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  • 1.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Memory carriers and stewardship of metropolitan landscapes2016In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 70, p. 606-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    History matters, and can be an active and dynamic component in the present. We explore social-ecological memory as way to diagnose and engage with urban green space performance and resilience. Rapidly changing cities pose a threat and a challenge to the continuity that has helped to support biodiversity and ecological functions by upholding similar or only slowly changing adaptive cycles over time. Continuity is perpetuated through memory carriers, slowly changing variables and features that retain or make available information on how different situations have been dealt with before. Ecological memory carriers comprise memory banks, spatial connections and mobile link species. These can be supported by social memory carriers, represented by collectively created social features like habits, oral tradition, rules-in-use and artifacts, as well as media and external sources. Loss or lack of memory can be diagnoses by the absence or disconnect between memory carriers, as will be illustrated by several typical situations. Drawing on a set of example situations, we present an outline for a look-up table approach that connects ecological memory carriers to the social memory carriers that support them and use these connections to set diagnoses and indicate potential remedies. The inclusion of memory carriers in planning and management considerations may facilitate preservation of feedbacks and disturbance regimes as well as species and habitats, and the cultural values and meanings that go with them.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahrné, K.
    Department of Entomology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Measuring social – ecological dynamics behind the generation of ecosystem services2007In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 1267-1278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The generation of ecosystem services depends on both social and ecological features. Here we focus on management, its ecological consequences, and social drivers. Our approach combined (1) quantitative surveys of local species diversity and abundance of three functional groups of ecosystem service providers (pollinators, seed dispersers, and insectivores) with (2) qualitative studies of local management practices connected to these services and their underlying social mechanisms, i.e., institutions, local ecological knowledge, and a sense of place. It focused on the ecology of three types of green areas (allotment gardens, cemeteries, and city parks) in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. These are superficially similar but differ considerably in their management. Effects of the different practices could be seen in the three functional groups, primarily as a higher abundance of pollinators in the informally managed allotment gardens and as differences in the composition of seed dispersers and insectivores. Thus, informal management, which is normally disregarded by planning authorities, is important for ecosystem services in the urban landscape. Furthermore, we suggest that informal management has an important secondary function: It may be crucial during periods of instability and change as it is argued to promote qualities with potential for adaptation. Allotment gardeners seem to be the most motivated managers, something that is reflected in their deeper knowledge and can be explained by a sense of place and management institutions. We propose that co-management would be one possible way to infuse the same positive qualities into all management and that improved information exchange between managers would be one further step toward ecologically functional urban landscapes.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borgström, S.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Tomas
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gren, A.
    The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reconnecting cities to the biosphere: Stewardship of green infrastructure and urban ecosystem services2016In: Sustainable Cities: Urban Planning Challenges and Policy, CRC Press , 2016, p. 29-45Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    History and local management of a biodiversity-rich, urban cultural landscape2005In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban green spaces provide socially valuable ecosystem services. Through an historical analysis of the development of the National Urban Park (NUP) of Stockholm, we illustrate how the coevolutionary process of humans and nature has resulted in the high level of biological diversity and associated recreational services found in the park. The ecological values of the area are generated in the cultural landscape. External pressures resulting in urban sprawl in the Stockholm metropolitan region increasingly challenge the capacity of the NUP to continue to generate valuable ecosystem services. Setting aside protected areas, without accounting for the role of human stewardship of the cultural landscape, will most likely fail. In a social inventory of the area, we identify 69 local user and interest groups currently involved in the NUP area. Of these, 25 are local stewardship associations that have a direct role in managing habitats within the park that sustain such services as recreational landscapes, seed dispersal, and pollination. We propose that incentives should be created to widen the current biodiversity management paradigm, and actively engage local stewardship associations in adaptive co-management processes of the park and surrounding green spaces. Copyright © 2005 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance.

