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  • 1.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    Swedish Development Center for Disability Sport, Bollnäs, Sweden.
    Olsson, Josefin
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
    Wallin, Louise
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
    Wester, Anita
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Swedish National Agency for Education, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rehn, Börje
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umea, Sweden.
    Adolescents with intellectual disability have reduced postural balance and muscle performance in trunk and lower limbs compared to peers without intellectual disability2013In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 198-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For adolescent people with ID, falls are more common compared to peers without ID. However, postural balance among this group is not thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to compare balance and muscle performance among adolescents aged between 16 and 20 years with a mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID) to age-matched adolescents without ID. A secondary purpose was to investigate the influence of vision, strength, height and Body Mass Index (BMI) on balance. A group of 100 adolescents with ID and a control group of 155 adolescents without ID were investigated with five balance tests and three strength tests: timed up and go test, one leg stance, dynamic one leg stance, modified functional reach test, force platform test, counter movement jump, sit-ups, and Biering-Sørensen trunk extensor endurance test. The results showed that adolescents with an ID in general had significantly lower scores in the balance and muscle performance tests. The group with ID did not have a more visually dominated postural control compared to the group without ID. Height, BMI or muscle performance had no strong correlations with balance performance. It appears as if measures to improve balance and strength are required already at a young age for people with an ID.

  • 2.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    Swedish Development Centre for Disability Sport, Bollnäs, Sweden.
    Rehn, Börje
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Validity and reliability of the Dynamic One Leg Stance (DOLS) in people with vision loss2007In: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 129-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tests the concurrent validity and test–retest reliability of a new functional balance test – the Dynamic One Leg Stance (DOLS) in blind subjects and sighted, blindfolded subjects. Twelve blind and 12 sighted men and women between 19 and 61 years volunteered to participate. The correlation between DOLS and the commonly used One Leg Stance balance test (OLS) and the force platform test (FPT) was tested for both the right and left leg. The test–retest reliability of DOLS was analysed using three measurements at least 2 h apart. The correlation between DOLS and FPT and between DOLS and OLS for blind subjects was −0.13 (n.s.) and 0.77 for the left leg and −0.78 and 0.89 for the right leg. For blindfolded subjects, the correlations were −0.56 (n.s.) and 0.93 for the left leg and −0.61 and 0.71 for the right leg. The weighted Kappa values for DOLS were between 0.47 and 0.88 for blind subjects and between 0.47 and 0.72 for blindfolded subjects. Based on these findings, DOLS appears to be a fairly valid and reliable balance test for subjects with vision loss, acquired and experimental. However, further tests of DOLS are necessary.

  • 3.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wester, Anita
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Swedish National Agency for Education, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Elin
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sundkvist, Hillevi
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sundelin, Gunnevi
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rehn, Börje
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Postural stability, physical activity, aerobic capacity and their associations for young people with and without intellectual disabilities2014In: European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, ISSN 1803-3857, E-ISSN 1803-3857, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 22-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies show that people with intellectual disability (ID) appear to have impaired postural stability, a lower level of physical activity, and lower aerobic capacity compared to persons without ID, limitations that could affect their health. This study investigates these physical functions and their associations in a group of young people with ID compared to an age-matched group without ID. In total, this cross-sectional study included 106 high school students (16-20 years): 57 students with mild to moderate ID and 49 age-matched students without ID (control group). Tests were performed for postural stability, level of physical activity, and aerobic capacity. Both females and males with ID had significantly lower estimated maximum oxygen uptake (l O2/min) (p< 0.001 for females and p=0.004 for males) and a lower aerobic capacity expressed relative to body weight (ml O2/ kg*min) (p< 0.001 for females and p=0.012 for males) compared to age-matched peers. Analyses of associations were made using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multivariate linear regression analysis. No significant associations could be found. Physical status appears impaired for young people with ID and functions, such as postural stability, should be evaluated separately.

