included 56 young people with ID and 43 age-matched without ID volunteers. The subjects stood on a platform that was moved backwards in a surface translation. Lower and upper leg muscles and lower back spine muscles were recorded with surface electromyography (EMG). Muscle onset latency, time to peak amplitude (EMG), adaptation of muscle responses to repeated perturbations (using integrated EMG (IEMG) for epochs), and synergies and strategies were assessed. The result showed no differences between the two groups in muscle onset latency, synergies, and strategies. Young people with ID reduced their time to peak amplitude in investigated muscles, a response that was different from the group without ID. Also, young people with ID tended to adapt their IEMG less compared to the controls. These findings suggest that young people with ID have limited ability to use somatosensory information and adapt their postural muscle responses to repeated external perturbations.

  • 15.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    Swedish Development Centre for Disability Sport, Bollnäs, Sweden; Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wester, Anita
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Swedish National Agency for Education, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Sundelin, Gunnevi
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umea, Sweden .
    Rehn, Börje
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umea, Sweden .
    Test-retest reliability, smallest real difference and concurrent validity of six different balance tests on young people with mild to moderate intellectual disability2012In: Physiotherapy, ISSN 0031-9406, E-ISSN 1873-1465, Vol. 98, no 4, p. 313-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    Some studies have reported that people with intellectual disability may have reduced balance ability compared with the population in general. However, none of these studies involved adolescents, and the reliability and validity of balance tests in this population are not known. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of six different balance tests and to investigate their concurrent validity.

    DESIGN:

    Test-retest reliability assessment.

    SETTINGS:

    All subjects were recruited from a special school for people with intellectual disability in Bollnäs, Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS:

    Eighty-nine adolescents (35 females and 54 males) with mild to moderate intellectual disability with a mean age of 18 years (range 16 to 20 years).

    INTERVENTIONS:

    All subjects followed the same test protocol on two occasions within an 11-day period.

    MAIN OUTCOMES:

    Balance test performances.

    RESULTS:

    Intraclass correlation coefficients greater than 0.80 were achieved for four of the balance tests: Extended Timed Up and Go Test, Modified Functional Reach Test, One-leg Stance Test and Force Platform Test. The smallest real differences ranged from 12% to 40%; less than 20% is considered to be low. Concurrent validity among these balance tests varied between no and low correlation.

    CONCLUSION:

    The results indicate that these tests could be used to evaluate changes in balance ability over time in people with mild to moderate intellectual disability. The low concurrent validity illustrates the importance of knowing more about the influence of various sensory subsystems that are significant for balance among adolescents with intellectual disability.

  • 16.
    Crenshaw, Albert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Fahlström, Martin
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    A gender comparison of electromyography (EMG) during repetitive arm work with and without mental stress2013In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 27, p. 1152.21-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Dantoft, Thomas M.
    et al.
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark; Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark; Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Andersson, Linus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Engkilde, Kaare
    Department of Dermato-Allergology, National Allergy Research Center, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Denmark.
    Lind, Nina
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hellgren, Lars I.
    Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Gene expression profiling in persons with multiple chemical sensitivity before and after a controlled n-butanol exposure session2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 2, article id e013879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants.The first hypothesis was that unexposed and symptom-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n-butanol exposure.

    DESIGN: Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated in a windowed exposure chamber for 60 min. A total of 26 genes involved in biochemical pathways found in the literature have been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MCS and other functional somatic syndromes were selected. Expression levels were compared between MCS and controls before, within 15 min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure.

    SETTINGS: Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper.

    PARTICIPANTS: 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons fulfilling the criteria for MCS were enrolled together with 18 healthy controls.

    OUTCOME MEASURES: 17 genes showed sufficient transcriptional level for analysis. Group comparisons were conducted for each gene at the 3 times points and for the computed area under the curve (AUC) expression levels.

    RESULTS: MCS participants and controls displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls.

    CONCLUSIONS: MCS participants and controls have similar gene expression levels at baseline and it was not possible to separate MCS participants from controls based on gene expression measured after the exposure.

  • 18.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Zetterlund, Christina
    Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden; Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden; Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Effect of reduced visual acuity on precision of two-dimensional tracing movements2016In: Journal of Optometry, ISSN 1888-4296, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 93-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    We intended to assess consequences of reduced visual acuity for performance in a natural simple motor task (tracing) using objective kinematic performance measures. Specifically, we intended to elucidate the kind of relationship between the task performance and best corrected binocular visual acuity and to determine the threshold of visual acuity when task performance starts to deteriorate.

    Methods

    Ninety-five individuals with different best corrected visual acuity participated in the study (age 49 ± 12 years, mean ± SD, 27 men and 68 women). The participants manually traced maze-like visual patterns of different spatial complexity presented on the screen of a portable notebook computer using Clinical Kinematic Assessment Tool software. Tracing error was computed as performance measure in each trial with a spatial pattern matching technique – rigid point set registration method.

    Results

    The segmented linear regression analysis showed that the relation between visual acuity and tracing errors was best described with a regression function having a break point between two data segments. Tracing performance was unaffected by values of visual acuity below 0.2 on logMAR scale, but when logMAR values increased above this critical limit (i.e. when visual acuity is further reduced), tracing errors linearly increased. The rate of the increase of the tracing error correlated with the complexity of visual stimulus shape.

    Conclusion

    Testing of fine motor functions with objective kinematic measures during visuomotor tasks may help differentiating between actual effects of reduced visual acuity on eye–hand coordination in individuals with similar levels of impairment of visual acuity.

  • 19.
    Elfving Olsson, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Skolsköterskans roll i arbetet att upptäcka och bemöta barn som har en förälder med alkohol missbruk: en intervjustudie2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the National Institute of Public Health about 350 000 Swedish children are living in homes where one or both adults has an alcohol addiction. Only one percent of these children is identified and offered support groups or similar activities, the rest goes by undetected through all of the educational years. The purpose of this study was to examine how the school nurse is working to identify children whose parents have an alcohol abuse and how they support these children. What support the school nurse wish to have in their work with these children, and how they keep themselves updated on the problems of these children. The basis of this study is based on a number of semi-structured questions. These questions were asked when interviewing ten school nurses. The material was analyzed by means of a qualitative content analysis. The results of the study demonstrate that the school nurse discovers children whose parents have an alcohol abuse by being watchful  and by gutfeeling in the meeting with the children and they are observent in the healthteam. They are giving support through personal contact with the children and by putting them in contact with

     other professions and buisnesses to provide them the support they need. The schoolnurse keeps her self updated of the problem through courses and lectures and by seeking information her self. The school nurse also cooperate with different professions round the school, and uses their own experiences from work and personal life.

