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  • 1.
    arvidsson, emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Bakom Ladan: En skiss eller två på en hälsoträdgård på Wij Trädgårdar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The research in the interdisciplinary field of natural-human-health-design has in recent decades gainedmomentum and led to new or new-old ways of thinking and acting in terms of planning and design of outdoorenvironments with the aim of health promotion. Concrete concept models and design guides have begun toemerge as a result of this research.The purpose of this work is to use these guides to develop a design proposal for a supposed health garden,with Wij Trädgårdar in Ockelbo as a base. This has been done in the form of a process description. The targetgroup for the design proposal is long-term unemployed and people who have come to Sweden as refugees.Since the specific design recommendations could not be found for the selected target group, the main materialwas general guidelines for health gardens in combination with guidelines for health gardens directed to targetgroups with stress-related problems, which is a broad target group for which there are relatively much currentresearch.The result is a process description of the progression towards a sketch on a health garden, designed for aspecific spot on Wij Trädgårdar, but available for use in other locations, provided adjustments is made to thespecific location. The sketch is supplemented with plant suggestions to different parts of the garden. A sketchof an alternative proposal is included as a smaller, faster and cheaper version of the main design proposal.

  • 2.
    Askvärn, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kan växter lindra klimakteriebesvär?: Behandling av vasomotoriska symptom med hjälp av örtmedicin2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of herbal medicine for vasomotor symptoms during menopause. The questions posed were which herbs that were used, what parts of the herbs that were used, and how the plant parts were prepared and utilized. The last question covered how much the plants alleviated the vasomotor symptoms.

    A review of the scientific literature was carried out. In the articles, 20 herbs and plants were used, but only five of them were said to relieve the vasomotor symptoms. The five plants were Actaea racemosa, Angelica sinensis, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine sp. and Pimpinella anisum.  The most commonly used parts of the herbs were the roots, often through extracts that were processed in order to increase the concentration and to transform the plant parts into powder. The powder was then for the most part transformed to tablets and capsules. Sometimes, information was missing, such as the scientific names of the plants, what parts of the plants that were used and how the herbs were prepared and utilized.

    On average, the herbs alleviated the vasomotor symptoms by 60 %. Most of the herbs appeared to relieve mild symptoms more than they alleviated strong symptoms. An exception was P. anisum, which decreased both the amount of and the strength of the flushes by 74 %.

    This literature study shows that there are plants that influence the vasomotor symptoms in a positive direction. At the same time, it shows that the information in the articles is sometimes incomplete and that the scientists do not always study if the herbs can give side effects.

    Herbal medicine could be an alternative for women who, for different reasons, cannot or do not want to take synthetic hormones or other pharmacological medicines. However, in order to make herbal medicine part of the treatment offered by public health care, longitudinal studies that also investigate possible side effects or risks are needed for securing the effect of the herbs on the human body.

  • 3.
    Bjerkendahl, Christel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Tångodlad potatis- nyttigt eller skadligt?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The nutrition bound in macroalgae, also known as seaweed, contains high amounts of all the nutrients, micronutrients, vitamins and plant hormones, necessary for plants, animals and humans. Totally for free it is floating in the oceans around the world and has been harvested and used by people for thousands of years. A problem that has arisen in the wake of Industrialism during the past 200 years is that human beings spread non-desirable substancesto air, water and soil, for example heavy metals. Macroalgae accumulate the heavy metals, which may become a problem if we want to eat seaweed or use it to grow plants in.  In a growth trial using macroalgal compost made from Fucus radicans collected from the Baltic Sea, the uptake heavy metals in the edible tubers of potatoes of the cultivar ‘Cherie’ was investigated. The following heavy metals were analyzed: lead(Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As) and copper (Cu). There were no differences in the uptake of heavy metal between potatoes grown in macroalgal compost and soil, but the potato tubers from both cultivations contained concentrations of Cd and As higher than those normally found in Swedish potatoes. The concentrations are, however, much lower than the limits set by EFSA. The macroalgal compost and the soil used in the experiment were also analyzed for heavy metal content. The Cd concentration in the compost exceeded the limit for Swedish compost. However, the high levels of Cd in the compost were not reflected in the Cd content of the potato tubers. Soil conductivity and pH values were also investigated. The high conductivityof the macroalgal compost was probably due to insufficient rinsing of the macroalgae, and thus it was not ideal for use in crop cultivation. In spite of this, the crop yield was good. In conclusion, macroalgal compost can be recommended as a cultivation substrate for potatoes.

  • 4.
    Boman, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Biokol i stadsträdens växtbäddar: med fokus på Stockholm stad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ground is an important factor to consider in today's tough climate for our urban trees. Especially for the trees that shall live in the most vulnerable parts of the city, such as the square, along heavily trafficked roads or surrounded by only paved surfaces. One solution is structured soils which is used in many cities in Sweden but also in other countries. An interesting new development of structured soils where AMA-soil has been replaced with biochar is now being tested in a project in Stockholm. The focus in this paper will therefore be on how biochar is used practically in the tree plant beds and the effects this has on the trees' development.

     

    The purpose of this paper is to get an insight on how biochar in urban tree plant beds are used with examples from Stockholm Biochar Project. And also to examine the parameters used to measure the effect biochar have on tree growth, and to assess the impact of biochar has on the trees.

     

    The work of this paper was carried out as an interview study and was then also combined with research in scientific books and articles. The interviewee is active in the area and works as a tree specialist at the traffic office,Stockholm city and complicit in Stockholm Biochar Project. Researched have been done in various databases where the keywords biokol, biochar, terra preta, urban city trees and tree inventory have been used.

     

    The construction of the plant bed with biochar in Stockholm city has proved to be similar to the old model, but it differs in that the AMA-soil has been exchanged for biochar and also in that the dimensions of the macadam instructured soil is changed.

     

    The parameters used in the Stockholm city to measure tree growth are stem circumference. But there are also other parameters that could be used to measure growth and these could also be applied to assess effect of the biochar on the tree.

     

    In a comparison of tree growth, where tree of the same species had grown in similar conditions but in three different types of plant beds, the results showed that the trees planted in biochar did not have the best growth.