  • 4.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    Swedish Development Centre for Disability Sport, Bollnäs, Sweden; Umeå universitet.
    Wester, Anita
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rehn, Börje
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Swedish National Agency for Education, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Postural muscle responses and adaptations to backward platform perturbations in young people with and without intellectual disability2014In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 904-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines postural muscle responses to backward perturbations in young people (16-20 years) with and without intellectual disability (ID). The study included 56 young people with ID and 43 age-matched without ID volunteers. The subjects stood on a platform that was moved backwards in a surface translation. Lower and upper leg muscles and lower back spine muscles were recorded with surface electromyography (EMG). Muscle onset latency, time to peak amplitude (EMG), adaptation of muscle responses to repeated perturbations (using integrated EMG (IEMG) for epochs), and synergies and strategies were assessed. The result showed no differences between the two groups in muscle onset latency, synergies, and strategies. Young people with ID reduced their time to peak amplitude in investigated muscles, a response that was different from the group without ID. Also, young people with ID tended to adapt their IEMG less compared to the controls. These findings suggest that young people with ID have limited ability to use somatosensory information and adapt their postural muscle responses to repeated external perturbations.

  • 5.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    Swedish Development Centre for Disability Sport, Bollnäs, Sweden; Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wester, Anita
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Swedish National Agency for Education, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Sundelin, Gunnevi
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umea, Sweden .
    Rehn, Börje
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umea, Sweden .
    Test-retest reliability, smallest real difference and concurrent validity of six different balance tests on young people with mild to moderate intellectual disability2012In: Physiotherapy, ISSN 0031-9406, E-ISSN 1873-1465, Vol. 98, no 4, p. 313-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    Some studies have reported that people with intellectual disability may have reduced balance ability compared with the population in general. However, none of these studies involved adolescents, and the reliability and validity of balance tests in this population are not known. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of six different balance tests and to investigate their concurrent validity.

    DESIGN:

    Test-retest reliability assessment.

    SETTINGS:

    All subjects were recruited from a special school for people with intellectual disability in Bollnäs, Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS:

    Eighty-nine adolescents (35 females and 54 males) with mild to moderate intellectual disability with a mean age of 18 years (range 16 to 20 years).

    INTERVENTIONS:

    All subjects followed the same test protocol on two occasions within an 11-day period.

    MAIN OUTCOMES:

    Balance test performances.

    RESULTS:

    Intraclass correlation coefficients greater than 0.80 were achieved for four of the balance tests: Extended Timed Up and Go Test, Modified Functional Reach Test, One-leg Stance Test and Force Platform Test. The smallest real differences ranged from 12% to 40%; less than 20% is considered to be low. Concurrent validity among these balance tests varied between no and low correlation.

    CONCLUSION:

    The results indicate that these tests could be used to evaluate changes in balance ability over time in people with mild to moderate intellectual disability. The low concurrent validity illustrates the importance of knowing more about the influence of various sensory subsystems that are significant for balance among adolescents with intellectual disability.

  • 6.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterlund, Christina
    Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden; Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden; Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Effect of reduced visual acuity on precision of two-dimensional tracing movements2016In: Journal of Optometry, ISSN 1888-4296, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 93-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    We intended to assess consequences of reduced visual acuity for performance in a natural simple motor task (tracing) using objective kinematic performance measures. Specifically, we intended to elucidate the kind of relationship between the task performance and best corrected binocular visual acuity and to determine the threshold of visual acuity when task performance starts to deteriorate.

    Methods

    Ninety-five individuals with different best corrected visual acuity participated in the study (age 49 ± 12 years, mean ± SD, 27 men and 68 women). The participants manually traced maze-like visual patterns of different spatial complexity presented on the screen of a portable notebook computer using Clinical Kinematic Assessment Tool software. Tracing error was computed as performance measure in each trial with a spatial pattern matching technique – rigid point set registration method.

    Results

    The segmented linear regression analysis showed that the relation between visual acuity and tracing errors was best described with a regression function having a break point between two data segments. Tracing performance was unaffected by values of visual acuity below 0.2 on logMAR scale, but when logMAR values increased above this critical limit (i.e. when visual acuity is further reduced), tracing errors linearly increased. The rate of the increase of the tracing error correlated with the complexity of visual stimulus shape.

    Conclusion

    Testing of fine motor functions with objective kinematic measures during visuomotor tasks may help differentiating between actual effects of reduced visual acuity on eye–hand coordination in individuals with similar levels of impairment of visual acuity.