  • 20.
    Embretsen, Carola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Källor till motståndskraft för utmattningssyndrom hos personer inom yrken i hälso- och sjukvården – en litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sjuktalen har ökat till följd av psykisk ohälsa världen över. En av de främsta orsakerna till detta har varit den ökade förekomsten av stressrelaterad ohälsa och utmattningssyndrom. En grupp som har varit extra utsatt är personer i inom yrken i hälso- och sjukvården. Idag fokuseras det huvudsakligen på behandling och rehabilitering av utmattningssyndrom i forskning och praxis och det finns begränsad kunskap och initiativ kring primär- och sekundärprevention för utmattningssyndrom. Det är dock viktigt ur både ett individ- och samhällsperspektiv att förebygga utmattningssyndrom då utmattningssyndrom är ett allvarligt tillstånd som kan leda till stort lidande för individen och lång sjukfrånvaro från arbetslivet, vilket även är kostsamt för samhällsekonomin.

    Syfte: Syftet med detta examensarbete var att undersöka skyddsfaktorer mot utmattningssyndrom hos personer inom yrken i hälso- och sjukvården.

    Metod: En litteraturöversikt genomfördes och 12 vetenskapliga artiklar uppfyllde inklusion- och exklusionskriterierna och matchade forskningsfrågorna. Dessa lästes igenom. En tematisk analys av studiernas resultat genomfördes och resulterade i ett övergripande tema och fem underteman.

    Resultat: Resultatet beskriver faktorer som skyddar mot utmattningssyndrom för personer inom yrken i hälso- och sjukvården. Exempel på dessa faktorer var vikten av autentisk och god arbetsmiljö, känsla av egenmakt och kontroll, deltagande i meningsfulla aktiviteter, återhämtning och praktiska tekniker som exempelvis mindfulness, yoga och bildterapi. Att få socialt stöd från närstående, kollegor och exempelvis kuratorer och präster var även en viktig faktor för att skydda mot utmattningssyndrom.

    Slutsats: Skyddande faktorer för utmattningssyndrom finns på både individ-, organisations- och samhällsnivå och bör beaktas i utvecklingen av förebyggande insatser för utmattningssyndrom.

  • 21.
    Ferreira, Mariana Candido
    et al.
    Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus. School of Medicine, Ribeirão Preto. University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil .
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umeå Sweden.
    Dach, Fabiola
    Department of Neurosciences and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil .
    Chaves, Thais Cristina
    Department of Neurosciences and Behavioral Sciences. School of Medicine, Ribeirão Preto University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil .
    Cross-cultural adaptation of the profile fitness mapping neck questionnaire to brazilian Portuguese: internal consistency, reliability, and construct and structural validity2017In: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, ISSN 0161-4754, E-ISSN 1532-6586, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 176-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The purpose of this study was to adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the ProFitMap-neck to Brazilian Portuguese.

    Methods

    The cross-cultural adaptation consisted of 5 stages, and 180 female patients with chronic neck pain participated in the study. A subsample (n = 30) answered the pretest, and another subsample (n = 100) answered the questionnaire a second time. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity (hypothesis testing and structural validity) were estimated. For construct validity, the scores of the questionnaire were correlated with the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36).

    Results

    Internal consistency was determined by adequate Cronbach's α values (α > 0.70). Strong reliability was identified by high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC > 0.75). Construct validity was identified by moderate and strong correlations of the Br-ProFitMap-neck with total NDI score (–0.56 < R < –0.71) and with the SF-36, HADS-anxiety, HADS-depression, and TSK (–0.32 < R < –0.82). Exploratory factor analysis revealed 2 factors for the Symptom scale: intensity index and the Function scale. Symptom scale–frequency index identified 1 factor. Structural validity was determined by percentage of cumulative variance >50%, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin index > 0.50, eigenvalue > 1, and factor loadings > 0.2.

    Conclusion

    Br-ProFitMap-neck had adequate psychometric properties and can be used in clinical settings, as well as research, in patients with chronic neck pain.

  • 22.
    Fritzell, Kaisa
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Div. of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Jervaeus, Anna
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Div. of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Stake Nilsson, Kerstin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Hultcrantz, Rolf
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm.
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Div. of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Translation and cultural adaption of the decisions module for colorectal cancer screening into a Swedish version - the SCREESCO questionnaire2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 52, no 11, p. 1248-1252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is suitable for population screening due to its high incidence and the recognizable and treatable prephase, and the present study is part of the larger study; Screening for Swedish Colons (SCREESCO). In Sweden, there is, to our knowledge, no questionnaire assessing shared decision making (SDM) with regard to CRC screening and, therefore, the aim of the study was to translate and culturally adapt the CRC screening module of the National Survey of Medical Decisions (DECISIONS) into a Swedish context.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS:

    A qualitative design inspired by guidelines based on methods for cross-cultural adaptation of questionnaires was used. In addition, focus group discussions, individual interviews and think-aloud (TA) sessions were performed.

    RESULTS:

    Of the 54 items included in the original DECISION survey, 32 were excluded, 22 were modified, and three were added as a result of the qualitative study. How the health care organization communicated and CRC screening knowledge was communicated were found to be the most important cultural differences between Sweden and the USA. The final questionnaire consists of 24 items.

    CONCLUSION:

    The process of translation and cultural adaptation of the CRC screening module of the DECISIONS survey resulted in the removal and modifying of a considerable number of items. The major rationale for the removal and modifying of items can be explained by the different cultural traditions between Sweden and the USA when communicating with the health care system regarding screening participation and how CRC screening information and knowledge is communicated.

