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  • 1.
    Aare, Therese
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Wernh, Weronica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Emotionella upplevelser och emotionsreglering i samband med en nedskärningsprocess2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate emotions and emotion regulation of a downsizing in an industrial company. The sample consisted of persons who had experienced a downsizing but have kept the employment, within a same position or being transferred to another one. Data consisted of two focus group interviews, analysed by an inductive thematic analysis. The results have indicated that emotional reactions changed over time as well the emotional regulation did during the different phases. The groups differed in emotional reaction related to the time of decision regarding the retention of employment. One conclusion is that fast and accurate information during the different phases of a downsizing process may lead to more positive emotional reactions, which in consequence may result in a positive experience of the reduction process as a whole. The confidence in management increased across the time, due to its decisiveness during the process of downsizing.

  • 2.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Belton, Sophie
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Raymond, Christopher M.
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fostering children's connection to nature through authentic situations: the case of saving salamanders at school2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, no JUN, article id 928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore how children learn to form new relationships with nature. It draws on a longitudinal case study of children participating in a stewardship project involving the conservation of salamanders during the school day in Stockholm, Sweden. The qualitative method includes two waves of data collection: when a group of 10-year-old children participated in the project (2015) and 2 years after they participated (2017). We conducted 49 interviews with children as well as using participant observations and questionnaires. We found indications that children developed sympathy for salamanders and increased concern and care for nature, and that such relationships persisted 2 years after participation. Our rich qualitative data suggest that whole situations of sufficient unpredictability triggering free exploration of the area, direct sensory contact and significant experiences of interacting with a species were important for children's development of affective relationships with the salamander species and with nature in an open-ended sense. Saving the lives of trapped animals enabled direct sensory interaction, feedback, increased understanding, and development of new skills for dynamically exploring further ways of saving species in an interactive process experienced as deeply meaningful, enjoyable and connecting. The behavioral setting instilled a sense of pride and commitment, and the high degree of responsibility given to the children while exploring the habitat during authentic situations enriched children's enjoyment. The study has implications for the design of education programs that aim to connect children with nature and for a child-sensitive urban policy that supports authentic nature situations in close spatial proximity to preschools and schools. 

  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Mikael, Smidemark
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Psykisk ohälsa hos unga kvinnor: Fyra behandlares syn på ett aktuellt problem2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's research in mental health shows that young women between the ages of 18-24 are the largest group suffering from mental illness in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to contribute to the knowledge and understanding of mental illness regarding young women. We have conducted four qualitative interviews with professionals in the field of psychiatry. The outcome-analysis was based on gender perspective and systems theory, showing that none of the experiences of the professionals aligned with mental health among young female patients being connected to upbringing, family or ethnicity. Instead the professionals emphasized social media, school, high demands and shifting to adult life, as major contributors to mental health problems among young women. Contradictory to the statistics, the professionals did not see the differences between young people of different gender. Furthermore, the professional’s opinions illustrated that statistics do not reflect reality due to societal changes. Keywords: Young women, mental illness, professionals, adolescent psychiatry, social media, school

  • 4. Bengtsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Evaluations of effects due to low frequency noise in a low demanding work situation2004In: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568, Vol. 278, no 1-2, p. 83-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise sources with a dominating content of low frequencies (20-200 Hz) are found in many occupational environments. This study aimed to evaluate effects of moderate levels of low-frequency noise on attention, tiredness and motivation in a low demanding work situation. Two ventilation noises at the same A-weighted sound pressure level of 45 dB were used: one of a low-frequency character and one of a flat frequency character (reference noise). Thirty-eight female subjects worked with six performance tasks for 4 h in the noises in a between-subject design. Most of the tasks were monotonous and routine in character. Subjective reports were collected using questionnaires and cortisol levels were measured in saliva. The major finding in this study was that low-frequency noise negatively influenced performance on two tasks sensitive to reduced attention and on a proof-reading task. Performances of tasks aimed at evaluating motivation were not significantly affected. The difference in work performance was not reflected by the subjective reports. No effect of noise was found on subjective stress or cortisol levels. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5. Bengtsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Persson Waye, Kerstin
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Sound characteristics in low frequency noise and their relevance for the perception of pleasantness2004In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 171-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise sources with a dominant content of low frequencies (20-200 Hz) are found in many occupational environments. Work efficiency has been found in two earlier studies to be impaired to a larger degree when working in a low frequency ventilation noise than when working in a flat frequency ventilation noise at the same A-weighted sound pressure level. Other previous studies indicate that different sound characteristics found in low frequency noise are important for the way in which low frequency noise affects humans, and better knowledge of these characteristics could lead to better methods for assessing low frequency noise in occupational environments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of frequency balance between low and high frequencies, which affects the slope of the frequency spectra, and the modulation frequency on subjects' perception of a pleasant low frequency noise. The results showed that the subjects preferred either a higher or a lower modulation frequency as compared to that of the original low frequency noise, both choices leading to less perceivable modulations. Furthermore, the subjects preferred a lower relative content of frequencies below 500 Hz, but only as long as the original low frequency noise contained modulations and the variations were made within a constant A-weighted sound pressure level. The results are discussed in relation to improved guidelines and to the previously suggested theory of slope of the frequency spectra and problems involved with the implementation of that theory.