  • 5.
    Castoria, Raffaello
    et al.
    Università degli studi del Molise.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gothenburg and Università degli studi del Molise.
    Host responses to biological control agents2010In: Post-harvest pathology / [ed] D. Prusky & M.L. Gullino, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, p. 171-181Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Dahlgren, Magdalena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Byta lind mot lind: En studie om trädbyten vid historiska anläggningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to examine how a tree replacement is carried out in a place that is protected as a cultural heritage. The places described are the Baroque garden in Uppsala Botanical Gardens and the baroque garden in the palace garden at Drottningholm. Both gardens are owned by the state and managed by the National Property Board. The National Heritage Board has overall responsibility that the facilities are not distorted. The Botanical Garden in Uppsala belongs to Uppsala University and is managed by the University. The gardens have a high historical value that make them worthy of protection. Because of this there are restrictions and regulations that dictate how the locations should be maintained and administered. The thesis is based on interviews with the project manager for both of the tree-replacements and the garden Director and 1st gardener at the Botanical Garden in Uppsala. The old lime trees at Drottningholm were planted in the late 1600s and early 1700s and was largely dutch lime, Tilia x europaea 'Pallida', imported from Holland. The old lime trees in the botanical garden was planted in the 1970s, when the garden was restored under the direction of Walter Bauer. The tree replacement at Drottningholm was conducted between 1997–2011 in five stages and the restoration in the Botanical Garden is carried out in autumn 2016 and is expected to be completed in June 2017. Both the construction work and a five-year warranty maintenance is performed under contract. The paper describes what influences the choice of the trees at the facilities. There have been studies to determine the species and varieties of the original lime trees in the avenues at Drottningholm. The new lime trees planted there and those that will be planted in the spring of 2017 in the Botanical Garden, are of the same type as the original lime trees at Drottningholm. A large number of measures have been carried out at the installation and maintenance of the trees to ensure that they establish themselves properly and develop well.

  • 7.
    Dahlin, Olov
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap.
    Hälsoparken Fjärran Höjder i Gävle: Sveriges mest uthålliga och integrativmedicinska hälsoanläggning : rapport avseende: förstudie av integrativ hälsomottagning vid Fjärran Höjder : ett projekt finansierat av Gävle Kommun och Region Gävleborg2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet ”Förstudie av integrativ hälsomottagning vid Fjärran Höjder” har genomförts under hösten 2008. Arbetet har varit inriktat på att följa och genomföra den projektbeskrivning som gavs i samband med ansökan om medel. Till stöd i arbetet har projektledaren haft Arbetsgruppen för en integrativ hälsomottagning vid Fjärran Höjder, vilken sammanträtt fyra gånger under projekttiden. Flera av medlemmarna i arbetsgruppen har också deltagit i studieresorna och föreläsningsserien som anordnats. I syfte att undersöka förutsättningarna för en etablering av hälsomottagningen har en attitydundersökning genomförts bland ett antal utvalda vårdtagare och vårdgivare, politiker, anställda och arbetsgivare, samt besökare vid Fjärran Höjder. Undersökningen visar i korthet att det finns ett stöd för anläggandet av en hälsopark vid Fjärran Höjder. De studieresor och den föreläsningsserie med avslutande dialogmöte som genomförts, har syftat till att förankra idén hos de hälsoaktörer som kan tänkas bli involverade i projektet framöver. Arbetet i arbetsgruppen har mycket handlat om att arbeta fram en projektidé, ett program eller en projektplan för den föreslagna integrativa hälsomottagningen. En viktig del i en sådan plan har varit att sätta in mottagningen i ett större sammanhang, det vi nu vill kalla Hälsoparken Fjärran Höjder. Hälsomottagningen skulle då ingå i en större helhet, en miljö vars samtliga delar syftar till att främja hälsan hos parkens besökare. Visioner och mål för hälsoparken har arbetats fram, liksom ett preliminärt förslag till utformning av hälsoparken och verksamhet där vid. I fortsättningen av projektet avses att söka medel från Osherstiftelsen och i det fall projektet får fortsatt stöd från Gävle Kommun och Region Gävleborg även EU-medel, eftersom det krävs egenfinansiering vid sådana ansökningar. Förslag till hur projektet kan vidareutvecklas lämnas i rapportens avslutande del.

  • 8.
    Ekman, Kristina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Odling i sand: En undersökning av markfysikaliska egenskaper hos sandjordar och om anläggning av odlingsbäddar2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med examensarbetet är att försöka förklara de markfysikaliska egenskaperna hos en sandjord och hur det med hjälp av olika kornstorlek är möjligt att uppnå dessa egenskaper i en odlingsbädd. Sandjordar kan anses som problematiska då de har svårare att behålla fukten i jorden och dessutom är näringsfattiga. Detta gäller såväl artificiella som naturliga sandjordar. Vattnet kan beroende på kornstorlek och tillförsel av mull ha lättare eller svårare att förflytta sig i marken. Detta kan vara avgörande för hur en växt överlever och trivs i en sådan miljö. Den värmehållande förmågan varierar på grund av sandjordens kornstorlek och inblandning av mull. En sandbädd blir varm tidigare på våren än en bädd av mull och därför kan odlingssäsongen förlängas. En planta som är härdig t ex, till zon II, har om den står i sandjord större chans att klara vinterhalvåret i en högre belägen zon, än om den är planterad i mulljord men jordens fukthalt har också en avgörande betydelse. Det är viktigt att sandjorden har en bra sammansättning – är det för stor andel mycket små partiklar dräneras inte överflödigt vatten bort och vattnet blir stående i sandbädden - vilket medför ökad risk att plantan fryser under vintern. Syftet med uppsatsen har också varit att undersöka hur en odlingsbädd av sandjord kan anläggas. Under uppbyggnaden av stenpartiet har jag kunnat se med vilka medel det går att ändra förutsättningarna i en sandbädd så att växter som inte är helt härdiga i vårt klimat eller som kräver speciella miljöer ändå kan överleva och trivas i vår del av världen. Studien av de markfysikaliska egenskaperna hos sandjordar har hjälpt till att förklara hur de sandbäddar som anlagts fungerar. Under arbetets gång har det även framkommit att de metoder som studerats inte kan användas överallt och att det finns flera problem med sandjordar. De är näringsfattiga och när näring sprids ut kan den på grund av sandjordens dåliga förmåga att behålla näring, orsaka näringsläckage i närliggande vattendrag.

  • 9.
    Ekman, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Pilodling till användning inom trädgård och hantverk: med tonvikt på zon 52013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med det här examensarbetet är att undersöka hur pil, eller mer specifikt, sorter inom släktet Salix sp. odlas för användning inom hantverk och trädgård. Bland dessa sorter kan nämnas korgvide (Salix viminalis). Denna typ av odling är småskalig och syftet är att få material till flätning av exempelvis korgar eller grövre arbeten som hägn och staket i trädgård. Materialet som används är vanligen ettåriga skott av odlade pilsorter som skördas när plantan är i vintervila. Därefter torkas skotten i ca 6 månader för att sedan blötläggas innan flätningen påbörjas. Blötläggningen gör pilskotten mjuka och böjliga. Pil kan även användas färsk till att skapa levande hägn genom att pilskott sticks ner i jorden och får rota sig.

     

    I detta arbete finns information om hur man kan gå tillväga för att anlägga och sköta en pilodling samt vilka markförhållanden och skötselmetoder som krävs. Fakta har samlats in genom att studera litteratur inom området, studiebesök samt mailkontakt med pilodlare. Här finns även en sammanställning av pilsorter som är härdiga att odla i zon 5.