  • 23.
    Furuström, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Larsson, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Lagförslag Ds 2008:18: Lagen om stöd till anhöriga som vårdar någon närstående2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka om lagförslag Ds 2008:18 kan innebära att Gävle Kommun, som har ett väl utvecklat anhörigstöd, kan komma att begränsas i sitt arbete i form av detaljstyrning.

     

    Behovet av ett gott stöd för anhöriga har blivit alltmer uppenbart. Stöd till anhöriga är viktigt såväl ur den anhöriges som ur samhällets synpunkt. För anhöriga handlar det om att få stöd och känna uppskattning för de insatser de gör för en närstående. Det handlar om den anhöriges behov av vila och att få tid över för personliga angelägenheter men även om kunskaper och färdigheter för att kunna behärska situationen på bästa sätt. Med det nya lagförslaget Ds 2008:18 finns förväntningar om att underlätta för de som vårdar och sörjer för någon närstående. Den ger kommunerna som i dag endast har en lag som säger att kommunen bör erbjuda stöd till anhöriga istället en skyldighet att erbjuda stöd och hjälp. Vi formulerade en hypotes som menade att lagen kan leda till att kommuner med väl utvecklat anhörigstöd kan komma att begränsas eller ”styras” av nya bestämmelser. I Gävle kommun har man utarbetat ett väl fungerande anhörigstöd där man i dag arbetar utifrån ett individanpassat tänk med flexibla lösningar. Ingen lösning är bra för alla, menar personalen, och de utgår ifrån att alla människor är unika och har olika behov. Vi tror att lagen kan tillföra ramar och bestämmelser som kan leda till att detta individanpassade arbetssätt går förlorat.

     

    Det vi kom fram till var att anhörigstödjarna i Gävle kommun känner en rädsla inför lagförslaget och de förändringar som det innebär. De tror att lagförslaget kommer att innebära förändringar i form av krav på dokumentation, krav på handläggning och förändringar i form av mindre valfrihet i arbetsutformningen. Politiker i omvårdnadsnämnden tror att lagförslaget kan komma att påverka stödet i de kommuner som har ett fungerande stöd i dagsläget och att det inte bara finns positiva effekter av lagförslaget. De anhöriga som vi intervjuat menar att de har svårt att se konsekvenserna av lagförslaget eftersom de inte har någon större inblick i anhörigstödets utformning.

  • 24.
    Grassman-Severin, Michelle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Myrgren, Pernilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskors upplevelse av arbetsrelaterad stress: En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Arbetsmiljön för sjuksköterskor är ett ämne i tiden, detta eftersom sjuksköterskor idag påverkas i stort av ohälsosam stress. Många sjuksköterskor överväger att lämna yrket redan under det första yrkesverksamma året på grund av utmattning och bristande självkänsla. Syfte: Syftet med föreliggande litteraturstudie var att beskriva vilken arbetsrelaterad stress nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskor utsätts för under sitt första år som yrkesverksam samt beskriva de granskade artiklarna beträffande urval och undersökningsgrupp. Metod: En litteraturstudie på beskrivande nivå som baserats på 11 artiklar med både kvantitativ och kvalitativ ansats. Resultat: Den första tiden som yrkesverksam består av kaos och osäkerhet. Många nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskor betonar rädslan de lever med dagligen under arbetstid och den bristande tilltron på sig själv och sin kunskap inom området. Det finns svårigheter att delegera ut uppgifter på grund av rädsla för att förlora kontrollen. Den höga arbetsbelastningen kantas av tidsbrist och förväntningar från omgivningen om att alltid finnas till hands. Samtidigt bemöts de nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskorna med respektlöshet och bristande stöd från kollegor som orsakar frustration och arbetsrelaterad stress. Slutsats: Föreliggande studier visar att arbetsrelaterad stress är något nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskor utsätts för. Brist på introduktion och vägledning från erfarna kollegor resulterar i bland annat rädsla, osäkerhet i sin nya yrkesroll och frustration. Den höga arbetsbelastningen nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskor utsätts för består av tidsbrist, stort ansvar, låg personaltäthet och höga krav. Kollegor har ett stort ansvar att vägleda nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskor. Genom att stärka övergången till yrkesverksam sjuksköterska kan den första yrkesverksamma tiden som sjuksköterska stärkas. 

  • 25.
    Gustafsson, Helene
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Karvonen, Jani
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Självbestämmande eller förmynderi?: Dilemman i hemtjänstens arbete med äldre som har en problematisk alkoholkonsumtion2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of our study was to examine how integrity and self-determination is conceived by care assistants regarding older care takers with a problematic alcohol consumption, and if it affects their care provided. Qualitative semi-structured interviews, carried out with home care assistants (n=4) and analyzed hermeneutically with theories of power and discretion, showed that self-determination, as described by The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, is fulfilled only under certain conditions in the home care assistant’s interpretation. We also found a lack of guidelines and routines concerning problematic alcohol consumption among older care takers. Our results showed that home care assistants made individual assessments in their work with older care takers with problematic alcohol consumption actualizing a difficult ethical dilemma between neglect and paternalism. These ethical issues visualize power relationships where home care assistants have the prerogative to decide in relation to the care takers, where paternalism is a potential risk factor. Clear guidelines regarding the purchase of alcohol to older care takers with problematic alcohol consumption may contribute to home care assistants working more uniformly which leads to a higher state of legal security for the care takers.

  • 26.
    Gyllström Krekula, Linda
    et al.
    Social Work in Health Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forinder, Ulla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tibell, Annika
    Program Management Office (PMO), New Karolinska, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm , Sweden; Department of Learning, Informatics, Managemen t and Ethics (LIME), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    What do people agree to when stating willingness to donate?: On the medical interventions enabling organ donation after death2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 8, article id e0202544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of the study

    The purpose of this study is to explore donor relatives’ experiences of the medical interventions enabling organ donation, as well as to examine the donor relatives’ attitudes towards donating their own organs, and whether or not their experiences have influenced their own inclination to donate.

    Methods

    The experiences of donor relatives were explored via in-depth interviews. The interviews covered every step from the deceased family member being struck by a severe bleeding in the brain till after the organ recovery, including the medical interventions enabling organ donation. The interviews were analysed through qualitative and quantitative content analysis.