  • 6.
    Berg, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Berg, Pär
    Motivationsfaktorers påverkan på utbildningsval: en utgångspunkt för HR-arbete kring arbetsmotivation?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Bergström, Sten Sture
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. Department of Psychology, Umeå University.
    Gustafsson, Karl-Arne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. Department of Psychology, Umeå University.
    Concave and convex phases in ambiguous figures showing colour shifts: Mach's figure and the AMBEGUJAS phenomenon2011In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two ambiguous figures (Mach's book-figure and the AMBEGUJAS phenomenon) have been studied. They show colour shifts synchronised with the shifts of their alternative phases. The perceived concave phase appeared to have chromatic surface colour, but the perceived convex phase can appear to be in coloured illumination and shadow (film colour). The two perceived reversible shapes of the Mach figure (the book and the tent) and the three perceived alternative shapes of the Mondrians used in the AMBEGUJAS phenomenon (a roof, a ceiling, and a tile) all can appear to have chromatic surface colours in their concave phases but appear to have coloured illumination and shadow in their convex phases

  • 8.
    Bernström, Agnes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Sahl, Henrietta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Ett tydligt ledarskap tycks vara viktigare än typen av ledarskap för upplevelsen av stress och socialt stöd2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study was to examine the difference between transformational and transactional leadership and how those correlated with stress and social support. The aim of the study was also to examine how stress and social support correlate with each other and if there are any gender differences. A quantitative study was made with a webquestionnaire containing three parts, stress, social support and leadership. The analys was carried out in SPSS were a correlationanalys and t-tests were made. The result of the study showed that transformational and transactional leadership correlated with each other and that they also correlated with stress and social support. The analyses also showed that stress correlated with social support and that there were no gender diffrences. The conclusion of the study is that the magnitude rather than the type of leadership that is important for the precived stress and the social support for the employees.

  • 9.
    Bosson, Linnea
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Malm, Maja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Förväntningar på HR-funktionen ur chefernas perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att kvalitativt undersöka vilka förväntningar som finns på HR-funktionen utifrån chefernas perspektiv på en mindre kommun i Sverige. Studien baserades på elva intervjuer och analyserades genom induktiv tematisk analys. Resultatet visade att respondenterna saknade stöd från HR-funktionen samt en tydlig ansvarsfördelning i arbetsuppgifter. Respondenterna upplevde dessutom en otydlighet i vad de kunde förvänta sig av HR-funktionen. Resultatet visade även att respondenterna saknade en grundlig arbetsplatsintroduktion för att klara av sitt arbete som chef inom organisationen. Dessutom upplevde respondenterna att HR-funktionen var underbemannad då de inte upplevde att de fick det stöd de behövde. Förslag till förbättringsområden är att förtydliga vilket stöd som erbjuds från HR-funktionen, förtydliga ansvarsfördelningen mellan HR-funktion och chef samt skapa en välfungerande arbetsplatsintroduktion. Dessutom behöver HR-funktionen förtydliga riktlinjer och policys samt utforma dokument om vad HR-funktionen faktiskt erbjuder inom organisationen.

  • 10.
    Bryngelsson, Mari
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Hjärpe, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Generell arbetsrelaterad identitet: En orsak till det frivilliga arbetsrelaterade beteendet?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate if high and low General Work-Related Identity (AI) had an effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB). A total of 147 people within the public sector, across two organizations, responded to a questionnaire regarding identity and discretionary organizational behavior. The results showed significant effects of high and low AI, on OCB associated with four of the five sub-dimensions of OCB (altruism, conscientiousness, courtesy and civic virtue). Participants with high compared to low AI were shown to express higher levels of OCB (p < .01, η2= .16). In general, this indicates that organizations might increase the employees´ OCB by promoting their AI.

     

  • 11.
    Buccoliere, Riccardo
    et al.
    Univ Salento, Dipartimento Sci Mat, Lecce, Italy, and Univ Ca Foscari Venezia, Dipartimento Informat, Venice, Italy.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology.
    Di Sabatino, Silvana
    Univ Salento, Dipartimento Sci Mat, Lecce, Italy .
    City breathability and its link to pollutant concentration distribution within urban-like geometries2010In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 44, no 15, p. 1894-1903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is devoted to the study of pollutant concentration distribution within urban-like geometries. By applying efficiency concepts originally developed for indoor environments, the term ventilation is used as a measure of city “breathability”. It can be applied to analyse pollutant removal within a city in operational contexts. This implies the evaluation of the bulk flow balance over the city and of the mean age of air. The influence of building packing density on flow and pollutant removal is, therefore, evaluated using those quantities. Idealized cities of regular cubical buildings were created with packing density ranging from 6.25% to 69% to represent configurations from urban sprawl to compact cities. The relative simplicity of these arrangements allowed us to apply the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow and dispersion simulations using the standard k turbulence model. Results show that city breathability within the urban canopy layer is strongly dependent from the building packing density. At the lower packing densities, the city responds to the wind as an agglomeration of obstacles, at larger densities (from about 44%) the city itself responds as a single obstacle. With the exception of the lowest packing density, airflow enters the array through lateral sides and leaves throughout the street top and flow out downstream. The air entering through lateral sides increases with increasing packing density.