     

    Även odling av Salix sp. för användning till biobränsle, s.k. energiskog har studerats. Anledningen till detta är att dessa odlingar, som även kallas salixodlingar, till stor del består av ovan nämnda sort korgvide (S. Viminalis). Då det har forskats mycket inom detta område har informationen varit av nytta både vad det gäller odlingsbetingelser och härdighet för Salix sp.

     

    Slutsatsen är att tillräckligt mycket information har hittats för att svara på syfte och frågeställningar. Fakta från energiskogsodlingen har inom vissa områden gett vägledning om hur skötsel av en småskalig odling kan förbättras. Även kommunikationen med verksamma pilodlare har lyft fram förslag till förbättringar.

  • 10.
    Franevik, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Corporate Garden: att kommunicera varumärke eller verksamhetsområde genom den yttre miljön2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Företag och organisationer arbetar mycket med att förstärka sin position på marknaden, att leva upp till sin image och stärka sin identitet. En viktig del i arbetet handlar om att bygga ett starkt varumärke utifrån verksamhetens kärnvärden som når ut till kunderna. Det gäller att vara tydlig i sin kommunikation. Ofta kan man se en röd tråd genom ett företags grafiska profil, hur lokalerna är utformade och hur man marknadsför sig. Att inomhusmiljön speglar företagets profil och värden är lika vanligt som att ha en tydlig grafisk profil och en logotype på sitt visitkort. Däremot har de flesta företag inte någon tydlig koppling mellan miljön inomhus och den yttre miljön. Ofta är det bara företagsnamnet och loggan på husfasaden som vittnar om att företaget huserar där. Genom Corporate garden kan företag som en del i en genomtänkt företagsprofilering kommunicera sin verksamhet. Syftet med mitt examensarbete är att undersöka hur ett kommunalt tjänsteföretag kan kommunicera sitt varumärke eller sitt verksamhetsområde genom den yttre miljön.  Jag har använt mig av Sandviken Energi som studieobjekt. Till dem har jag gjort ett gestaltningsförslag, en Corporate Garden, som en del i examensarbetet. Min grundtanke har varit att kombinera funktion med kommunikation där jag använt mig av material från verksamheten som delvis kommunicerar vad företaget arbetar med. Genom att göra en processbeskrivning kommer arbetet kunna följas löpande fram till ett slutförslag. Processen omfattar informationsinsamling, analys av platsen, skissfas, skissmetod, problemlösning kring bristen på parkeringsplatser, resonemang kring idéer samt ett slutförslag som visar en utemiljö där innehållet speglar företaget och dess verksamhet.

  • 11.
    Gabrielle, Norén
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Att främja social hållbarhet i gröna miljöer: En fallstudie av ett projekt i Upplands Väsby2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    In my study I have investigated how a constructed outdoor green environment can be

    used, managed and how it works. The study also investigates the concept of social

    sustainability, where, for example, civil dialogue is a method to promote this. This

    investigation mainly gives account for the inhabitants viewpoint but also a gardeners

    perspective. The study focuses on the planning process of the study object, what the

    outcome has been and how the users of the green environment, think about the result. In

    the process there has been a strong concern of involving the residents and others using

    the area. I also discuss the results concerning plantation problems, which I can see may

    influence the site identity and the quality of green areas, which in turn also can affects

    the residents relationship to it. The result also suggests that there still are possibilities

    for improvements in the dialogue and the participation of the residents of the area under

    the concept that’s been named "Dynamic habitat". The outdoor green environment can

    also further provide life quality for the inhabitants and other users, while it hopefully at

    the same time, promote the knowledge of ecosystem services.

  • 12.
    Hedbom, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Vattnets funktion och utformning i en modern trädgård2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13.
    Hiller, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Funktion och vegetation för  biofilter i kallt klimat: Med fokus på Gävle2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater often brings the city's pollutions whit it and therefore there might be a need for treatment of the water, to protect the recipient. Bioretention systems are systems for stormwater retention and treatment, that uses the chemical, biological and physical properties inherent to the soil, microbes and plants for pollutant removal. Bioretention systems are typically constructed as an infiltration bed with vegetation upon it. The city of Gävle usually leads it’s stormwater directly into small waters, it is only a very small proportion, of stormwater that is led to the sewage treatment plant. That there is an interest in bioretention systems in Gävle has emerged through interviews with people who are active within the green sector in Gävle.

    This work aims to provide an insight into how bioretention systems operates under Swedish climate conditions and give suggestions for plants that could fit in a bioretention system if it were placed in the climate of Gävle. The issues this master thesis will try to answer are:

    •  How does bioretention systems operate in a cold climate?
    •  Which plants would be suitable for a bioretention system in Gävle?

    This work was conducted as a literature study in which facts have been searched in different databases, with keywords like biofilters, bioretention and cold climate. For the lists of plants that are included in the work, the facts have been searched in, inter alia, the plant database Plantarum and garden literature. A small interview study has also been implemented in the work and the people who have been chosen for the interviews are active in the green sector in Gävle and work at companies that have a major impact on the city design

    In areas with cold climates, storm water management with bioretention systems are facing some difficulties in the winter, such as reduced biological activity, temporal freezing and road salt. Studies on bioretention systems efficiency and treatment capacity in cold climates have shown that the bioretention systems works well even in cold conditions.

    The vegetation in a bioretention system have multiple functions and effects, among other things, they contribute to the removal of metals, allowing sedimentation and contribute to the development of the biofilm. When choosing plants for bioretention system you should look at plants that tolerate dry to normal ground conditions. It is also good to have a mixture of fast-growing and slow-growing species and combine plants with shallow and deep root system. When choosing plants for a city like Gävle resistance is an important factor to take into consideration, it is also important with healthy plant material. Based on this, suggestions of plants have been compiled in various plant lists.

    Research results on bioretention systems performance and treatment capacity in cold conditions indicate that the use of biofilters for stormwater treatment is a working system also for areas with cold climates. The use of bioretention systems appears to be increasing in the future and as it is a rather new system in Sweden there is a need to spread information and awareness about the systems functions and values.

  • 14.
    Huang, Hailiang
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Zhang, Chaofeng
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Cost management: a case study of a gardening firm project2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to analyze how a small gardening company can reduce the cost of implementation of a project, through the usage of a Cost Management (CM) framework.

    Method: The research uses an inductive approach built on qualitative data that is gathered through the following means: unstructured interviews; direct observations and documentations. The CM framework is applied to analyze the costs of the project that are used by the company. The data is analyzed by using SWOT analysis approach.

    Results & Conclusions: This study shows that a small gardening company can reduce the cost of implementing a project by using the CM framework. Through this thesis, the authors summarize several suggestions as reference for small companies to perform the future projects. In order to avoid severe cost burden lead to the crisis of future development, the small gardening company needs to apply the effective cost management system to control cost. Moreover, an effective and reasonable cost management system needs the support of the top management commitment, the workers involvement and a self-perpetuating system. The CM framework will not only help small companies control costs of projects, but also ensure quality of projects so that small companies can enhance their core competitiveness and set up own brand in the future. 