    Results

    Brain death and organ donation proved to be hard to understand for many donor relatives. The prolonged interventions provided after death in order to enable organ donation misled some relatives to believe that their family member still was alive. In general, the understanding for what treatment aimed at saving the family member and what interventions aimed at maintaining organ viability was low. However, most donor relatives were either inspired to, or reinforced in their willingness to, donate their own organs after having experienced the loss of a family member who donated organs.

    Conclusions

    There is a need for greater transparency regarding the whole chain of events during the donation process. Yet, having experienced the donation process closely did not discourage the donor relatives from donating their own organs–but rather inspired a willingness to donate. This indicates an acceptance of the medical procedures necessary in order to enable organ donation after death.

  • 27.
    Hagerman, Heidi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Skytt, Bernice
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A longitudinal study of working life among first-line managers in the care of older adults2016In: Applied Nursing Research, ISSN 0897-1897, E-ISSN 1532-8201, Vol. 32, p. 7-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    To study whether the number of subordinates plays a role in first-line managers’ and subordinates’ ratings of empowerment, stress symptoms, and leadership–management performance. The aim was also to study relationships between managers’ empowerment and stress symptoms and leadership–management performance.

    Methods

    A longitudinal and correlational design was used. All first-line managers (n = 98) and their subordinates (n = 2085) working in the care of older adults in five municipalities were approached.

    Results

    With fewer (≤ 30) subordinates per manager, there were higher ratings of structural empowerment among managers and subordinates and lower stress symptoms among subordinates, than with ≥ 31 subordinates. Furthermore, structural empowerment was related to the managers’ stress symptoms and leadership–management performance, mediated through psychological empowerment. Moreover, structural empowerment can control/adjust for large numbers of subordinates in relation to stress symptoms.

    Conclusion

    The higher FLMs rated their access to empowerment, the lower stress symptoms and higher leadership–management performance they rated over time.

  • 28.
    Hagsten, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Skolsköterskors preventiva arbete mot övervikt och fetma hos barn i låg- och mellanstadiet samt deras uppfattningar om och reflektioner kring detta arbete: En intervjustudie i kommunal grundskola2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Overweight and obesity is a growing public health problem that increases the risks for development of illnesses like heart disease, diabetes and joint problems. This increase in overweight and obesity is also seen among children and studies have shown that obese children run a higher risk of contracting illnesses later in life. There are gains in prevention of overweight both for the individual and the society. School nurses are crucial in overweight and obesity prevention. The aim of this study was to describe school nurses´ preventive work against overweight and obesity among children in lower and upper primary school as well as perceptions and reflections on this work. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews wherein eight school nurses, municipally employed, participated.  The interviews were analyzed through qualitative content analyze The result revealed three categories: working methods in overweight and obesity prevention which comprises the work that school nurses perform alone and in cooperation with other professionals and parents; strategies in meetings with parents and children which comprises school nurses own strategies for prevention aimed towards parents and children and difficulties and limitations in preventive work that comprises barriers with in regards to time and resources, difficulties with parent communication and school values. School nurses preventive work is dependent on a good cooperation with school principals, teachers and least of all parents. Preventive work against overweight and obesity in children is a challenge that requires a school nurse's resources, time and knowledge. An extended cooperation with teachers might be an important strategy for the development of preventive activities.

  • 29.
    Holm, Kristina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Horndahl, Victoria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    BVC- och skolsköterskors erfarenheter och reflektioner av att arbeta med barn med övervikt: - från prevention till uppföljning samt deras samverkan sinsemellan och med andra hälsoaktörer2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Overweight is a growing problem and a threat against the public health. Children with overweight are at risk of remaining overweight as adults and therefore it is necessery to insert actions early. The aim of this study was to describe child health care (CHC) nurses and school nurses experiences and reflections of working with overweight children – to describe which strategies that were used from prevention to monitoring in this work and describe CHC- and school nurses interaction between them and with other health players. The study was conducted as a semi-structured interviewstudy with a descriptive design. A summon of eight child health care nurses and eight schoolnurses were interviewed. The material was analysed with a qualitative content analysis. The result showed the importance of parents participation to reach goals in weight control among overweight children. Children and parents with engagement facilitated the cooperation while a lack of insight made the cooperation more difficult. Overweight were considered as a sensitive topic and the nurses had a fear of upsetting the feelings of the familymembers. The nurses tried to customize their work to fit the individual needs of the overweight children. There were a lack of effective and uniform guidelines and the nurses wished for more resources, continuing education and expanded collaborations with other health players. The nurses in CHC and school health care services experienced their collaboration to be important but it was limited to over-reporting of the preschoolers. The conclusion of the study was that the participants experienced working with overweight children to be an important and difficult assignment. Their work rarely gave satisfactory results. The participants had their own ways of working and they lacked effective policy documents to follow which made them feel frustated and powerless. They wished for more time to work with overweight and better collaboration with other health players.

  • 30.
    Holmkvist, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Sömn, måltider och fysisk aktivitet hos yrkesförare under dygn med arbete och ledighet.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Karin Holmkvist (2014) Sleep, meals and physical activity among professional drivers during the day with work and spare time. Master’s thesis in health at work. University of Gävle.

     

    Night work and irregular work hours affects social and biological rhythms in activity, eating, sleep and metabolism. Researchshows how theworking conditions andworking hours affect professional drivers´ lifestyle and there is a negative impact on their health. The aim of this cross sectional study was to describe and compare living rhythms of professional drivers. Six drivers participated. Three driver´s had daytime work and three driver´s had shiftwork. Self report data on work hours, sleep, sleep quality, meal and meal frequency was collected by either a smartphone application or a paper correspondent diary. During the same period physical activity was measured by an activity meter attached to the leg. The results show that drivers on averageslept7hoursno matter workdayor spare time (non significant).The results indicatethat driversfelt they hadagoodsleep quality.The resultshows thatdriverseat different types of meals like breakfast, lunch, dinner or having a coffee on workdays and on spear time.  The drivers have an averageof food intakes,2 times duringthe workingdayand2 times during spare time. The resultalso indicatesthat drivers eat fromthree food groups out ofseven. The results indicate that one meal achieved the plate model during work day and spear time. The drivers weremore sedentaryintheir absence(48 minutes /day)thanat work (34.5 minutes / day).Therewasno significant difference inphysical activitybetween workand spare time.