    At the street top of the windward side of compact building configurations, a large upward flow is observed. This vertical transport reduces over short distance to turn into a downward flow further downstream of the building array. These findings suggest a practical way of identifying city breathability. Even though the application of these results to real scenarios require further analyses the paper illustrates a practical framework to be adopted in the assessment of the optimum neighbourhood building layout to minimize pollution levels.

  • 12.
    Campbell, T. A.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Commentary: Donepezil enhances understanding of degraded speech in Alzheimer's disease2018In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 10, article id 197Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Linus
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Symptoms from masked acrolein exposure suggest altered trigeminal reactivity in chemical intolerance2017In: Neurotoxicology, ISSN 0161-813X, E-ISSN 1872-9711, Vol. 60, p. 92-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Chemical intolerance (CI) is a widespread occupational and public health problem characterized by symptoms that reportedly result from low-levels of chemical exposure. The mechanisms behind CI are unknown, however modifications of the chemical senses (rather than toxic processes) have been suggested as key components. The aim of this study was to investigate whether individuals with self-reported CI report more sensory irritation during masked acrolein exposure compared to controls without CI. Methods Individuals with CI (n = 18) and controls without CI (n = 19) were exposed in an exposure chamber. Each participant took part in two exposure conditions – one with heptane (the masking compound), and one with heptane and acrolein at a dose below previously reported sensory irritation thresholds. The exposures lasted for 60 min. Symptoms and confidence ratings were measured continuously throughout the exposure as were measurements of electrodermal activity and self-reported tear-film break-up time. Participants were blind to exposure condition. Results Individuals with CI, compared with controls reported greater sensory irritation in the eyes, nose and throat when exposed to acrolein masked with heptane. There was no difference during exposure to heptane. Conclusions Masked exposure to acrolein at a concentration below the previously reported detection threshold is perceived as more irritating by individuals with CI compared with controls. The results indicate that there is altered trigeminal reactivity in those with CI compared to controls.

  • 14.
    Clark, Charlotte
    et al.
    Centre for Psychiatry, Barts, London School of Medicine, Queen Mary, University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    The influence of noise on performance and behavior - 3 year update2011In: Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, 2011, Vol. 33, p. 458-467Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Coleman, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Effekten av intuitiva och avsiktliga tankeprocesser på individers förutfattande meningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined how individuals' preconceptions are influenced by cognitive processes, based on the cognitive two-system theory. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether and how System 1 and System 2 activation affected individuals' preconceptions. The hypothesis was that System 1 activation allowed preconceptions to influence individuals’ judgement more than System 2 activation. The design was a 2 x 2 factorial design analyzed with a mixed ANOVA. A query battery, with specific questions to activate respective condition (System 1/System 2), was used as a measuring instrument. The participants were 40 students at Gävle University. The result showed partial support for the hypothesis, but may be considered as weak due to an interaction effect between conditions.

  • 16.
    Danielsson Bergström, Annelie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Maracic, Tanja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Relationen mellan Arbetskaraktäristik och Arbetstillfredsställelse2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Positive experiences of job characteristics has been found to associate with job satisfaction. The aim was to investigate the relationships between four dimensions of job characteristics (control, workload, complexity and digitization) and job satisfaction. Furthermore, it was examined whether these relationships differed between respondents with long vs. short employment time. 166 53 employees at Lantmäteriet participated in the survey. Data was selected by a web-based survey. The main results showed through regression analysis a significant positive relationship between control and job satisfaction of the whole group, where the model could explain 14% of job satisfaction. The main results showed significant relationships between control and job satisfaction for the whole group of respondents and between workload and job satisfaction for the short time employment.Since only the relationship between perceived control and job satisfaction was significant, the differences for short or long employment time were investigated. A t-test showed that there was no significant difference between respondents with short and long employment time in terms of perceived control.

  • 17.
    Dufva, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Isberg, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Upplevelsen av anställningsrelationen under en outsourcingprocess2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores employees subjective experience of their employment relation before and during an outsourcing process and has its starting point in the concept of the psychological contract. Eight employees, in the process of being outsourced, were interviewed. The focus was on ‘the employees’ individual experiences and stories about the subjective and perceived employment relationship. Data were analyzed using basic qualitative analysis. The results indicate that a perceived breach of the psychological contract had a profound negative impact on the employment relationship and caused profound negative attitudes and emotional reactions towards the employer. The importance of a well established and mutually formulated psychological contract for the parties involved in the employment relationship, and in an extended perspective for the organization as such, is discussed.

  • 18.
    Edman, Veronica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Henningsson, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Upplevelser av krav, kontroll, stöd och stress i mellanchefers dagliga arbete.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The role as a middle-manager is complex. They often tend to be squeezed between the management and the staff.  For this reason, it is very important that there is a good balance between demand, control, support and stress at work. Studies show that such balance is of great importance in facilitating the middle management's complex work situation. The aim of the study was to analyse middle manager’s experiences of demand, control, support and stress in their daily work. Semi-structured interviews with six middle managers on a private company were performed, and the result was analysed with deductive thematic analysis. All middle managers felt that they constantly experienced stress at work, and that the right proportions of demand, control and support could help them handle the stress at work.   