    Contribution of the thesis: The thesis shows that several costs can be optimized or avoided when implement a project. From the case study and the authors’ analysis, small companies should pay more attention to the cost control to improve efficiency and profit.

  • 15.
    Jansson, Agnes
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kyrkogårdar och den hållbara utvecklingen med inrktning på Berthåga kyrkogård i Uppsala2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Jansson, Helen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Morgondagens stadsträd: Med Gävle som exempel2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Considering urban trees importance for humans in both environmental and health aspects, this study aimed to explore appropriate urban tree species and varieties with a focus on prevention for current and future epidemics. The basis for this study is Gävle. It is of interest to see what suited a little further north in Sweden, zone 4. This literature survey is based on scientific articles, other literary writings and conversations references with industry expertise and these issues have been the focus. * How does the city tree population looks in Gävle today? * How to choose the new urban trees based on current and future disease epidemics? * What park trees and street trees are suitable for planting in Gävle in order to increase diversity? Gävle has previously, like many other municipalities, planted trees prevailing on trends. This has resulted in an over-representation of the tree genera Tilia, Sorbus and Acer. Invasive disease similar to Ash dieback and Dutch elm disease can knock out large parts of the urban tree population caused by monoculture. Diversity is of great importance in this regard. City tree population should not exceed more than 10% of a species, 20% of a family or more than 30% of a family. It has been a two folded guidelines in the selection of urban trees:

    * Get a better understanding of the prevailing conditions in the urban environment and to enhance the experience on which species thrive in these conditions. * Expand the existing tree population by gathering more knowledge and dare to try new and / or untested species. Recommendations of street trees and park trees in both zone 3 and zone 4 are presented in the report. Interestingly, it emerged both species / varieties that occur in nurseries today but also tree species / varieties that have not yet been introduced.

  • 17.
    Jansson, Helen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Odling i skolan: ett designförslag2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Jansson, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Hållbara växtbäddar för perenner i offentliga miljöer2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att ta reda på vilka problem det finns i perennplanteringarna i offentliga miljöer samt hur man kan förebygga problemen och hur man bygger upp växtbäddar för perenner utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. Undersökningen genomfördes hösten 2011 och baserades på litteratur som böcker, artiklar, faktablad samt intervjuer. I undersökningen ingick fem angränsande kommuner till Gävle samt tre erkända trädgårdsmästare. Utgångspunkten för valet av trädgårdsmästarna var att de skulle ha erfarenhet av att skapa väl fungerande och hållbara exempel på offentliga perennplanteringar i Sverige.

    Det finns många olika orsaker till att perennrabatterna i våra offentliga miljöer inte ser så attraktiva ut. Oavsett orsak så kan man säga att grundproblemet är bristfällig kunskap och eventuellt brist i kommunikationsleden från ”idé till planta” när det gäller de offentliga planteringarna.

    Det är många delar som är viktiga i en växtbädd för att perenner, träd och buskar ska kunna etablera sig och utveckla sin prakt år efter år. En av dessa komponenter är en bra jord. Det är viktigt att man väljer en rotogräsfri jord utifrån växtvalet redan från början. Ett av problemen i kommunerna var att fel sorts jord hade använts från början. Trots att alla påstod att de använde sig enbart av rotogräsfri jord i dagsläget så hade de problem med ogräs. Två orsaker till detta kan vara att man väljer fel växter och att skötseln inte fungerar, vilket resulterar i att ogräset tar över.

    Den perfekta växtbädden, finns den? Eftersom det är naturen vi arbetar med är det svårt att uppnå det ultimata resultatet, men vi kan göra det bästa utifrån förutsättningarna som finns med alla de delar som ingår i en växtbädd.

     

  • 19.
    Johansson, Edit
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Odling av vedartade växter i kärvt klimat: En studie om zonkartans användning i Norr- och Västerbottens län2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The hardiness of a plant is often strongly associated with the recommendations on the climate zone map. However, it is not only the climate zone recommendation that determines whether a plant is cold hardy enough to survive and thrive at a certain location. 

    By sending a questionnaire to local growers in northernmost Sweden I wanted to investigate how the climate zone map is used and how well it works in the northern part of Sweden. Most growers were positive to the recommendations in the map. However, they pointed out that the climate zone map does not take into account the genetic heritage, the local microclimate and the requirements of the location on which the plant is supposed to grow, which are all very important. Growers mentioned that more information about how to create a good micro climate for a certain plant in a certain zone would be very useful.

    From the questionnaire I have put together a list of plants that growers in northern Sweden have grown outside the recommendation from the climate zone map. And by using information from the growers together with information from my literature study I have created a suggestion on an updated climate zone map to see if it is possible to raise knowledge and increase plant selection in northernmost Sweden.

  • 20.
    Jonsson, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Ekologisk äppelodling i Norrland: Odlingsförutsättningar och sortval från zon 5 och norrut2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Jonsson, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Matematiska mönster i naturen och hur de kan göra bostadsgården mer hälsofrämjande: En teori av en trädgårdsmästare2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My theory is that one of the explanations for the nature's positive impact on us is that nature is easy to read when we decode our surroundings. In nature there are mathematical patterns that recur and repeat themselves like the Fibonacci numbers, Golden Ratio, Phyllotaxis spiral and especially fractals. These patterns help us to record and take in information from what we see in our surroundings to understand it but also to determine if there is something scary or if we are in a safe place.

     

    In research where they investigated the subjects’ eye movements it was found that we automatically attach our gaze at pattern of the fractal dimension 1.3 – 1.5. Further experiments showed that the test subjects where the most relaxed when they saw pictures with a dimension value within that range. I found additional support for plant health effects in a report from an experiment in which test subjects touched different materials blindfolded. The research team wanted to measure both psychological and physical reactions. The test subjects were instructed to value their experiences based on 10 pairs of word opposites and additionally their oxygen saturation in the blood and the cerebral blood flow were monitored. The psychological part of the trail gave a neutral result, but the physical measurements indicated that the subjects were stressed by touching metal and were more relaxed when they touched living plant material (a fresh leaf). The conclusion was that physical contact with plant material can have a calming effect, even though the subject does not know it is plant material it touches.

     

    By bringing in these patterns to apartment house courtyards they would become more health promoting for the urban human. Since the herbal layer is underrepresented in these areas today, I have chosen to focus on perennials that would bring in the fractal and mathematical patterns in this environment.