     

    Conclusion: Drivers slept equal during workday or spare day. Food habits can be improved by increased frequency and distribution during twenty-four hours.The physical activity is on a acceptable level but can be improved. It can be done by workplace subsidizes training card or by motivating individual health consultations regarding diet and exercise habits.  This extension can lead to changes in professional operating environment such as education in diet and nutrition, sleep and physical activity.

    Keywords: Professional driver´s, sleep, food, physical activity

  • 31.
    Hovlin, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Äldres rätt till sex: Sjuksköterskors kunskaper och reflektioner kring sexualitet för äldre på särskilt boende2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 32.
    Häggström, Marie
    et al.
    Department of Nursing science, Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Britt
    Department of Nursing science, Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Vestling, Irene
    Department of Nursing science, Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Hallin, Karin
    Department of Nursing science, Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Segevall, Cecilia
    Department of Nursing science, Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth Porskrog
    Department of Nursing science, Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Overcoming Reluctance towards High Fidelity Simulation - A Mutual Challenge for Nursing Students’ and Faculty Teachers2017In: Global Journal of Health Science, ISSN 1916-9736, E-ISSN 1916-9744, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 127-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: One strategy to develop nursing students’ clinical judgment are the use of high-fidelity patient simulation (HFS). The aim of the study was twofold. Firstly, the aim of this study was to describe the nursing students’ experiences while participating in HFS, and secondly to describe faculty teachers’ reflections about nursing students’ need in HFS and the related teaching challenges.

    Method: Data was collected in focus group discussions and individual interviews, analyzed using thematic qualitative content analysis.

    Findings: The nursing students’ experienced HFS as being thrown into an uncertain, exposure situation. This were for some, reason for reluctance. The teachers challenge was motivating and coaching the students throughout a demanding teaching situation.

    Discussion: Students’ ability to perform in HFS is influenced by self-perceived efficacy, own attitudes and responsibility for one’s learning, which are a challenge for the teachers.

    Conclusion: HFS methodology can be useful to identify gaps and strengths in students’ professional transition towards becoming registered nurses. Overcoming reluctance towards HFS is a mutual challenge for faculty teachers and nursing students. By entering the scenario with a positive mindset, nursing students can improve their ability to perform clinical judgments.

  • 33.
    Höglund, Anna T.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Holmström, Inger K.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; School of health, care and social welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Lännerström, Linda
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kaminsky, Elenor
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    From denial to awareness: a conceptual model for obtaining equity in healthcare.2018In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although Swedish legislation prescribes equity in healthcare, studies have reported inequalities, both in face-to-face encounters and in telephone nursing. Research has suggested that telephone nursing has the capability to increase equity in healthcare, as it is open to all and not limited by long distances. However, this requires an increased awareness of equity in healthcare among telephone nurses. The aim of this study was to explore and describe perceptions of equity in healthcare among Swedish telephone nurses who had participated in an educational intervention on equity in health, including which of the power constructs gender, ethnicity and age they commented upon most frequently. Further, the aim was to develop a conceptual model for obtaining equity in healthcare, based on the results of the empirical investigation.

    METHOD: A qualitative method was used. Free text comments from questionnaires filled out by 133 telephone nurses before and after an educational intervention on equity in health, as well as individual interviews with five participants, were analyzed qualitatively. The number of comments related to inequity based on gender, ethnicity or age in the free text comments was counted descriptively.

    RESULTS: Gender was the factor commented upon the least and ethnicity the most. Four concepts were found through the qualitative analysis: Denial, Defense, Openness, and Awareness. Some informants denied inequity in healthcare in general, and in telephone nursing in particular. Others acknowledged it, but argued that they had workplace routines that protected against it. There were also examples of an openness to the fact that inequity existed and a willingness to learn and prevent it, as well as an already high awareness of inequity in healthcare.

    CONCLUSION: A conceptual model was developed in which the four concepts were divided into two qualitatively different blocks, with Denial and Defense on one side of a continuum and Openness and Awareness on the other. In order to reach equity in healthcare, action is also needed, and that concept was therefore added to the model. The result can be used as a starting point when developing educational interventions for healthcare personnel.

  • 34.
    Johansson, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Alm, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Kultur på recept: En litteraturstudie om kultur som allternativ behandlingsmetod inom hälso- och sjukvården2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The literaturestudy was to examine culture as a treatment and cultures effect on health. A strategic selection was performed and eight articles were selected from the database Discovery, through the library at the University of Gävle, given the study's purpose. A variety of audience and cultural activity as a treatment were selected. The results showed that culture has positive health effects on humans, both physically and mentally. Culture is stress-reducing, gives a sense of belonging, and a change of mind to see the world from a new perspective. The results also showed that people can manage their lives better and make greater effort to integrate more social. Culture is seen therefore as an appropriate treatment or/ and adjunct to medication for all audiences, especially for people with mental impairments and for individuals with physical illness or disability. 

  • 35.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Westh, Anette
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors och sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att arbeta med behandlingen av patienter med ben- och fotsår i primärvården2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    distriktssköterskorna och sjuksköterskorna en känsla av ensamarbete. En bristfällig dokumentation utan en vårdplan att följa resulterade till ett ostrukturerat arbetssätt.

    Slutsats. I studien framkom att distriktssköterskor och sjuksköterskor hade en önskan om att mer kontinuitet i arbetet, mer kunskap och mer engagemang från läkarna skulle finnas. Det framkom även att det fanns stora utmaningar i arbetet. En av de större utmaningarna var att få patienten delaktig i behandlingen. På de hälsocentraler där det fanns en såransvarig distriktssköterska eller sjuksköterska upplevdes arbetet mer strukturerat. Mot bakgrund av detta examinationsarbetet kan det sammanfattas att adekvat behandling av ben- och fotsår krävde specifik kunskap, kontinuerlig och strukturerat arbetssätt ledd av speciellt ansvarig distriktssköterska eller sjuksköterska.