  • 5.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Isendahl, Christian
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Vis, Ben
    University of Kent, UK.
    Drescher, Axel
    University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Germany.
    Evans, Dan
    Lancaster University, UK.
    van Timmeren, Arjan
    TU Delft, The Netherlands.
    Global urbanization and food production in direct competition for land: Leverage places to mitigate impacts on SDG2 and on the Earth System2019In: The Anthropocene Review, ISSN 2053-0196, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 71-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global urbanization and food production are in direct competition for land. This paper carries outa critical review of how displacing crop production from urban and peri-urban land to other areas– because of issues related to soil quality – will demand a substantially larger proportion of theEarth’s terrestrial land surface than the surface area lost to urban encroachment. Such relationshipsmay trigger further distancing effects and unfair social-ecological teleconnections. It risks also settingin motion amplifying effects within the Earth System. In combination, such multiple stressors set thescene for food riots in cities of the Global South. Our review identifies viable leverage points on whichto act in order to navigate urban expansion away from fertile croplands. We first elaborate on thepolitical complexities in declaring urban and peri-urban lands with fertile soils as one global commons.We find that the combination of an advisory global policy aligned with regional policies enablingrobust common properties rights for bottom-up actors and movements in urban and peri-urbanagriculture (UPA) as multi-level leverage places to intervene. To substantiate the ability of aligningglobal advisory policy with regional planning, we review both past and contemporary examples whereempowering local social-ecological UPA practices and circular economies have had a stimulatingeffect on urban resilience and helped preserve, restore, and maintain urban lands with healthy soils.

  • 6.
    Berkes, F.
    et al.
    Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Colding, Johan
    Natural Resources Management, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Natural Resources Management, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rediscovery of Traditional Ecological Knowledge as adaptive management2000In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 1251-1262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indigenous groups offer alternative knowledge and perspectives based on their own locally developed practices of resource use. We surveyed the international literature to focus on the role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in monitoring, responding to, and managing ecosystem processes and functions, with special attention to ecological resilience. Case studies revealed that there exists a diversity of local or traditional practices for ecosystem management. These include multiple species management, resource rotation, succession management, landscape patchiness management, and other ways of responding to and managing pulses and ecological surprises. Social mechanisms behind these traditional practices include a number of adaptations for the generation, accumulation, and transmission of knowledge; the use of local institutions to provide leaders/stewards and rules for social regulation; mechanisms for cultural internalization of traditional practices; and the development of appropriate world views and cultural values. Some traditional knowledge and management systems were characterized by the use of local ecological knowledge to interpret and respond to feedbacks from the environment to guide the direction of resource management. These traditional systems had certain similarities to adaptive management with its emphasis on feedback learning, and its treatment of uncertainty and unpredictability intrinsic to all ecosystems.

  • 7.
    Colding, Johan
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Analysis of hunting options by the use of general food taboos1998In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 110, no 1, p. 5-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hypothetical model was built, using the STELLA II software program, to test several hunting options for a human hunting group. Different outcomes of possible hunting modes are analysed, such as a change in hunting rate, prey hunted, or species avoided or not avoided by taboos. The model consists of five sectors that reflect a short food chain in an upper Amazonian ecosystem. There is a vegetation sector, a predator sector, and two sectors consisting of browsers and grazers. The last sector represents a human group, known as the Ecuador Achuar. The critical factor analysed is how differences in hunting rate affect a target resource, and how this resource may be affected by general food taboos. The major results of the model are that general food taboos may not be an adaptive short term strategy for hunters, but that a 'moderate' hunting mode may be the most effective option for the human group. Since the model is a simplification of the real world, no general conclusions for management should be drawn from the results.

  • 8.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ecologists as the new management elite?2000In: Conservation ecology, ISSN 1195-5449, E-ISSN 1195-5449, Vol. 4, no 2, p. XXV-XXVIArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Systems Ecology, Center for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Department of Systems Ecology, Center for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social taboos: "Invisible" systems of local resource management and biological conservation2001In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 584-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social taboos exist in most cultures, both Western and non-Western. They are good examples of informal institutions, where norms, rather than governmental juridical laws and rules, determine human behavior. In many traditional societies throughout the world, taboos frequently guide human conduct toward the natural environment. Based on a survey of recent literature, we synthesize information on such taboos. We refer to them as "resource and habitat taboos" (RHTs). Examples are grouped in six different categories depending on their potential nature conservation and management functions. We compare RHTs with contemporary measures of conservation and identify and discuss some key benefits that may render them useful in partnership designs for conservation and management. We conclude that many RHTs have functions similar to those of formal institutions for nature conservation in contemporary society but have not been sufficiently recognized in this capacity. We suggest that designs for conservation of biological diversity and its sustainable use in developing countries focus more on informal institutions, like social taboos, because they may offer several advantages compared to conventional measures. These include non-costly, voluntary compliance features implicit in the taboo system.