  • 22.
    Järnevi, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Lyckad trädflytt: Förberedande åtgärder och efterskötsels inverkan på trädets etablering efter flytt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report was to put together facts regarding how the measures before and after tree transplanting can affect the establishment of the tree. The report also dealt with the impact that root pruning might have on trees and how regeneration of roots can be promoted. The report answers questions concerning how tree transplanting affects a tree and how tree species, locality and previous measures can influence the effect of a tree transplanting. The reports also answers a question concerning which measures could be performed, before and after tree transplanting, to improve the tree’s establishment in it’s new locality. The last question that this report answers is what impact root pruning has on the tree and how regeneration of fine roots can be favoured. The report is written as a traditional academic report and is based on literature that was collected from scientific articles, books and encyclopedias. A tree loses a large amount, approximately 90 percent, of its root system during the tree transplanting. This causes stress symptoms in the tree. A tree, sown and grown in nature, that has never been root pruned will lose even larger amounts of its root system when it’s transplanted. It’s important to do investigations before tree transplanting. Investigations should be done before tree transplanting to determine what kind of tree, nursery-grown or grown in nature, and what species is about to be transplanted. Both of these aspects may have an influence on how successful the transplanting is. Root pruning can make the root system more compact which reduces root loss during transplanting. Root pruning also increases the amount of fine roots in the root ball which is beneficent during establishment and also reduces water stress. The high amount of root loss causes an imbalance between crown and roots. The crown is often reduced to correct this imbalance and in this report it was proven that a moderate crown reduction is beneficial for the tree. The tree must overcome the stress symptoms to be able to survive and to establish itself. Trees need good vitality to be able to regenerate roots, shoots and branches. Irrigation plays an important part in the establishment and the survival of the tree. Mulch can promote regeneration of fine roots and contribute to an improved establishment. The conclusion of the report is that both preparatory measures and after care has an impact on the establishment and on how successful the transplanting of a tree will be. A correctly executed root pruning and a moderate crown pruning (10 to 30 percentage of the crown) should be carried out. Trees should be transplanted during their dormant season and trees, that are going to be transplanted, should have high vitality. Regeneration of roots is promoted by having good soil moisture, warm soil, even watering and applying mulch.

  • 23.
    Kronwall, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Lekträdgård på förskolan: Ett designförslag utifrån Lek, Odla, Väx!2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 24.
    Krug, Madelene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Ekologiskt hållbar parkförvaltning2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekologisk hållbarhet handlar om att se till att ekosystemen fungerar och inte utarmas. Det är viktigt att sträva efter på alla plan i samhället, även genom ekologiskt hållbarskötsel inom parkförvaltning. Ekologiskt hållbar skötsel innebär att ha ett kretsloppstänkande. Att skapa förutsättningar för biologisk mångfald. Det innebär även att använda miljövänliga maskiner, produkter och arbetsmetoder. Det är bättre för arbetsmiljön och kostnadseffektivt på sikt. I tidigare studier har det framkommit att koloniträdgårdsamatörer ofta har större kunskaper om ekologiska funktioner och att det återfanns en högre biologisk mångfald i deras parker än hos park- och kyrkogårdsförvaltare.

    Syftet med denna studie är framför allt att försöka förstå vilken betydelse ekologisk hållbarhet har för förvaltningen av offentliga parker. Syftet är även att ta reda på hur ekologiskt hållbara skötselmetoder tillämpas i offentliga parker. Studien ska ta reda på vad företeelsen och begreppet innebär för parkförvaltare. Den ska också undersöka hur förvaltare sköter parker och om de har en ekologiskt hållbar skötselinriktning. Studien bygger på fyra intervjuer av parkförvaltare.

    Resultat visar att parkförvaltare ser positivt på att använda ekologiskt hållbara metoder. Det är av olika innebörd för förvaltarna beroende på kompetensnivå. Många av förvaltningarna har en ekologisk skötselinriktning eller tillämpar ekologiskt hållbara metoder på ett eller annat sätt. Resultat visar även att det främst är ekonomi och medarbetarnas kompetens som påverkar om förvaltningen har en ekologiskt hållbar skötselinriktning. Förhoppningsvis kan studien uppmuntra parkförvaltare att ta till fler ekologiskt hållbara skötselmetoder i deras parker - för en bättre arbetsmiljö och högre biologisk mångfald som en följd.

  • 25.
    Lange, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Stockholms parker: ideal i olika epoker2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 26.
    Larsson, Philip
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Starka frukter: en beskrivning av odlingsfaktorernas påverkan på kapsaicinoiderna i chilipeppar2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27.
    Lindgren, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Ekologiska perenner - Lokalt och globalt: En Intervju- och Litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The customer demand for ecological products has increased in recent years, within the garden industry this mainly concerns herbs and other edible plants. The organic trend is increasing and more people are aware of the environment and want to take responsibility for it through their purchases for their garden as well.

    In this essay the aim is to investigate customer demand and the possibility of selling organic

    perennial plants in eight garden centres on the Åland islands and in Gävle/Sandviken. I include two garden centres with an organic profile to get a wider point of view. I investigate the global market for organic perennials and look further into existing certification standards on the Swedish market today.

    The methods I have been using are interviews and a literature study.

    The study shows that the experienced demand for organic perennials is small in both of my

    investigated groups. The biggest motivation for starting to sell organic perennials would be to find a supplier of these plants and that more customer would ask for them. The certification systems on the Swedish market today do not concern specifically organic perennials; there is a lack of rules of conduct. In USA the demand for organic perennials has increased in recent years. Several nurseries with an organic profile have opened and programs for guidance of organic growers have been founded. In Germany the production of organic perennials is small and organic certification is lacking. In both countries further research on the market for organic perennials is suggested.

  • 28.
    Litsmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Gräsmattans "vara eller icke vara": En undersökning av den traditionella gräsmattans moderna dilemma2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional lawn is believed to be facing a dilemma. On one hand, it is valuable for people because of its esthetical and functional values. On the other hand, the lawn is perceived as a monoculture without biological diversity that hinders the domestic landscape’s flora and fauna. In this graduation-thesis, the private and public lawn’s dilemma of “to be or not to be”, is examined from these two different perspectives. The following questions were formulated to answer this: 1) How did the lawn come into existence and what values has it had for people throughout the years? 2) What esthetical and functional values do public and private lawns have for people today? 3) Is it possible to identify a tendency that the lawn is on its way out?

     

    A survey was used as the primary method to answer these questions, in addition to literature-studies. The survey was published between October 24 and 28, 2014, in the Facebook-group “KÖKSTRÄDGÅRDEN – Le Potager – The Kitchen Garden”. 158 respondents completed the entire survey.

     

    This study shows that the lawn’s historical values have foremost been to function as expressions of power, as areas for sports, playing and recreation and as an esthetical factor. These values remain important today but additionally a tendency of people valuing a well-kept and environmentally-friendly lawn can be identified. It was not possible to identify tendencies that the lawn is on its way out. It was, however, possible to conclude that a redefinition of the lawn is possibly about to begin.

  • 29.
    Nisser Larsson, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Snabb etablering och snabb tillväxt hos träd, buskar och häckar2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 30.
    Niva, Sanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Parkers potential för gynnande av humlor i urbana miljöer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is dealing with how existing parks in urban areas can fill a bigger role for bumblebees then they are today. My questions concern: lack of food for bumblebees in parks, lack of opportunities to find places to live and to hibernate and actions how to mitigate this. The results of this study show that existing parks can have a bigger positive impact on the biodiversity in urban areas. If bumblebees can’t find places to live or hibernate or find food, the risk is then that their populations will continue to decline which will have a strongly negative effect on us humans because we are depending on pollinators. With the right knowledge and measures we can make it easier for bumblebees to live in urban areas. To facilitate for biodiversity in the planning of parks means that we will create oases which both humans, birds and insects can benefit from.