  • 7.
    Elfving Olsson, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Skolsköterskans roll i arbetet att upptäcka och bemöta barn som har en förälder med alkohol missbruk: en intervjustudie2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the National Institute of Public Health about 350 000 Swedish children are living in homes where one or both adults has an alcohol addiction. Only one percent of these children is identified and offered support groups or similar activities, the rest goes by undetected through all of the educational years. The purpose of this study was to examine how the school nurse is working to identify children whose parents have an alcohol abuse and how they support these children. What support the school nurse wish to have in their work with these children, and how they keep themselves updated on the problems of these children. The basis of this study is based on a number of semi-structured questions. These questions were asked when interviewing ten school nurses. The material was analyzed by means of a qualitative content analysis. The results of the study demonstrate that the school nurse discovers children whose parents have an alcohol abuse by being watchful  and by gutfeeling in the meeting with the children and they are observent in the healthteam. They are giving support through personal contact with the children and by putting them in contact with

     other professions and buisnesses to provide them the support they need. The schoolnurse keeps her self updated of the problem through courses and lectures and by seeking information her self. The school nurse also cooperate with different professions round the school, and uses their own experiences from work and personal life.

  • 8.
    Ferreira, Mariana Candido
    et al.
    Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus. School of Medicine, Ribeirão Preto. University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil .
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umeå Sweden.
    Dach, Fabiola
    Department of Neurosciences and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil .
    Chaves, Thais Cristina
    Department of Neurosciences and Behavioral Sciences. School of Medicine, Ribeirão Preto University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil .
    Cross-cultural adaptation of the profile fitness mapping neck questionnaire to brazilian Portuguese: internal consistency, reliability, and construct and structural validity2017In: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, ISSN 0161-4754, E-ISSN 1532-6586, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 176-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The purpose of this study was to adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the ProFitMap-neck to Brazilian Portuguese.

    Methods

    The cross-cultural adaptation consisted of 5 stages, and 180 female patients with chronic neck pain participated in the study. A subsample (n = 30) answered the pretest, and another subsample (n = 100) answered the questionnaire a second time. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity (hypothesis testing and structural validity) were estimated. For construct validity, the scores of the questionnaire were correlated with the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36).

    Results

    Internal consistency was determined by adequate Cronbach's α values (α > 0.70). Strong reliability was identified by high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC > 0.75). Construct validity was identified by moderate and strong correlations of the Br-ProFitMap-neck with total NDI score (–0.56 < R < –0.71) and with the SF-36, HADS-anxiety, HADS-depression, and TSK (–0.32 < R < –0.82). Exploratory factor analysis revealed 2 factors for the Symptom scale: intensity index and the Function scale. Symptom scale–frequency index identified 1 factor. Structural validity was determined by percentage of cumulative variance >50%, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin index > 0.50, eigenvalue > 1, and factor loadings > 0.2.

    Conclusion

    Br-ProFitMap-neck had adequate psychometric properties and can be used in clinical settings, as well as research, in patients with chronic neck pain.

  • 9.
    Hagerman, Heidi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Skytt, Bernice
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A longitudinal study of working life among first-line managers in the care of older adults2016In: Applied Nursing Research, ISSN 0897-1897, E-ISSN 1532-8201, Vol. 32, p. 7-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    To study whether the number of subordinates plays a role in first-line managers’ and subordinates’ ratings of empowerment, stress symptoms, and leadership–management performance. The aim was also to study relationships between managers’ empowerment and stress symptoms and leadership–management performance.

    Methods

    A longitudinal and correlational design was used. All first-line managers (n = 98) and their subordinates (n = 2085) working in the care of older adults in five municipalities were approached.

    Results

    With fewer (≤ 30) subordinates per manager, there were higher ratings of structural empowerment among managers and subordinates and lower stress symptoms among subordinates, than with ≥ 31 subordinates. Furthermore, structural empowerment was related to the managers’ stress symptoms and leadership–management performance, mediated through psychological empowerment. Moreover, structural empowerment can control/adjust for large numbers of subordinates in relation to stress symptoms.

    Conclusion

    The higher FLMs rated their access to empowerment, the lower stress symptoms and higher leadership–management performance they rated over time.