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Heinst, Felinda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Prokrastinering, arbeta extra och upplevd stress: En kvantitativ studie inriktad på heltidsstudenter vid högskola/universitet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine if there were any differences regarding procrastination and perceived stress between full-time female and male college students with or without work parallel to their studies, as well as the relationship between procrastination and perceived stress. A web-based questionnaire was designed based on Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14). The survey was shared on Facebook where the participants, 164 students of which 82 women and 82 men, were selected by convenience sampling. The result of the study showed that students who worked extra procrastinates less than students without work, and that women procrastinates more than men. The result also showed that students who worked extra were less stressed than students without work, and that women were more stressed than men. There was a strong positive correlation between procrastination and perceived stress for all groups in the study. Moreover, the effects of gender and extra work on procrastination disappeared when stress was statistically controlled for. This indicate that underlying factors, such as stress, can play an important role in procrastination.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Nässlin, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    WLB - en fråga om balansen mellan arbete och privatliv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka huruvida det finns en skillnad i graden av Work life balance (indelat i grupperna Work Family Conflict och Family Work Conflict) mellan de som har möjlighet att distansarbeta och de som inte har det och mellan de som har barn under 13 år och de som inte har det. Vidare undersöktes om arbetsengagemang kan predicera WLB. För att genomföra studien användes en pappersenkät som delades ut till samtliga anställda på den deltagande organisationen. Totalt samlades 85 enkäter in, varav 84 hade besvarats fullständigt. Resultatet visade en huvudeffekt av distansarbete gällande Work Family Conflict, där de anställda med möjlighet att distansarbeta upplevde en högre grad av Work Family Conflict än de som inte har möjlighet att distansarbeta. Resultatet visade dessutom att de anställda med högre värde på arbetsengagemang upplevde mindre av både Work family Conflict och Family Work Conflict.

  • 21.
    Ghidey, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Från Arenan till Arbetsplatsen: Om tidigare elitidrottares karriäromställning till annat arbete2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22.
    Green, Anne Marie
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    The Interaction between Working Memory Capacity and Noise on Recall and Recognition of Orally Presented Text2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the effects of noise exposure on recall and recognition of orally presented text and 2) to examine the relation between working memory capacity and the performance of recall and recognition of orally presented text in noisy conditions. A total of 32 subjects, age 20-33, with no known hearing impairment, were paid to participate in the experiment. The hearing ability of all subjects was tested using recorded sentences with and without background noise. Their working memory capacity was tested using listening span, reading span and operation span tests measuring a) correctly recalled words of all three tests, b) the response latency in the reading span test and c) the processing time of the arithmetical operations in the operation span test. Finally all subjects took recall and recognition tests on texts presented orally with and without broadband background noise (white noise). The test results showed that 1) noise had no significant main effect on recall or recognition of the spoken texts, 2) ) the capacity of the central executive component of working memory, measured as the processing time of the arithmetical operations of the operation span test, correlated significantly with recall and recognition of the orally presented text in the noise condition, but not in the control condition, 3) noise exposure had a negative effect on the recognition performance of subjects with lower capacity of the central executive component of working memory.

  • 23.
    Gustafsson, Christoffer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Arbetsrelaterade mål hos kvinnor och män i privata och offentliga organisationer2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 24.
    Gustafsson, Jessica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Egengruppseffekter på åldersbedömning och attraktivitetsbedömning av röster2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Own-group bias on age and attractiveness estimation of voices.

    Own-group bias elicited from categorization of subjects into arbitrary personality categories has been found on recognition of faces. The purpose of the present study was to examine if an own-group bias in a similar way could be elicited on age and attractiveness estimations of voices. A bogus personality test was completed by 38 participants in order to categorize them into two groups: red and green. Then 36 voice samples was presented one at a time along with a red or green background on the computer screen, and the subjects’ task was to estimate the age of the speaker and the attractiveness of the voice. The results showed no effects of color categorization. To conclude, the categorization of subjects into arbitrary personality categories was not enough to elicit an own-group bias on age and attractiveness estimation of voices.

  • 25.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Eco-label effects in the built environment: does labeling a light source environmentally friendly influence performance and judgement?2018In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 8, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Morally “loaded” labels influence product perception and social judgement2018In: Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Psychological consequences of moral labelling in the built environment2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is strongly linked to human behavior and technologies, and many of the barriers to sustainable behavior are rather psychological than technological. More sustainable technologies and food products have been introduced to combat climate change, most often labeled with morally loaded labels such as “organic” or “environmentally friendly”. The purpose of this thesis was, first, to gain knowledge into the psychological consequences of the introduction of eco-friendly technologies in the built environment, specifically how labeling these products “eco-friendly” influences perception and performance; secondly, to identify underlying psychological mechanisms and limits of this eco-label effect. Study 1 showed that participants generally prefer the taste of consumables labeled eco-friendly compared to conventional labeled alternatives, but the study also found that the label-effect is limited to certain products and certain judgmental dimensions. Results in this study also showed that people believe that eco-labeled products have positive effects on mental abilities. In Study 2 and 3, the focus was to study the effects of eco-labeling in the built environment on performance in cognitively demanding tasks, such as color discrimination and proofreading. At this point, the eco-label effect had been shown across a wide range of products like food, water, and office technologies, and been generalized to a wide range of judgmental dimensions and behaviors (i.e. taste, nutrition health benefits, comfortableness, and mental performance). In Study 4, results showed that eco-labeling can have effects also on behavior that arguably have very little to do with the labeling itself, by showing that social perception of photographed persons can also depend on the labeling of desktop lamps. A consistent finding across the studies was also that individual differences in environmental concern modulated the magnitude of the effect. The magnitude was larger in people with higher concern for the environment.