    Syfte.

    Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva distriktssköterskors och sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att arbeta med patienter med ben- och fotsår i primärvården i Region Gävleborg. Metod. Studien hade en beskrivande design med kvalitativ ansats och genomfördes med semistrukturerade intervjuer. Tio distriktssköterskor och två sjuksköterskor intervjuades. Intervjuerna transkriberades och analyserades med manifest och latent analys. Den teoretiska referensram som användes var PARIHS-modellen. Resultat. Ett underliggande tema framkom i studien: Att vara i ett svårmanövrerat men ändå glädjande och stimulerande sammanhang. I de sex beskrivande kategorierna framkom att distriktssköterskorna och sjuksköterskorna genom sina erfarenheter upplevde att arbetet med denna patientgrupp i primärvården underlättades med kontinuitet, kunskap och patientens delaktighet för en god sårbehandling. Vidare framkom även att en god samverkan mellan olika professioner kring patienten var av stor vikt. Vid bristande samverkan upplevde di

  • 36.
    Kleebthong, Duangkaew
    et al.
    Deparment of Nursing Sciences, Faculty of Human Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Chakriraj, Thailand.
    Chareonsuk, Sukjai
    Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Chakriraj, Thailand.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth Porskrog
    Deparment of Nursing Sciences, Faculty of Human Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden .
    Older Thai peoples’ experiences of major depression2017In: Global Journal of Health Science, ISSN 1916-9736, E-ISSN 1916-9744, Vol. 9, no 9, p. 26-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Depressive disorders are common mental health problems and may be disabling among the general older population. Although older people have significant symptoms of depression, the symptoms are likely to be underreported. The condition often co-exist along with somatic ill and has often been unrecognized. The aim of the study was to explore and understand the perceptions and experiences of older Thai people diagnosed with major depressive disorder.

    Methods: A qualitative inductive research design was used and latent content analysis was utilized. The data were collected through face-to-face, in-depth interviews.Fourteen older people diagnosed with major depressive disorder were selected for participant using purposive sampling.

    Findings: Older Thai peoples’ perceptions and experiences of depression were abstracted into two themes. First theme was leading a lifein detachment, which included three subthemes: living with meaninglessness, holding distress with one’s self, and feeling judged by surrounded people. The second theme was inconvenience of approaching mental health treatment, which included two subthemes: sensing an unapproachable health care service, and lacking knowledge about clinical depression.

    Conclusion: Older Thai peoples’ perceptions and experiences of major depression were affected with high level suspected existential loneliness that might even be worse in a collect oriented society as in the Thai context. Further, it seem hard to approach the mental health care. The central reason for this is interpreted as lack of mental health literacy, and in this case, specifically, knowledge on depression. Future studies should focus on relatives’ experiences of living with an older family member that suffered from major depression, and on the state of mental health literacy in the rural Thai population.

  • 37.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth Porskrog
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Lif, Ulrika
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Asklund, Helene
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Experiences on Participation in Literary Activities : Intellectual Stimuli Empower People with Mental Health Problems2017In: Open Journal of Nursing, ISSN 2162-5336, E-ISSN 2162-5344, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 1307-1323, article id 80506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some research acknowledges engagement in creative and literary activities as constructively impacting rehabilitation and recovery. Nevertheless, there is a deficit of literature describing experiences of participation in literary activities. This study examined how members of a non-profit association for mental health, with experiences of mental problems or illnesses, experienced group-based literary activities facilitated of a bi-disciplinary research team during one semester. This study held a constructive/naturalistic design and used a qualitative methodology with a latent analysis to describe how participants experienced literary activities (creative writing, reading and conversations about published and own written poetry and prose texts). Both individual and focus-group interviews were performed early 2014. Despite previous negative experiences, the findings showed that the participants perceived the literary activities empowering. Four categories were created: Presumptions of personal literacy, leadership role, participants’ role, and literacy development. These were abstracted and interpreted into three themes: Identifying a reading and writing self-image, challenging and redefining one’s reading and writing identity, and strengthening one’s intellectual and humanistic capacity. Literary activities seemed to positively change the participants’ attitudes towards writing and reading, and also enhanced their literacy skills. We argue that literacy skills are interconnected with health literacy. Involvement of literary activities into rehabilitation in mental health practice may be beneficial for some groups, and merits further studies.

  • 38.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Ledarskapsbokslut: ett systematiskt reflektionsverktyg för utveckling av hälsofrämjande och effektiva chefer och specialister2012Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Lindberg, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Skytt, Bernice
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wågström, Britt-Mari
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Arvidsson, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Lindberg, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University / County Council of Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Risk behaviours for organism transmission in daily care activities - a longitudinal observational case study.2018In: Journal of Hospital Infection, ISSN 0195-6701, E-ISSN 1532-2939, Vol. 100, no 3, p. e146-e150, article id S0195-6701(18)30406-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To understand healthcare personnel's infection prevention behaviour has long been viewed as a key factor in preventing healthcare-associated infections. Suboptimal hand hygiene compliance and handling of materials, equipment and surfaces present the main risks for potential organism transmission. Further exploration is needed regarding the role of context-specific conditions and the infection prevention behaviours of healthcare personnel. Such knowledge could enable the development of new intervention strategies for modifying behaviour.

    AIM: To describe risk behaviours for organism transmission in daily care activities over time.

    METHODS: Unstructured observations of healthcare personnel carrying out patient related activities were performed on 12 occasions over a period of 18 months.

    FINDINGS: Risk behaviours for organism transmission occur frequently in daily care activities and the results shows that the occurrence is somewhat stable over time. Interruptions in care activities contribute to an increased risk for organism transmission that could lead to subsequent healthcare-associated infection.

    CONCLUSION: Interventions aimed at reducing the risks of healthcare-associated infections need to focus on strategies that address: hand hygiene compliance; the handling of materials, equipment, work clothes and surfaces; as well as the effects of interruptions in care activities if they are to alter healthcare personnel's infection prevention behaviour sufficiently.