  • 31.
    Nordmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Förslag till tidstypisk efterbildning och restaurering av en trädgård i Söderhamn: Byggd på studier om egnahemträdgårdar och trädgårdsmästaren Rudolf Abelin2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose behind this thesis is to create a design proposal for how a present day garden created at the early 1900 can be recreated to its original design. In order to do so, the style of the garden specified to this era must be defined along with an inventory of the plants. The garden used for this specific assignment is located in Söderhamn and the property is called ‘Killingen’. The main house as well as the garden was created in the beginning of 1900. Killingen´s garden is classed as a ‘own-home garden’. These kinds of gardens were influenced by the ‘own-home movement’ which started in the 1900-century. The main purpose of this movement was to help low income families finding a better and own home with a garden. It was also there in aid of preventing the mass emigration around that period. Around this time, a very influential gardener, Rudolf Abelin, played a key role for the own-home garden’s development through his writing and widespread knowledge. For him the garden was part of the society development which also was affected and influenced by his ideas and involvement. The methods used in this thesis are mainly literature studies but also includes observations of current gardens and conversations with relevant people. Thanks to the current owner’s very ambitious and existing list of plants of the garden, it’s actually been possible to rely on literature in order to propose new plants as well as suggesting which plants were not part of the own-home movement and could therefore be removed as they are not part of the same style.

  • 32.
    Näslund, Ann-Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Alléer2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Allén förklaras som en väg eller gata med planterade träd på båda sidor, vanligen i enkla rader men även flerdubbla led. Allén är en anläggning som innehåller minst 7 träd.

    • •Alléerna anlades förr ofta för att genom hamling ge bonden djurfoder och bränsle
    • •Alléerna anlades för att hindra jordflykt på skånska slätten.
    • •Alléerna anlades för att ge en park eller ett slott en gedigen och praktfull utsmyckning som i sin tur visade makt och rikedom på 1600-1700-talet.
    • •Alléerna anlades för att rama in vägen och ge resande en linje att hålla sig till vid dålig sikt men också att ge skugga och återhämtning för resande. Det kunde vara i en hälsopark på 1800-talet eller då man färdades på landsvägen med häst och vagn.
    • •Alléerna anlades som en tydlig in/utfartslinje till en stad.

     

    Det har tydligt framkommit i litteraturen att allén delas upp i landsvägsalléer och parkalléer. Landsvägsallén har oftast inte träd med sammanvuxna kronor. De kantar istället in en väg på båda sidor eller ena sidan. Landsvägsallén kom till i ett syfte att markera vägen vid dålig sikt samt binda jorden kring öppna odlingsytor. Landsvägsalléerna bestod ofta av olika trädslag. Och det togs hänsyn till hur väl det gick att plantera på den platsen. Bönderna använde landsvägsalléns grenar till djurfoder och bränsle.

    Parkalléerna är de som i första hand blev ett blickfång, en estetisk del i parken som från början manifesterade makt och rikedom. Allén skulle vara enhetlig och formklippt. Trädens kronor skulle vara sammanvuxna och helst vara i samma höjd och det innebar att samma trädslag helst användes i parkalléerna.

    Alléer finns att se i hela Sverige, både i stadsmiljö och på landsbygd samt vid stora gods, gårdar och slott. Nutida alléer vårdas i samarbete med länsstyrelse och vägverk samt genom stiftelser och projekt. Bevarande sker med bestämmelser och lagar som grund.

    Uppdragsforskning och kunskapsbyggnad runt vård och bevarande av dagens parkalléer finns för slotts- och parkförvaltare i form av vårdprogram som SLU har tagit fram.

    Alléns namn kommer från det franska språket och allén som idé anlände till Sverige genom renässansen intåg till Europa.

  • 33.
    Olsson, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Vad bör den perfekta trädboken innehålla?2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    En studie i vilken information om träd lättillgänglig trädgårdslitteratur innehållar och vad "den perfeka trädboken" skulle kunna kompletteras med.

  • 34.
    Persson, Anette
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    När trädens rotsystem får bestämma: En intervjustudie med en grupp yrkesverksamma inom anläggning av hållbara gröna miljöer.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    This pilot study examines the knowledge about tree root systems amongst five tree

    planting professionals. The aim is to find out the professionals’ collective knowledge of

    the nature of root systems of various trees used in green areas. Furthermore; to explore

    how the professionals adapt landscaped green areas to the tree root properties in a

    sustainable manner. Questions: Which tree species have special root properties to

    consider and how do the professionals utilize this knowledge? And: How do the

    professionals in general adjust planting according to the root systems of trees in areas to

    create sustainable green environments?

    Interviews with the professionals were performed. Four of the five interviewees

    expressed that they had no root systems in mind when they chose trees to an area.

    However they considered properties such as wet soil, clay soil, sandy soil and the urban

    environment when they decided on the trees for an area. The interviewees discussed 22

    different trees and their root systems and what kind of adaptations in landscaping they

    would make for the special root features to create sustainable tree plantings. As a result

    of the information a list was compiled and the collective knowledge of landscaping

    amongst the professionals was gathered into themes. These themes were then divided in

    to four headings: nutrition, root ball, design and soil conditions. In addition, all of the

    interviewees agreed that the most important thing for tree planting is to select the right

    tree species for the right soil.

  • 35.
    Persson Gärdegård, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Undersökning av några svenska päronsorters känslighet mot päronpest2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, is a serious disease, which attacks plants within the family of Rosaceae. This bacterial disease causes major problems in the cultivation of pears (Pyrus communis) around the world. The occurrence of the disease is still geographically limited to certain areas in Sweden and neighbouring countries. However, increasing temperatures due to climate change and the relative unawareness of the public, augment the risk of its spread. Within the EU, there are no approved antibiotics for use in pear orchards. Within the species of P. communis, cultivars vary in their susceptibility to fire blight. Many scientists believe that new, resistant cultivars and rootstocks are important tools to enable pome fruit cultivation in the future.In this study,the susceptibility of some Swedish pear heirloom cultivars to E. amylovora was investigated by using immature pear fruit. The bacteria were introduced into immature pear fruit by using defined concentrations of inoculum. The fruit were incubated at 25°C, and disease severity was recorded over time. Disease was measured and recorded as the extent of lateral lesion size on the surfaces of the pear fruit. No definite differences in disease development were recorded across the concentrations tested. The cultivars were compared to one another, and ranked according to susceptibility. The most susceptible to the least susceptible were: `Sollerö´ > `Unknown Gävle´ = `Esperens herre´ = `Aspa´ > `Höstbergamott´ > `Göteborgs Diamant´ > `Conference´ = `Lilla dalpilen´ = `Carola´ > `Alexander Lukas´ = `Blodpäron´ = `Bonne Louise´. The results could have become clearer if immature fruit of younger physiological age had been used. Nevertheless, the ranking of some cultivars agrees with the published results of others.