  • 10.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The relations among threatened species, their protection, and taboos1997In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 1, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyzed the role of taboos for the protection of species listed as "threatened" by the World Conservation Union (IUCN), and also for species known to be endemic and keystone. The study was limited to taboos that totally avoid or prohibit any use of particular species and their populations. We call them specific-species taboos. Through a literature review, 70 currently existing examples of specific-species taboos were identified and analyzed. The species avoided were grouped into biological classes. Threat categories were determined for each species, based on the IUCN Red Data Book. We found that ≃ 30% of the identified taboos prohibit any use of species listed as threatened by IUCN. Of the specific-species taboos, 60% are set on reptiles and mammals. In these two classes, ≃ 50% of the species are threatened, representing all of the threatened species in our analysis, with the exception of one bird species. Both endemic and keystone species that are important for ecosystem functions are avoided by specific-species taboos. Specific-species taboos have important ecological ramifications for the protection of threatened and ecologically important populations of species. We do not suggest that specific-species taboos are placed on species because they are, or have been, endangered; instead, we emphasize that species are avoided for a variety of other reasons. It is urgent to identify and analyze resource practices and social mechanisms of traditional societies, such as taboos, and to investigate their possible ecological significance. Although it may provide insights of value for conservation, not only of species,

  • 11.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The taboo system: Lessons about informal institutions for nature management2000In: Georgetown International Environmental Law Review, ISSN 1042-1858, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 413-445Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    The Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Tomas
    The Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Social institutions in ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation2003In: Tropical Ecology, ISSN 0564-3295, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 25-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This synthesis addresses local institutions and associated management practices related to natural resources and ecosystem dynamics, with an emphasis on traditional ecological knowledge systems. Traditional practices for ecosystem management include multiple species management, resource rotation, ecological monitoring, succession management, landscape patchiness management and practices of responding to and managing pulses and ecological surprises. There exist practices that seem to reduce social-ecological crises in the events of large-scale natural disturbance such as creating small-scale ecosystem renewal cycles, spreading risks and nurturing sources of ecosystem reorganization and renewal. Ecological knowledge and monitoring among local groups appears to be a key element in the development of many of the practices. The practices are linked to social mechanisms such as flexible user rights and land tenure; adaptations for the generation, accumulation and transmission of ecological knowledge; dynamics of institutions; mechanisms for cultural internalization of traditional practices; and associated worldviews and cultural values. We dive deeper into the role of informal social institutions in resource management, such as many taboo systems. We find that taboos may contribute to the conservation of habitats, local subsistence resources and 'threatened', 'endemic' and 'keystone' species, although some may run contrary to conservation and notions of sustainability. It is asserted that under certain circumstances, informal institutions may offer advantages relative to formal measures of conservation. These benefits include non-costly, voluntary compliance features. Since management of ecosystems is associated with uncertainty about their spatial and temporal dynamics and due to incomplete knowledge about such dynamics, local management practices and associated institutions may provide useful 'rules of thumb' for resource management with an ability to confer resilience and tighten environmental feedbacks of resource exploitation to local levels.