  • 28.
    Haga, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Psychological restoration can depend on stimulus-source attribution: a challenge for the evolutionary account?2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visiting or viewing nature environments can have restorative psychological effects, while exposure to the built environment typically has less positive effects. A classic view is that this difference in restorative potential of nature and built environments depends on differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the stimuli. In addition, an evolutionary account is often assumed whereby restoration is believed to be a hardwired response to nature’s stimulus-features. Here, we propose the novel hypothesis that the restorative effects of a stimulus do not entirely depend on the stimulus-features per se, but also on the meaning that people assign to the stimulus. Participants conducted cognitively demanding tests prior to and after a brief pause. During the pause, the participants were exposed to an ambiguous sound consisting of pink noise with white noise interspersed. Participants in the “nature sound-source condition” were told that the sound originated from a nature scene with a waterfall; participants in the “industrial sound-source condition” were told that the sound originated from an industrial environment with machinery; and participants in the “control condition” were told nothing about the sound origin. Self-reported mental exhaustion showed that participants in the nature sound-source condition were more psychologically restored after the pause than participants in the industrial sound-source condition. One potential interpretation of the results is that restoration from nature experiences depends on learned, positive associations with nature; not only on hardwired responses shaped by evolution.

  • 29.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    A Shield against Distraction from Environmental Noise2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Working in noisy environments can be detrimental to cognitive performance. In order to perform well people have to find a way to attenuate distraction. This thesis aimed to study the balance between distractibility and task demands in the context of office-related tasks as a means by which to better understand how people in the work environment are influenced by environmental noise.

    In Report 1, 2 and 3 higher focal-task difficulty was achieved by manipulating the readability of the text that participants were asked to read (i.e. either displaying the text in hard-to-read font or by masking it with static visual noise). The results of Report 1 and Report 2 showed that background speech impaired performance on proofreading and memory for written stories respectively compared to silence, but only when the focaltask difficulty was low, not when it was high.

    In Report 3 it was shown that background speech, road traffic noise, and aircraft noise impaired performance on text memory compared to silence, but again, only when focal-task difficulty was low.

    In Report 4 it was tested whether higher cognitive load on the focal task would reduce peripheral processing of a to-be-ignored background story. The results of Report 4 showed that participants in the low-load condition recalled more of the information conveyed in the to-be-ignored background story compared to participants in the high-load condition. It was also investigated whether individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) would influence participants’ memory for written stories (Report 2) and incidental memory of the to-background story (Report 4) differently depending on task demand.

    The results showed that individuals scoring high on the WMC-test were less distracted by background speech in the easy-to-read font condition (Report 2), and recalled less of the information in the to-be-ignored background story in the low-cognitive load condition (Report 4) compared to individuals that scored lower on the WMC-test. These relationships were not found in the hard-to-read font condition in Report 2, or in the high-cognitive load condition in Report 4. Taken together, these results indicate that higher focal-task difficulty can shield against the detrimental effect environmental noise on performance on office-related tasks. Moreover, it shows that higher focal-task difficulty can help individuals with low-WMC to reach a level of performance that is similar to that of high-capacity individuals.

  • 30.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Distracted While Reading? Changing to A Hard-to-read Font Shields against the Effects of Environmental Noise and Speech on Text Memory2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distractive effects of background speech, aircraft noise and road traffic noise on text memory and particularly to examine if displaying the texts in a hard-to-read font can shield against the detrimental effects of these types of background sounds. This issue was addressed in an experiment where 56 students read shorter texts about different classes of fictitious creatures (i.e., animals, fishes, birds, and dinosaurs) against a background of the aforementioned background sounds respectively and silence. For half of the participants the texts were displayed in an easy-to-read font (i.e., Times New Roman) and for the other half in a hard-to-read font (i.e., Haettenschweiler). The dependent measure was the proportion correct answers on the multiple-choice tests that followed each sound condition. Participants’ performance in the easy-to-read font condition was significantly impaired by all three background sound conditions compared to silence. In contrast, there were no effects of the three background sound conditions compared to silence in the hard-to-read font condition. These results suggest that an increase in task demand - by displaying the text in a hard-to-read font - shields against various types of distracting background sounds by promoting a more steadfast locus-of-attention and by reducing the processing of background sound. 