  • 40.
    Lowden, A.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Åkerstedt, T.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Holmbäck, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Forslund, A.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Forslund, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Carbohydrate vs. high fat meal - effects on performance and sleepiness during a 24h wake period2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Lowden, Arne
    et al.
    Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmbäck, Ulf
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University .
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forslund, Anders
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University .
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University .
    Time of day and type of food­relation to mood and hunger during 24 h of constant conditions2001In: Journal of Human Ergology, ISSN 0300-8134, Vol. 30, no 1-2, p. 381-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A six-day high-carbohydrate meal (HC; 65 E% (energy percent) carbohydrates, 20 E% fat and 15 E% protein) and asix-day high-fat meal (HF; 40 E% carbohydrates, 45 E% fat and 15 E% protein) were given to seven healthy subjects in a crossover design. On the last day. subjects were kept awake for 24 hours in a metabolic laboratory while substrate utilisation and energy expenditure were measured by indirect calorimetry. The subjects were given isocaloric meals every four hours. Results showed that hunger decreased at night (F=4.2, p<0.05) and linearly increased after meal intake. Macronutrient composition (fat/carbohydrates) seemed to be of less importance for hunger. Hunger and thirst were found to be strongly associated with gastrointestinal substances, for hunger the strongest being a negative correlation with triacylglycerol (partial correlation=-0.39). It is suggested that it might not be necessary for shift workers to eat full portions at night but that satiation will occur with less food. Possibly lack of adjustment of nocturnal food intake might be one reason why overweight is common in shift work populations.

  • 42.
    Lowden, Arne
    et al.
    IPM—National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmbäck, Ulf
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    IPM—National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forslund, Jeanette
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forslund, Anders
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Performance and sleepiness during a 24 h wake in constant conditions are affected by diet2004In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 251-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of high-carbohydrate (HC) and high-fat (HF) diet on cognitive performance, and subjective and objective sleepiness. Seven male participants were kept awake for 24 h in a metabolic ward. Meals were given every 4 h and cognitive performance and sleepiness ratings were assessed hourly. The Karolinska Drowsiness Test (KDT, EEG derived) was performed twice after meal. Performance in simple reaction time showed a significant interaction of diet and the post-prandial period, a slower reaction time was observed for the HC-diet 3.5 h after meal intake. Diet did not affect EEG measures but a general post-prandial increase of objective sleepiness was observed 3.5 h after meal servings. The HC-diet was significantly associated with an increase of subjective sleepiness. The study demonstrated that the HC-diet caused larger oscillation in performance and increased sleepiness as compared to HF-diet throughout day and night.

  • 43.
    Lundberg, Kristina
    et al.
    Department of Nursing, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Husum Health Center, Västernorrland County Council, Husum, Sweden.
    Jong, Miek C.
    Department of Nursing, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Louis Bolk Institute, Driebergen, The Netherlands; National Information and Knowledge Center for Integrative Medicine, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth Porskrog
    Department of Nursing, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Jong, Mats
    Department of Nursing, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Health Promotion in Practice - District Nurses Experiences of Working with Health Promotion and Lifestyle Interventions among Patients at Risk of Developing Cardiovascular Disease2017In: Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, ISSN 1550-8307, E-ISSN 1878-7541, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 108-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Health Promotion Practice (HPP) has the objective to promote a healthier lifestyle and reduce the risk of disease. The aim of this study was to examine district nurses׳ experiences of working with health preventive actions among patients with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to identify facilitators and obstacles in HPP.

    Design/Setting

    The study was carried out with a qualitative approach where individual semistructured interviews were performed with a total of 12 district nurses in primary care. Data transcripts were analyzed with a manifest content analysis.

    Findings

    Five categories were identified. Firstly, informants regarded HPP as the core essence of their work. Secondly, counseling and coaching were reported as crucial elements in working with HPP. Thirdly, informants identified tools such as motivational interviewing (MI) to facilitate HPP. In the fourth category facilitators and barriers of HPP appeared, consisting of both positive and negative attitudes and presence as well as lack of organizational culture and structure. Finally, some informants were dissatisfied with HPP and viewed it as compulsory or as a burden, while others were satisfied and experienced it as a stimulating challenge.

    Conclusion

    This study identified that HPP is the core of the district nurses׳ work to promote a healthier lifestyle in individuals with CVD. Organizational structures and culture need to be improved in order to support district nurses to successfully work with HPP. To optimize health promotion and strengthen patients׳ self-care, it is recommended that HPP include holistic elements of care.

  • 44.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Sakajev, Eduard
    Ermakova, I
    Stress and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Long-term monitoring of physiological and behavioral data in real-life studies2012In: 8th International Interdisciplinary Congress “Neuroscience for Medicine and Psychology”, 2012, p. 258-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Lönn, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Användning av kosttillskott bland styrketränande motionärer i MellanSvergie: Guds gåva eller djävulens spratt?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om vuxna styrketränande personer i Mellansverige hade kunskap om de kosttillskott de konsumerade samt att undersöka den vanligaste anledningen för konsumtionen. För att besvara detta syfte blev metoden av kvantitativ ansats med enkät. Enkäten som användes till denna studie kom ifrån två olika, redan gjorda, studier med redan testade frågor. De frågor som stämde bäst emot studiens syfte togs ur dessa enkäter och sattes ihop till den enkät som användes till denna studie. Tjugosju enkäter besvarades och av dessa kunde tjugo användas och analyseras. Det huvudsakliga resultatet påvisar att kunskap finns bland de svarande respondenterna och att de har stor förståelse för sina kosttillskott samt att kvinnor och män har en viss skillnad i sin konsumtion. Slutsatsen blev att kostkomplimentering är den största anledningen till konsumtion av kostillskott. 