  • 13.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Profu AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Gunnarsson Östling, Ulrika
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ljunggren Söderman, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology, Environmental Systems Analysis Energy and Environment, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Sahlin, Jenny
    Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden .
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Sundberg, Johan
    Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden .
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Economics Unit, Luleå, Sweden .
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Forsfält, Tomas
    Konjunkturinstitutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Guath, Mona
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Policy Instruments towards a Sustainable Waste Management2013In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 841-881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to suggest and discuss policy instruments that could lead towards a more sustainable waste management. The paper is based on evaluations from a large scale multi-disciplinary Swedish research program. The evaluations focus on environmental and economic impacts as well as social acceptance. The focus is on the Swedish waste management system but the results should be relevant also for other countries. Through the assessments and lessons learned during the research program we conclude that several policy instruments can be effective and possible to implement. Particularly, we put forward the following policy instruments: "Information"; "Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials"; "Weight-based waste fee in combination with information and developed recycling systems"; "Mandatory labeling of products containing hazardous chemicals", "Advertisements on request only and other waste minimization measures"; and "Differentiated VAT and subsidies for some services". Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials is the policy instrument that has the largest potential for decreasing the environmental impacts with the configurations studied here. The effects of the other policy instruments studied may be more limited and they typically need to be implemented in combination in order to have more significant impacts. Furthermore, policy makers need to take into account market and international aspects when implementing new instruments. In the more long term perspective, the above set of policy instruments may also need to be complemented with more transformational policy instruments that can significantly decrease the generation of waste.

  • 14.
    Folke, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Traditional Conservation Practices2013In: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity: Second Edition, Elsevier, 2013, 2, p. 226-235Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    People have inhabited terrestrial ecosystems of the world for thousands of years. Both resource management systems and cosmological belief systems have evolved and continue to develop. In fact, most, if not all, ecosystems and biodiversity have been altered by humans to various degrees (. Nelson and Serafin, 1992). The human imprint has in many cases wiped out species and caused substantial land use change (e.g., Turner et al., 1990; Wilson, 1992). However, there are practices of local peoples of both traditional and contemporary society that contribute to biodiversity conservation, practices that are more common than generally recognized (. Berkes and Folke, 1998). For example, throughout the Amazonian tropics, scientists have found remnants of past agricultural management systems in landscapes previously believed to be free from human imprint, suggesting that such management systems were highly adapted to natural cycles of forest regeneration (. Balée, 1992; Posey, 1992).

  • 15.
    Jansson, Åsa
    et al.
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tradeoffs between environmental goals and urban development: The case of nitrogen load from the Stockholm county to the Baltic Sea2007In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 650-656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban dwellers depend on the generation of ecosystem services for their welfare. The city of Stockholm is growing, and a 25% increase in population is projected by 2030. The effects of urban development were estimated through the quantification of nitrogen (N) leakage to the Baltic Sea under two urban development scenarios. We found that total net N load will increase by 6% or 8%, depending on which growth scenario is applied, and population increase by itself will contribute at least 15% of the point source N leakage. Technical improvements in sewage treatment could, according to our results, decrease total N load to the Baltic Sea by 4%. Based on our results, we conclude that proactive measures such as spatial urban planning can provide a constructive tool for sustainable urban development on regional as well as national and international scales, depending on geographical context as well as the ecosystem services' scale of operation. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2007.

  • 16.
    Kronenberg, J.
    et al.
    Department of International Economics, Faculty of Economics and Sociology, University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.
    Tezer, A.
    Urban and Regional Planning Department, İstanbul Technical University (ITU), Taskisla, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Haase, D.
    Department of Geography, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Department of Comuptational Landscape Ecology, UFZ Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig, Germany.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Regional assessment of Europe2013In: Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities: A Global Assessment / [ed] Thomas Elmqvist, Michail Fragkias, Julie Goodness, Burak Güneralp, Peter J. Marcotullio, Robert I. McDonald, Susan Parnell, Maria Schewenius, Marte Sendstad, Karen C. Seto, and Cathy Wilkinson, Springer Netherlands , 2013, 1, p. 275-278Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many of the areas presently occupied by European cities, settlements were formed already in Neolithic times, when the continent was colonized by agri culturalists (9500 B.C. onwards). The re-colonization of European plants and animals after the last Ice Age, which covered large areas of Europe, was not completed before human infl uence began to cause local disturbances, meaning that the native biodiversity has evolved under human infl uence. The long history of urban development in Europe, and the location of cities in fertile river valleys, are at least two reasons of why many European cities are often characterized by higher species richness of plants and animals than some of the surrounding rural areas. The long history of co-evolution may be a particular factor explaining why European plants and animals worldwide tend to successfully establish in areas with dense human population.