  • 36.
    Pilqvist, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Tillträde till paradiset: Ett undersökande arbete om entréavgifter i parker2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att ta reda på vad besöksparkers ledningar har för åsikter om- och vilka argument som ligger bakom valet av fri eller avgiftsbelagd entré. Samt hur personalen och parken påverkas av valet. Denna studie visar att parkernas skäl till att ha fri entré är för några ideologiska, ett annat svar är att parken är skattefinansierad och därför ska alla ha tillgång till parken. Parker med entréavgift anger att skälen är ekonomiska men några av dem poängterar också att den ska vara låg för att så många som möjligt ska kunna besöka parken. För vissa parker är entréavgiftens främsta uppgift är att hålla oönskade besökare borta. En av de svarande anger att entréavgiften är en statusmarkering som visar att deras park är värd att betala för.En djupare studie görs på Trädgårdsföreningen i Göteborg, där entréavgiften tagits bort år 2012. Studien är gjord genom korrespondens med personal på Trädgårdsföreningen, politiker och genomgång av protokoll från bl.a. nämndmöten. Entréavgiften togs bort med argumentet att parken ska vara mer tillgänglig för besökare, Göteborgare så väl som turister. Oppositionen i staden ville att avgiften skulle vara kvar då den bidrar till ekonomin och håller nere slitage och oönskade besök i parken.I en enkätundersökning riktad till personalen i parken visas deras syn och åsikter på hur parken påverkats, detta år jämfört med tidigare. Alla är överens om att parken har påverkats, dock inte mycket. Resultatet visade att parkens fysiska miljö påverkats lite, främst genom att nya genvägar och gångstråk över gräsmattor hade bildats. Personalens arbetsuppgifter har inte alls eller påverkats lite av att avgiften tagits bort. Personalens argument för entréavgift är att den hindrar oönskade besök, bidrar till ekonomin, och håller nere slitaget i parken. Arbetet innefattar även en kritisk analys av enkäter och en marknadsundersökning som gjorts av Trädgårdsföreningen i Göteborg. I arbetet diskuteras även ökat besöksantal som mål, parkers hållbarhet och andra problem som kan uppstå vid val av entréavgift.

  • 37.
    Puglisi, Ivana
    et al.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    De Patrizio, Alessandro
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Schena, Leonardo
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Jung, Thomas
    Phytophthora Research Center Mendel University, Brno, Czech Republic; Phytophthora Research and Consultancy, Nußdorf, Germany .
    Evoli, Maria
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Pane, Antonella
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Van Hoa, Nguyen
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Van Tri, Mai
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Wright, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Ramstedt, Mauritz
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish Agricultural University (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olsson, Christer
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Faedda, Roberto
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Cacciola, Santa Olga
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Two previously unknown Phytophthora species associated with brown rot of Pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits in Vietnam2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 2, article id e0172085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) rootstocks grafted with 'King' mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch's postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis) and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia) as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis 'Washington Navel' x Poncirus trifoliata). This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity.

  • 38.
    Rekestad, Emilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kolinlagring: Hur kan målet om 4‰ praktiseras inom småskaligt ekologiskt jordbruk i Sverige?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis examines the potential for sequestration of Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) in Sweden based on small-scale agriculture and horticulture. The essay is written from a perspective where climate change has reached a level where it is no longer enough to limit emissions, the earth must in addition serve as a sink for carbon dioxide and thus long-term storage of carbon (IPCC 2014). The initiative of 4 per mille (4 ‰ initiative, 4p1000.org) was initiated during the COP21 climate summit in Paris, which was seen as a step to move to concrete action in the context of agriculture in collaboration with civil society. The initiative is based on the knowledge that terrestrial systems hold far more carbon than the atmosphere, and that plants potential to facilitate carbon sequestration in soil is an underutilized potential in mitigating climate change. An additional and long term carbon storage of 0,04%  annually of the already existing SOC would not only drastically mitigate climate change, but also contribute to increased food security and adaptation to climate change as an increase in SOC means an increase of Soil Organic Matter (SOM), soil health, fertility and resilience.

    Literature studies support an analysis of carbon sequestration as a concept, and serves as a base from which questions related to carbon sequestration in Swedish farmland are formulated. The potential for carbon sequestration in Sweden is examined from the perspective of the 4 ‰ initiative, with a review of methods advocated within the initiative; eg.  cover crops, mulch, no-till/low-till, polyculture, intercropping, crop rotation and succession, agroforestry systems and perennial crops, buffer zones, organic residue amendments and optimized grazing. Relevant methods and concepts such as biochar, conservation agriculture, regenerative agriculture and holistic management are also described. This is complemented with descriptions of four practical examples of horticulture and farming in Sweden in order to anchor the theory into practice. All practitioners have been selected on the basis that they have a conscious desire to promote carbon sequestration in soil. Rather than describing these practitioners solely from the perspective of carbon sequestration, a broader view is presented mirroring the need to address carbon farming from an angle of holistic context and agroecology.

    With the support of scientific references and qualitative interviews, the study highlights the importance of; multifunctional approaches; established root biomass and ground coverage; increased net primary production (NPP) through plant available nitrogen; the potential of biochar as well as mycorrhiza for long term carbon sequestration. The study also highlights the great need for research in Swedish contexts in bringing clarity to questions around soil saturation of SOC in cases when rare methods such as agroforestry are used. Finally, the need for a more radical change within agricultural practices is highlighted as well as the need of support to practitioners who want to explore new regenerative ways of managing soils which promote carbon sequestration, food sovereignty and climate resilience.

  • 39.
    Rutanen, Mira
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Fältdiagnostik - ett verktyg för hållbar odling: Resultat och tillämpning av fältdiagnostiska metoder i planeringsstadiet av en ny trädgårdsblåbärsodling2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work examines the field diagnostic methods and usability of its results into the planning stage of a new blueberry cultivation. The aim is to determine what information can be obtained from a soil analysis, a penetrometer investigation and a soil profile description as well as the recommendations from these studies that further can be traced back to the planning of a new blueberry cultivation. Examples and case studies used a piece of farmland in Ockelbo, where sample measurements took place.

    The results show that field investigations in combination with a soil analysis done in the laboratory is a good tool to investigate the key elements of soil. The soil analysis shows how the nutrient content looks in the soil as well as any nutrient deficiencies or nutrient surpluses available. The penetrometer investigation informs about probable soil compaction, which represent potential barriers to root growth, which can be a crucial factor for successful cultivation. Soil description shows how the soil is built physically providing an understanding of how it works, which in turn guides the grower to select the correct farming methods. The results also show that soil analyses such Spurway and ammonium lactate method is useful in the planning stage of new cultivations in aim to investigate the nutritional balance of the cultivation soil in order to be able to plan and adapt future nutrition and also to prevent nutrient leakage.