  • 10.
    Holm, Kristina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Horndahl, Victoria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    BVC- och skolsköterskors erfarenheter och reflektioner av att arbeta med barn med övervikt: - från prevention till uppföljning samt deras samverkan sinsemellan och med andra hälsoaktörer2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Overweight is a growing problem and a threat against the public health. Children with overweight are at risk of remaining overweight as adults and therefore it is necessery to insert actions early. The aim of this study was to describe child health care (CHC) nurses and school nurses experiences and reflections of working with overweight children – to describe which strategies that were used from prevention to monitoring in this work and describe CHC- and school nurses interaction between them and with other health players. The study was conducted as a semi-structured interviewstudy with a descriptive design. A summon of eight child health care nurses and eight schoolnurses were interviewed. The material was analysed with a qualitative content analysis. The result showed the importance of parents participation to reach goals in weight control among overweight children. Children and parents with engagement facilitated the cooperation while a lack of insight made the cooperation more difficult. Overweight were considered as a sensitive topic and the nurses had a fear of upsetting the feelings of the familymembers. The nurses tried to customize their work to fit the individual needs of the overweight children. There were a lack of effective and uniform guidelines and the nurses wished for more resources, continuing education and expanded collaborations with other health players. The nurses in CHC and school health care services experienced their collaboration to be important but it was limited to over-reporting of the preschoolers. The conclusion of the study was that the participants experienced working with overweight children to be an important and difficult assignment. Their work rarely gave satisfactory results. The participants had their own ways of working and they lacked effective policy documents to follow which made them feel frustated and powerless. They wished for more time to work with overweight and better collaboration with other health players.

  • 11.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Ledarskapsbokslut: ett systematiskt reflektionsverktyg för utveckling av hälsofrämjande och effektiva chefer och specialister2012Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Lönn, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Användning av kosttillskott bland styrketränande motionärer i MellanSvergie: Guds gåva eller djävulens spratt?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om vuxna styrketränande personer i Mellansverige hade kunskap om de kosttillskott de konsumerade samt att undersöka den vanligaste anledningen för konsumtionen. För att besvara detta syfte blev metoden av kvantitativ ansats med enkät. Enkäten som användes till denna studie kom ifrån två olika, redan gjorda, studier med redan testade frågor. De frågor som stämde bäst emot studiens syfte togs ur dessa enkäter och sattes ihop till den enkät som användes till denna studie. Tjugosju enkäter besvarades och av dessa kunde tjugo användas och analyseras. Det huvudsakliga resultatet påvisar att kunskap finns bland de svarande respondenterna och att de har stor förståelse för sina kosttillskott samt att kvinnor och män har en viss skillnad i sin konsumtion. Slutsatsen blev att kostkomplimentering är den största anledningen till konsumtion av kostillskott. 

  • 13.
    Richter, Hans
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute.
    Ciliary muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity during manual tracking of visual targets2014In: The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Annual Meeting: ARVO 2014, 2014, p. 263-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Stake-Nilsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för medicinsk vetenskap.
    Söderlund, Maud
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Hultcrantz, Rolf
    Karolinska sjukhuset.
    Unge, Peter
    FSCO, Norvatis, Basel, Switzerland.
    A Quality Study of Self-Care use in patients with dyspepsia2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Svensson, Sven
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Stubbs, Jonathan
    Nordic Occupational Safety and Rehabilitation Institute.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The association between subordinate perception of task and relation oriented leadership behaviors and sense of coherence among a sample of Swedish white-collar workers2018In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 327-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence suggests that leadership behaviours and sense of coherence influences subordinate health. The influence of leadership behaviours on subordinate sense of coherence has not been investigated in any detail. This cross-sectional quantitative study of managers and subordinates in a large governmental organisation focus on this potential association. The study used two common and empirically tested leadership styles: task oriented leadership and relations oriented leadership. In a logistic regression analysis, the association between types of leadership behaviour and SOC were analysed while controlling for age, gender, income, type of employment and organisational tenure. It was hypothesized that both task and relation oriented leadership behaviours would be positively associated with SOC, whereas a laissez faire leadership would be negatively associated with SOC. The hypotheses were not supported. Several implications for further research are discussed including capturing data about both subordinates’ preferred and perceived leadership behaviours.

  • 16.
    Thunander Sundbom, Lena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Förskrivning och följsamhet av antidepressiva hade koppling till kön2017In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 114, no 51-52Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Avhandling. Kvinnor diagnostiseras med depression dubbelt så ofta som män och förskrivs antidepressiva betydligt oftare. Syftet med denna avhandling var att studera hur psykisk ohälsa och kön påverkar läkemedelsanvändning när det gäller följsamhet respektive förskrivning.