  • 17.
    Rekestad, Emilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kolinlagring: Hur kan målet om 4‰ praktiseras inom småskaligt ekologiskt jordbruk i Sverige?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis examines the potential for sequestration of Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) in Sweden based on small-scale agriculture and horticulture. The essay is written from a perspective where climate change has reached a level where it is no longer enough to limit emissions, the earth must in addition serve as a sink for carbon dioxide and thus long-term storage of carbon (IPCC 2014). The initiative of 4 per mille (4 ‰ initiative, 4p1000.org) was initiated during the COP21 climate summit in Paris, which was seen as a step to move to concrete action in the context of agriculture in collaboration with civil society. The initiative is based on the knowledge that terrestrial systems hold far more carbon than the atmosphere, and that plants potential to facilitate carbon sequestration in soil is an underutilized potential in mitigating climate change. An additional and long term carbon storage of 0,04%  annually of the already existing SOC would not only drastically mitigate climate change, but also contribute to increased food security and adaptation to climate change as an increase in SOC means an increase of Soil Organic Matter (SOM), soil health, fertility and resilience.

    Literature studies support an analysis of carbon sequestration as a concept, and serves as a base from which questions related to carbon sequestration in Swedish farmland are formulated. The potential for carbon sequestration in Sweden is examined from the perspective of the 4 ‰ initiative, with a review of methods advocated within the initiative; eg.  cover crops, mulch, no-till/low-till, polyculture, intercropping, crop rotation and succession, agroforestry systems and perennial crops, buffer zones, organic residue amendments and optimized grazing. Relevant methods and concepts such as biochar, conservation agriculture, regenerative agriculture and holistic management are also described. This is complemented with descriptions of four practical examples of horticulture and farming in Sweden in order to anchor the theory into practice. All practitioners have been selected on the basis that they have a conscious desire to promote carbon sequestration in soil. Rather than describing these practitioners solely from the perspective of carbon sequestration, a broader view is presented mirroring the need to address carbon farming from an angle of holistic context and agroecology.

    With the support of scientific references and qualitative interviews, the study highlights the importance of; multifunctional approaches; established root biomass and ground coverage; increased net primary production (NPP) through plant available nitrogen; the potential of biochar as well as mycorrhiza for long term carbon sequestration. The study also highlights the great need for research in Swedish contexts in bringing clarity to questions around soil saturation of SOC in cases when rare methods such as agroforestry are used. Finally, the need for a more radical change within agricultural practices is highlighted as well as the need of support to practitioners who want to explore new regenerative ways of managing soils which promote carbon sequestration, food sovereignty and climate resilience.

  • 18.
    Tabatabaei, Sepideh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    En förstudie om Gävleungdomars relation och attityd till närproducerat livsmedel och dess förpackningar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many different reasons why consumers buy locally produced foods. Some consumers buy locally produced food nearby, while others buy after-production because they consider that the food has been produced in an environmentally and climate-friendly way. Some consumers buy after-production because it tastes better or that they consider it to be of a higher quality than other foods.

    The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the relationship and attitude to food that is produced locally, and the attitude they attach to packaging for local food of high school students in Polhem school in Gävle. Also, investigate how local manufacturers in Gävleborg County work today with market communication and packaging design.

    To carry out this study, a quantitative study has been used. The quantitative study is based on two surveys conducted by high school students at the Polhem School in Gävle and local producers in Gävleborg County.

    The questionnaires cover all the theory areas. The theory chapter begins with a background description about MatVärden, an association that works for Gävleborg residents, but also visitors to be able to share the food and drink produced in Gävleborg. Next, the Foodstuffs Strategy 2017 describes food production, consumer demand, packaging design and marketing communications. Each part has a connection with the purpose of the study that will be the basis for the conclusion.

    The empirical material presents the material collected about the quantitative questionnaire survey.

    It has been observed that there is a lack of knowledge among high school students about food produced locally. It also appears in the result that they consider that a colored and more fun packaging attracts more than one ordinary and single-colored.

    Local producers have a hard time reaching out to the stores today because they lack knowledge and communication. They have limited opportunities to work per the traditional models that exist and have shown an interest in increasing their sales and reaching out to the stores.

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