  • 31.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Higher task difficulty shields against the effects of road traffic noise and air traffic noise on recall for written text2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Hansson, Melinda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Wedebrant, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    "Innerst inne ville hon kanske": Fokusgruppsintervjuer med ungdomar om gärningspersoner och offer vid sexualbrott 2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Deep down, maybe she wanted it

    An essay based on qualitative focus group interviews with adolescents in a Swedish high school, regarding their thoughts on and constructions of perpetrators and victims of sexual offenses. The aim of our study was to examine adolescents perceptions and constructions of perpetrators and victims of sexual offenses from a gender perspective. We conducted three focus group interviews with a total of 18 adolescents between the age of 16 and 19. The adolescents consistently referred to perpetrators as men and generally had difficulties seeing women as perpetrators of sexual offenses. Male offenders were primarily depicted as alpha males who commit sexual offenses in order to get a sexual release, while female offenders were primarily depicted as sick, strange and without self-respect. The adolescents more easily perceived women as victims of sexual offenses, still, some circumstances seemed to affect the possibility for a woman to be viewed as an ideal victim, in a negative way. Being a woman subjected to a sexual offense was thought to result in mental issues and breached sexuality, while men were thought not to be as affected by sexual abuse. The adolescents believed that women who reported abuse risked being looked at as sluts and as tainted while men who reported abuse where at risk of being considered as unmanly and as homosexuals.  

  • 33.
    Haraldsson, Ted
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Ströberg, Elias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Skiftarbete – en faktor som kan skapa obalans i vardagslivet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to analyze how different working hours affects the balance between one's personal life and work life. The concept Quality of Life (QoL)  and Work-Life Balance (WLB), divided into Work-family conflict (WFC) and Family-work conflict (FWC) was used to measure balance. In addition, there was an interest in investigate if WLB correlated with QoL. The study was conducted by a questionnaire which was distributed on an industrial enterprise in mid-Sweden where the participant answered questions both from the perspective of working nighttime and daytime. Netemeyers, Boless and McMurrians (1996) scale, divided into FWC and WFC, was used to measure WLB, while Lindner et al, (2016) Brunnsviken Brief Quality of Life (BBQ) was used to measure QoL. The result of this study showed that working daytime, compared to nighttime, is associated with a better WLB score, and that there are differences between WFC and FWC. There was so significant correlation between WLB and QoL. 

  • 34.
    Hellman, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Hellström, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Effekten av bakgrundstal på prosaminne: Kan ett annorlunda teckensnitt skydda från distraktion?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study investigated whether a person can be protected from background speech when using of a different font then they usually reads. Thirty-two participants took part in the experiment. The participants' task was to recall information from texts about two fictitious cultures that were either written in a common font (Times New Roman) or in a different font (Haettenschweiler) in two sound conditions: silence and irrelevant background speech. The results showed that the participants' performance deteriorated on the reading memory test when they would remember a text written in Times New Roman, but not when the text was written in Haettenschweiler. This suggests that a person can be protected from background speech while reading shorter texts written in a different font than they usual read, which can be a simple solution to use in an open-plan office.

  • 35.
    Hillgren, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Melin, Marika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Personalchefers upplevelse av den egna psykosociala arbetsmiljön2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore how HR managers experience their own psychosocial work environment, concerning work satisfaction (motivation and communication). A qualitative study was carried out with seven semi-structured interviews and the collected material was analyzed from a basic thematic approach. In summary, the results indicated that HR managers experienced their psychosocial work environment as good, despite high demands and periods of stress. The opportunity to have contact with, and to work with, people were of great importance to HR managers' job satisfaction. Moreover, the results showed that the experience of the manager's role provided good conditions to deal with stress and leadership. 

  • 36.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Andersson, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Averaging bias in environmental impact estimates: Evidence from the negative footprint illusion2018In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 55, p. 48-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we argue that unsustainable behaviors often stem from a common averaging bias when people estimate the environmental impact of a set of environmentally friendly and less friendly objects or actions. In Experiment 1, we show that people believe that the total carbon footprint of a category of items (a community of buildings in this case) is lower, rather than higher, when environmentally friendly (“green” buildings) items are added to the category, a negative footprint illusion. Experiment 2 showed  that the carbon footprint estimate assigned to a category with a mix of environmentally friendly and less friendly objects (“green” and conventional  buildings) is the average of its subsets (the “green” buildings and the  conventional buildings, respectively), an averaging bias. A similar averaging  process may underpin estimates of the environmental impact of people's own actions, explaining why people believe that environmentally friendly actions can compensate for less friendly actions.

  • 37.
    Hughes, Robert
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London.
    Marsh, John
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire.
    The Functional Determinants of Short-Term Memory: Evidence From Perceptual-Motor Interference in Verbal Serial Recall2017In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 537-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A functional, perceptual-motor, account of serial short-term memory is examined by investigating the way in which an irrelevant spoken sequence interferes with verbal serial recall. Even with visual list-presentation, verbal serial recall is particularly susceptible to disruption by irrelevant spoken stimuli that have the same identity as - but which are order-incongruent with - the to-be-remembered items. We test the view that such interference is due to the obligatory perceptual organization of the spoken stimuli yielding a sequence that competes with a subvocal motor-plan assembled to support the reproduction of the to-be-remembered list. In support of this view, the interference can be eliminated without changing either the identities or objective serial order of the spoken stimuli but merely by promoting a subjective perceptual organization that strips them of their order-incongruent relation to the to-be-remembered list (Experiment 1). The interference is also eliminated if subvocal motor sequence-planning is impeded via articulatory suppression (Experiment 2). The results are in line with the view that performance-limits in verbal serial short-term memory are due to having to exploit perceptual and motor processes for purposes for which they did not evolve, not the inherently limited capacity of structures or mechanisms dedicated to storage.