    Vi lät 16 000 slumpmässigt utvalda personer mellan 18 och 84 år (svarsfrekvens 48 procent) skatta depression genom formuläret HADS (Hospital anxiety and depression scale). Männen hade rapporterad depression i något högre utsträckning än kvinnorna. Dessa data kopplades sedan på individnivå till förskrivna antidepressiva via Läkemedelsregistret. En högre andel av männen än kvinnorna hade rapporterad depression utan att använda antidepressiva, vilket kan bero på att män inte söker vård vid psykisk ohälsa eller på att mäns psykiska besvär inte upptäcks då symtomen ofta avviker från vårdens diagnoskriterier.

    Kvinnorna däremot använde antidepressiva utan att ha rapporterad depression betydligt oftare än männen, vilket kan bero på tillfrisknande från depressionen eller på att kvinnor förskrivs antidepressiva redan vid mycket lindriga besvär. Vi lät även 7 985 slumpmässigt utvalda personer mellan 18 och 84 år (svarsfrekvens 61 procent) svara på frågor gällande följsamhet.

    Kvinnorna rapporterade betydligt oftare än männen att de avstod från att ta sina läkemedel på grund av läkemedelsbiverkningar, medan männen oftare än kvinnorna rapporterade att de ändrade doserna och glömde att ta sina läkemedel. Resultaten tyder på att kön bör beaktas i riktlinjer för diagnostik och behandling av depression och vid bristande följsamhet: även om studiedesignen i form av tvärsnittsstudier inte möjliggör fastställande av orsakssamband belyser denna avhandling könsskillnader, vilka bör beaktas såväl inom klinisk praxis som framtida studier.

  • 17.
    Wiesinger, Birgitta
    et al.
    Dept. of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    Dept. of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wänman, Anders
    Dept. of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University.
    Experimental masseter muscle pain alters jaw-neck motor strategy2013In: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 995-1004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    A functional integration between the jaw and neck regions has been demonstrated during normal jaw function. The effect of masseter muscle pain on this integrated motor behaviour in man is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of induced masseter muscle pain on jaw-neck movements during a continuous jaw opening-closing task.

    METHODS:

    Sixteen healthy men performed continuous jaw opening-closing movements to a target position, defined as 75% of the maximum jaw opening. Each subject performed two trials without pain (controls) and two trials with masseter muscle pain, induced with hypertonic saline as a single injection. Simultaneous movements of the mandible and the head were registered with a wireless optoelectronic three-dimensional recording system. Differences in movement amplitudes between trials were analysed with Friedman's test and corrected Wilcoxon matched pairs test.

    RESULTS:

    The head movement amplitudes were significantly larger during masseter muscle pain trials compared with control. Jaw movement amplitudes did not differ significantly between any of the trials after corrected Wilcoxon tests. The ratio between head and jaw movement amplitudes was significantly larger during the first pain trial compared with control.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Experimental masseter muscle pain in humans affected integrated jaw-neck movements by increasing the neck component during continuous jaw opening-closing tasks. The findings indicate that pain can alter the strategy for jaw-neck motor control, which further underlines the functional integration between the jaw and neck regions. This altered strategy may have consequences for development of musculoskeletal pain in the jaw and neck regions.

  • 18.
    Öman-Olsson, Linn
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans stöd till en hälsosam förändring för överviktiga barn och deras familjer2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this literature review was to describe how the nurse can support overweight children and their families and to describe what support these children and their families request from the nurse in order to make a healthy change. Furthermore the intent is to review the included articles quality regarding the data collection method.

    Method: A systematic research in the databases Cinahl and Academic Search Elite was used to find the articles. The systematic research lead to 11 articles that was included in this study.

    Result: Children suffering from overweight and their parents wish to get an increased support from the health care through in example individual programs for the entire family. The nurse can use a neutral language and the growth chart in order to make the families observe the overweight of the children. Another good method for the nurse to use is motivational interviewing. Different intervention programs have been produced to support overweight children and their parents and are a good way to highlight the living habits and to make an individual plan for the families. The data collection method is explicitly described in all of the 11 included articles.

    Conclusion: The present literature review shows that overweight children and their families want more support from nurses and healthcare. Nurses need more education to be able to pay attention to the kids and parents on the issue. By developing and strengthening the procedures and tools that have been developed, the nurse may be strengthened in their professional role in efforts to support overweight children and their parents.

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