  • 40.
    Rydeberg, Mikaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Småbarns skapande i utomhusmiljöer med inspiration av hösten2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 41.
    Sundin, Anton
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Från mästare till kommunalarbetare: En undersökning om trädgårdsmästaryrkets status- och kompetensförändring under perioden 1920-19552014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study of literature from the period 1920-1955 has shown that the profession of gardeners in Sweden went through several structural changes in the early and midst 20th century. The gardeners knowledge, which used to cover the whole horticultural spectra, was due to that no longer appreciated or useful. Prior the 1920’s the gardeners, especially the skilled craftsmen working for the upper-classes, were the ones who led progression in the horticultural field forward and their qualifications were many and diverse. Due to many factors, such as low economic and social status, functionalistic style and the fact that the branch were rationalized and modernized in general, lead up to a point where the gardener of old no longer fitted in, in the much more globalized and modern world of the 1950’s. 

  • 42.
    Svensson, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kollektiva odlingar i en föränderlig värld. Varför odlar vi tillsammans?- en studie av det kollektiva landsbygdsexemplet; Tillsammansodlingen i Bottna2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete analyserar och exemplifierar initiativ för att skapa hållbara kollektiva odlingar på landsbygd. Arbetet undersöker hållbarhetsbegreppet och fördjupar sig i frågan om vad hållbara jordbruks- och livsmedelssystem kan vara. Främst studeras alternativa kollektiva odlingsmodeller som strävar efter att sammanföra konsument och producent, framförallt via CSA-kooperativ, Community-Supported-Agriculture. Även begreppet Civic Agriculture, CA, uppmärksammas då det beskriver ett odlingsengagemang som går bortom de enskilda kooperativen. CA innebär ett förhållningssätt och agerande som verkar för lokalt hållbara livsmedels- och jordbrukssystem, och som utgår från den lokala platsens behov och förutsättningar med hänsyn till dess ekologiska- och socioekonomiska kontext där den passiva konsumenten istället blir en aktiv ”matmedborgare”.

    I arbetet framkommer det att långsiktigt hållbarhetsarbete behöver få utgå från varje enskild människas situation, och baseras på lust. För att människor ska förändra sin livsstil så behöver omställningsarbetet ta sin utgångspunkt i det ”sinnliga och det synliga.” Relationer behöver skapas mellan människor och deras omgivning för att en fördjupad miljöförståelse ska uppstå.

    Hållbar utveckling handlar om faktisk omställning utifrån konkreta platser, i människors vardag, i deras lokala boendeområden. Samhällsplaneringen kan antingen underlätta eller motverka de lokala miljöinitiativ som kommer från medborgarna själva. I arbetet argumenteras det för att Planeraren bör ta sin utgångspunkt från periferins perspektiv för att lokalområdet ska stärkas utifrån de livsformer som existerar inom den aktuella landsbygden.

    Det platsspecifika exemplet utgår från den nystartade kollektivodlingen, Tillsammansodlingen i den bohuslänska kulturbygden Bottna. Syftet med medlemmarnas delaktighet visar sig vara ett engagemang för en hållbar omställning av lokalområdet genom att tillsammans odla bygdens mark och stärka den sociala samverkan på landsbygden.

    Sammanfattningsvis går det att säga att den kollektiva Tillsammansodlingen ingår i en global framväxande ”ny generations” odlingsrörelse som ifrågasätter långa livsmedelskedjor och uttrycker kritik mot bristen på kontakt med grödornas ursprung. Istället strävar de nya odlingsrörelserna efter bättre produktionsvillkor, ett vidare miljöengagemang, och sammanförande av producent och konsument där ekologisk och social hållbarhet utvecklas utifrån sina unika lokalområden.

  • 43.
    Wallby, Kajsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Trädgårdsterapi inom kriminalvården: en möjlighet för Sverige?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the possible design of a horticultural therapy program in Swedish correctional treatment facilities. In the USA the use of horticultural therapy in offender rehabilitation is much more frequent compared with Sweden. The aim of these programs typically contains education for inmates. Research has been made indicating that these programs can have positive effects on psychosocial behavior and on vulnerability to substance abuse among incarcerated offenders. In this study the examples of these programs was categorized and analyzed from three perspectives; Vocational, social and therapeutic horticultural programs. This information, combined with knowledge on the Swedish correctional treatment system, their clients, and information on therapeutic horticulture used in the rehabilitation garden at Alnarp in Sweden, was the information used when discussing a possible design of a horticultural therapy program in Swedish prisons and jails. The gathered information resulted in a hypothetical theory concluding that instead of having separate activities for work, education and substance abuse treatment, horticultural therapy can combine these three components and meet many of the needs that inmates have.

  • 44.
    Wedrén, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Projektet Livslinjen- världens längsta slåtteräng: En inventering med åtgärdsförslag för att gynna biologisk mångfald längs ett cykelstråk i en storstadskommun2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past century biodiversity has declined in Sweden as in all other western countries. Mainly due to modernization of agriculture and forestry which has resulted in drastic habitat losses for many species when rural areas have become less diverse and more fragmented. One of the most species-rich habitat is the traditional hay meadow. The Project Livslinjen (the “Lifeline”) has been initiated to re-create a coherent meadow trough a municipality. The public should be able to bike along it the whole way and it should also feature educational elements. At the same time, it should work as a wildlife corridor. In this study an inventory of forbes and the overall structure of the area is performed. This to identify potential actions to re-create meadow-like vegetation and generally increase biodiversity along the route. The study has found that the 10 km long route passes varied grounds with a city center in the middle. Most areas are influenced by nitrogen surplus and overgrowth. Though some areas hosts species that indicates meadow like conditions. Old large trees, sandy slopes, stonewalls and other microhabitats are noted as well. The initial stage of the restoration will focus on depleting nitrogen surpluses in the ground and selectively clear trees and shrubs. Appropriate management regimes must be implemented in most areas. An esthetics eye should be involved in the restoration process since it is recommended that biodiversity should not look untidy. Landscape variation should be a keyword in the process. Gradually, different parts of the route can start to be managed with traditional methods. Then active re-establishment of desirable species can commence. The areas which still house preserved meadow vegetation must continue to be managed accordingly. It is advised to commence with information to the public already at the start of the project to create understanding for what they see. Follow-ups and new inventories to evaluate the effects of measures is advised.

  • 45.
    Wilander, Madelen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Trädvård i historiska landskapsparker: Tillvägagångssätt för att bevara äldre träd i historiska parker. Exemplet Axmar bruk landskapspark.2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 46.
    Östlund, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Träd, Miljö och Människor: Om konsten att välja träd efter platsens förutsättningar2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats ger en bild över hur man kan göra för att hitta det rätta trädet för platsen.

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