  • 38.
    Hurtig, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Education, Health and Social Studies, University of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Pekkola, Elina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    Children’s recall of words spoken in their first and second language: Effects of signal-to-noise ratio and reverberation time2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 2029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech perception runs smoothly and automatically when there is silence in the background, but when the speech signal is degraded by background noise or by reverberation, effortful cognitive processing is needed to compensate for the signal distortion. Previous research has typically investigated the effects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reverberation time in isolation, whilst few have looked at their interaction. In this study, we probed how reverberation time and SNR influence recall of words presented in participants’ first- (L1) and second-language (L2). A total of 72 children (10 years old) participated in this study. The to-be-recalled wordlists were played back with two different reverberation times (0.3 and 1.2 sec) crossed with two different SNRs (+3 dBA and +12 dBA). Children recalled fewer words when the spoken words were presented in L2 in comparison with recall of spoken words presented in L1. Words that were presented with a high SNR (+12 dBA) improved recall compared to a low SNR (+3 dBA). Reverberation time interacted with SNR to the effect that at +12 dB the shorter reverberation time improved recall, but at +3 dB it impaired recall. The effects of the physical sound variables (SNR and reverberation time) did not interact with language.

  • 39.
    Hurtig, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Education, Health and Social Science, University of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Student's second-language grade may depend on classroom listening position2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 6, article id e0156533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this experiment was to explore whether listening positions (close or distant location from the sound source) in the classroom, and classroom reverberation, influence students’ score on a test for second-language (L2) listening comprehension (i.e., comprehension of English in Swedish speaking participants). The listening comprehension test administered was part of a standardized national test of English used in the Swedish school system. A total of 125 high school pupils, 15 years old, participated. Listening position was manipulated within subjects, classroom reverberation between subjects. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as distance from the sound source increased. The effect of reverberation was qualified by the participants’ baseline L2 proficiency. A shorter reverberation was beneficial to participants with high L2 proficiency, while the opposite pattern was found among the participants with low L2 proficiency. The results indicate that listening comprehension scores—and hence students’ grade in English—may depend on students’ classroom listening position.

  • 40.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hartig, Terry
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Noise in nature: Environmental stressor or constraint on restoration?2004In: 28th International Congress of Psychology, Beijing, 2004: Invited contribution to Symposium on Restoration and restorative environments., 2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Some conditions that people would not ordinarily appraise as demanding may constrain restoration when experienced in places sought out for restoration. The constraint of restoration by community noise exemplifies this phenomenon. Community noise regulations assume a moderating effect of context on noise annoyance, in that they impose stricter controls on sound levels in locations and at times normally dedicated to restoration. To further explore the constrained restoration phenomenon, in this paper we review research on reactions to human-produced sounds in natural settings, like parks, which many people particularly value for restoration. We also consider ambient sound qualities that promote restoration

  • 41.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Restoration at work: Effects of different sound exposures2011In: Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, London: Institute of Acoustics , 2011, Vol. 33, p. 532-539Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    The effects of sounds on restorative processes2011In: Proceedings at the 9th Biennial conference on Environmental Psychology, September 26-28, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Buller i öppna kontorslandskap2010In: Audionytt, ISSN 0347-6308, Vol. 3, p. 16-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Johansson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Qvarnström, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Medarbetare och chefers upplevelse av en organisations målarbete: Hur målarbetet kan främja arbetsmotivationen hos medarbetarna2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur chefer och medarbetare upplevde organisationens målarbete samt hur de ansåg att den kunde förbättras, för att på så vis stärka arbetsmotivationen hos medarbetarna. Elva enskilda intervjuer genomfördes och materialet analyserades med hjälp av en induktiv tematisk analys. Detta resulterade i två huvudteman: Målarbetet och dess olika nivåer samt Faktorer som främjar arbetsmotivationen. Resultatet visade på ett fungerande och aktivt målarbete där medarbetarna gavs utrymme för självbestämmande och delaktighet. Förslag på förbättringsområden för att främja arbetsmotivationen inom målarbetet var uppföljning, utvärdering och kontinuerlig feedback. 

  • 45.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Wigö, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Human perception of room temperature and intermittent air jet cooling in a classroom2017In: Indoor + Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, E-ISSN 1423-0070, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 528-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environments with high temperatures and under steady conditions are perceived poor. The introduction of airflow variations in such environments improves the perception. However the risk of draught is high and to avoid this, variations in high velocity supply is used. This method is far more energy efficient than cooling the entire space as only the occupants are cooled. This paper discusses two studies on occupant cooling conducted at the University of Gävle.  The experiments were performed in a full scale mockup classroom and a total of 85 students participated. In Study 1, students sat in a classroom for about 60 minutes in one of two heat conditions: 20 and 25 º C. In Study 2, the indoor parameters of 25 º C were maintained but airflow variation in the sitting zone was manipulated. In both studies, the participants performed various tasks and answered questionnaires on their perception of the indoor climate. As shown here, higher room temperature deteriorates human perception of the indoor climate in classrooms, and the use of intermittent air jet cooling improves the perception of indoor climate just like cooling by reducing the room air temperature. This study contributes to further knowledge of how convective cooling can be used as a method of cooling in school environments so as to improve on building energy use. 