  • 46.
    Maria, Karlsson
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Joanna, Gustafsson
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att vårda patienter då det saknas ett gemensamt språk för verbal kommunikation: Empirisk intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att information ska kunna förmedlas behövs ett gemensamt språk att kommunicera på mellan sjuksköterska och patient. Kommunikationsproblem uppstår när gemensamt språk saknas och det blir omöjligt att kommunicera verbalt. Studiens syfte var att beskriva sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att vårda patienter när det inte finns ett gemensamt språk för verbal kommunikation och hur det upplevs att kommunicera via en mellanhand på akutmottagning. Studiens metod var av kvalitativ ansats med beskrivande design. Undersökningsgruppen bestod av åtta sjuksköterskor från en akutmottagning i Mellansverige. Semi-strukturerade intervjuer användes och det insamlade materialet analyserades utifrån en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultatet visade att när den verbala kommunikationen uteblev upplevde flera sjuksköterskor att det kunde leda till missförstånd. I dessa situationer behövs en tolk och samtliga sjuksköterskor upplevde att det inte var optimalt med en anhörig som tolkade. Flera sjuksköterskor uttryckte en osäkerhet när professionella tolkar anlitades då de ansåg att kulturella värderingar kunde påverka tolkkvalitén. Samtliga sjuksköterskor ansåg att det krävdes mer arbete och fler undersökningar när det inte fanns ett gemensamt språk. Slutsatsen var att situationer där gemensamt språk saknas beskrevs som hanterbara då det skedde dagligen men att det fortfarande var ett problem. När det inte finns ett gemensamt språk ökar risken för missförstånd och patientens säkerhet och behandling blir lidande. Tolk upplevdes som det bästa hjälpmedlet, dock är kommunikation via en mellanhand alltid en tolkning och den blir inte detsamma som att tala direkt till patienten. I situationer då gemensamt språk saknas ställs högre krav på sjuksköterskans kompetens.

  • 47.
    Mossberg, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lundgren, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnors problem efter en hjärtinfarkt samt deras behov av stöd från sjukvård och sociala nätverk - En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syfte: Syftet med föreliggande litteraturstudie var att beskriva behov av stöd hos kvinnor som drabbats av hjärtinfarkt samt deras upplevelser av problem i det dagliga livet. Ett ytterligare syfte är att bedöma kvaliteten på studiernas urvalsmetod.

    Metod: Författarna gjorde en beskrivande litteraturstudie som är baserad på elva vetenskapliga artiklar som söktes i databaserna Pubmed och Cinahl. Artiklarnas urvalsmetod granskades ur en kvalitetsaspekt.

    Huvudresultat: Studier visade att det var vanligt att kvinnor upplevde oro, osäkerhet och rädsla inför livet efter en hjärtinfarkt. Rädslan att råka ut för en ny hjärtinfarkt visade sig vara en stark känsla hos många. Dessa känslor upplevdes som stora problem för kvinnorna. Den fysiska energin efter sjukdomen var tydligt försämrad och begränsade kvinnorna vardagligen.Något tydligt framträdande var hur viktigt det är att få stöd efter en hjärtinfarkt. Inte bara stödet från sin familj och sina vänner i sitt dagliga liv utan också det professionella stödet från sjukvården. Studien belyser också att rehabilitering var ett gott stöd för dessa kvinnor. Med den hjälpen upplevde kvinnorna sig själva säkrare. Slutsats: Att insjukna i hjärtinfarkt kan för de allra flesta kvinnor vara svårt och medföra en stor livsförändring. Stora problem i nuvarande forskning kan ses i form av att många kvinnor inte får den information eller det stöd som krävs för att lyckas. Stödet från familj och närstående är minst lika viktigt som stödet från sjukvården. Hjärtinfarktdrabbade kvinnor efterfrågar adekvat information om sin hjärtinfarkt, samt att deras anhöriga får den rätta informationen för att de tillsammans ska kunna fullfölja förändringarna som bör göras för att livet ska bli lättare att leva. Detta medför att mer forskning behövs för att sjuksköterskor ska kunna tillgodose kvinnornas behov.

    Nyckelord: Hjärtinfarkt, kvinnor, socialt stöd, dagligt liv och patienters upplevelser

  • 48.
    Nordlund, Gerhard
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Norberg, Helena
    Karolinska institutet.
    Måltider och dryck, särskilt mjölk, hos högstadieelever: med uppdelning på kön, morgon- och kvällsmänniskor2004Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Nyberg, Madelen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    En undersökning kring äldres upplevelser av äldreomsorgen: En intervjuundersökning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine how older individuals over 80 years without dementia in a nursing home experience their daily routines, the physical living environment, meal situations and opportunities for physical activity indoors and outdoors. The method for the study was semi-structured interviews with four voluntary elderly living in a nursing home. The results were divided into three main themes which demonstrate the experiences that were raised during the interviews. Regarding physical activity and outdoor stay, the informants reported unstimulating gymnastics, helpful staff, and requests for more needlework. Regarding meal situations the respondents mentioned nice decoration in the dining room, a desire for sleep before breakfast and too large portion sizes. Regarding the living environment the informants reported a pleasant environment, good service and demented elderly who interfere. The conclusion of the study was that the older individuals generally felt well-being in the nursing home. Some experiences suggest that there was a lack of attention from the nursing staff to take account the older people’s wishes regarding for example portion sizes. The interviews also showed that the social interaction between some of the older people could have been better.

  • 50.
    Olsson, Annakarin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åsenlöf, Pernilla
    Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Skovdahl, Kirsti
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden ; Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud University College, Drammen, Norway.
    Lampic, Claudia
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Effects of Tracking Technology on Daily Life of Persons With Dementia: Three Experimental Single-Case Studies2015In: American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementia, ISSN 1533-3175, E-ISSN 1938-2731, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 29-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of using tracking technology on independent outdoor activities and psychological well-being in 3 persons with dementia (PwDs) and their spouses.

    Methods: Three experimental single-case studies with an A1B1A2B2 design. The intervention entailed access to a passive positioning alarm and technical support. Continual daily measures of independent outdoor activities among PwDs’ and spouses’ worries about these activities were made during all phases.

    Results: Access to a tracking technology consistently increased the independent outdoor activities of 2 PwDs. One of the spouses consistently reported decreased worry during B phases, another’s worry decreased only in B2, and the third showed little variability in worrying across all phases.

    Conclusion: Tracking technology may support PwDs to engage in independent outdoor activities and decrease spouses’ worries; however, randomized controlled group studies are needed to investigate whether these results can be replicated on a group level.

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