  • 46.
    Karlsson, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Larsson, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Bakom valet att stanna i en organisation: Polisers upplevelser av arbetstillfredsställelse2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilka aspekter av arbetstillfredsställelse som upplevs påverka valet att stanna kvar inom en organisation. En kvalitativ studie genomfördes för att lägga fokus på deltagarnas personliga upplevelser. Studien genomfördes inom en polismyndighet i Mellansverige och intervjuer genomfördes med sex av myndighetens medarbetare. Datan analyserades med hjälp av induktiv tematisk analys. Resultaten visade att det föreligger individuella skillnader för den upplevda arbetstillfredsställelsen. Av de faktorer som framkom som viktiga är de mellanmänskliga relationerna, och då främst stödet från och relationen till kollegorna, den viktigaste faktorn för att uppleva arbetstillfredsställelse. Andra faktorer som framkommit som viktiga är bekräftelse och uppskattning, yrkesstolthet, arbetets utformning och organisationsstruktur. Bristande relation till kollegorna framkom även vara den mest avgörande bristen bakom valet att avsluta sin tjänst framför andra avgörande brister som bekräftelse, löner och förmåner, arbetsbelastning, variation i arbetet och arbetstider.

  • 47.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Effects of speech on writing: Is there a right-ear disadvantage?2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been shown, with tasks specifically designed for well-controlled laboratory research, that task-irrelevant speech is more distracting when it is presented to the right ear (as right-ear presentation has privileged access to the left hemisphere that plays a dominant role in language processing). This is called the right-ear disadvantage. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the right-ear disadvantage generalizes to more applied, less well-controlled, tasks. Students were asked to write short stories while they were hearing task-irrelevant sound, either normal or spectrally-rotated speech, which they were to ignore. The sound was either presented to the right or to the left ear. The participants produced less written text when they were exposed to normal speech in comparison with rotated speech. However, this difference was just as large when the sound was presented to the right as to the left ear. In all, the semanticity of speech seems to disrupt output writing processes, but there was no evidence of a right-ear disadvantage with this task, probably because writing is not an experimentally controlled task. This study shows that the applied consequences of right-ear disadvantage are limited.

  • 48.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Effects of reverberation time on the cognitive load in speech communication: theoretical considerations2004In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 7, no 25, p. 11-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a theoretical analysis of possible effects of reverberation time on the cognitive load in speech communication. Speech comprehension requires not only phonological processing of the spoken words. Simultaneously, this information must be further processed and stored. All this processing takes place in the working memory, which has a limited processing capacity. The more resources that are allocated to word identification, the fewer resources are therefore left for the further processing and storing of the information. Reverberation conditions that allow the identification of almost all words may therefore still interfere with speech comprehension and memory storing. These problems are likely to be especially serious in situations where speech has to be followed continuously for a long time. An unfavorable reverberation time (RT) then could contribute to the development of cognitive fatigue, which means that working memory resources are gradually reduced. RT may also affect the cognitive load in two other ways: RT may change the distracting effects of a sound and a person's mood. Both effects could influence the cognitive load of a listener. It is argued that we need studies of RT effects in realistic long-lasting listening situations to better understand the effect of RT on speech communication. Furthermore, the effect of RT on distraction and mood need to be better understood.

  • 49.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Reverberation time, cognitive load and fatigue2004In: 28th International Congress of Psychology, Beijing, 2004: Invited contribution to Symposium on Noise and psychological theory, 2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Speech communication under unfavourable acoustic conditions means that a larger part of the limited working memory resources must be allocated to the phonological coding of the speech. Less resources therefore remain for the further processing of speech: integration of current information with previously presented parts of the speech and with permanently stored information and the more permanent storing of new information. Effects of reverberation time on the listener’s cognitive load and learning are discussed from this perspective. Studies are needed of reverberation effects in realistic long-lasting speech communication situations to better understand the effect of RT on speech communication.

  • 50.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    The effect of reverberation time on cognitive load in speech communication2004In: Internoise, Prague, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the cognitive processing of speech indicates that the probability of correct identification of words is an insufficient indicator of how reverberation time (RT) affects speech communication. Speech communication under unfavourable reverberation conditions means that a larger part of the limited working memory resources must be allocated to the phonological coding of the speech. Less resources therefore remain for the further processing of speech: integration of current information with previously presented parts of the speech and with permanently stored information and the more permanent storing of new information. Even if reverberation conditions allow the identification of almost all words they may therefore have the effect that the spoken message is less well understood and remembered. Effects of the RT on the listener’s cognitive load, fatigue and learning are discussed from this perspective. It is argued that we need studies of reverberation effects in realistic long-lasting speech communication situations to better understand the effect of RT on speech communication.

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